POLYDORO, Agda Melania. Approximations between indicators of scientific literacy and experimental activity proposed in a textbook from the early years. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 08, Vol. 03, pp. 84-109. August 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959
- 1. INTRODUCTION
- 1.1 THE DIDACTIC SEQUENCE IN SCIENCE TEACHING AND ITS CONTRIBUTION IN THE SCIENTIFIC LITERACY PROCESS
- 2. METHODOLOGY
- 3. RESULTS AND ANALYSES
- 3.1 DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL ACTIVITY THROUGH A DIDACTIC SEQUENCE TO IDENTIFY SCIENTIFIC LITERACY INDICATORS
- 4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
The article proposes the application of a Didactic Sequence (SD), of an experimental activity that addresses the theme “The senses”, in Science Teaching, associated with the content “My body perceives” the Didactic Book Learn Together from the 1st year of elementary school. The conception of this research is to guide on a theoretical basis and didactic material, the planning of the aforementioned SD, anchored in Scientific Literacy (CA) and its indicators proposed by Sasseron (2008), within the Perspective Science Technology Society (CTS), which treats scientific content integrated into the social and technological context, addressed in parallel to the discussion of economic, political, social and ethical aspects. This is an exploratory and qualitative analysis, we observed legal documents in force in education about the discipline of Science Teaching and the use of the textbook. The objective of this work is to propose a reflection on the role of experimental activities within science teaching in the early years, in order to encourage the understanding of the construction process and the social character of scientific knowledge, to approximate these visions for an educational background that prioritizes citizenship. In the book analyzed we can verify that the theme is part of the curriculum proposed by the National Common Curriculum Base (BNCC, 2018), and should be better explored by the teacher with the use of other methodological resources that encourage the student to have a training critical, reflective about knowledge, skills and values necessary to make future responsible decisions on CTS issues.
Keywords: Scientific literacy, early years, experimental activities, science teaching, didactic sequence.
In the context of a society marked by the growing presence of science and technology, it is expected that the school is a source of production and dissemination of scientific knowledge, given, our children and young people present in the daily life of Basic Education , from media and information in which the knowledge generated in an accelerated way, with the technological tools that are well used, enable the intellectual development of this population.
Considering the information from the media, the school must be prepared and can collaborate so that “the student acquires scientific knowledge and develops analytical, interpretation, reflection, communication, decision- capabilities, essential for the citizenship” (VIECHENESKI, 2013, p.19).
This way of living the daily lives of students is put from an early age, that is, in the early years of elementary school, which leads educators to reflect postures that no longer contemplate the students due to the “influences of the association between science and technology, therefore, these areas are increasingly studied trying to understand the results of this current moment” (SCHNORR, RODRIGUES, 2018).
Science understood as a scientific method can produce knowledge, rebuild and aggregate to existing ones. In this context, Schnorr and Rodrigues (2018, p. 47) propose that thinking about “Education and Science Teaching are fields that comtemthese themes and direct the ways in which scientific and technological processes are understood”.
The PCNs (National Curriculum Parameters) have as a proposal for the theme Natural Sciences and Technology, “offer educators some elements that allow them to understand the dimensions of scientific making, their relationship of two-way with technology and non-neutral nature of these human beings”., in this sense, the Science, Technology and Society for the Teaching of Natural Sciences (BRASIL, 1997, p. 23) is recognized.
In PCNs, the Thematic block Technological Resources reveals the concern of student training in relation to technology issues and considers that the study of these themes aims to “train qualified students to understand and use the technological resources, whose supply and application are significantly expanded in Brazilian and global society” (BRASIL, 1997, p. 40-41).
In this perspective, Science Teaching with a Science, Technology and Society (CTS) focus values the knowledge that the student acquires in other learning environments, regardless of age group, enabling the development of critical sense.
Soligo, Maciel and Guazzelli (2010) emphasize that:
“The CTS focus argues that the school, as well as other educational spaces, must make a commitment to a didactic sciences focused on discussing the scientific and technological issues that affect people’s lives, life in society and relations with the environment, scientific literacy for citizenship.” (SOLIGO, MACIEL, GUAZZELLI, 2010, p. 123).
The social environment in which students are inserted enables the exploration and understanding of science, along the path of their experiences, which provides the action of the school for the inclusion of scientific culture, already in the early years, the issues related to science and technology , known internationally as CTS avoids the fragmentation of knowledge of the “areas of knowledge, building a new curricular vision for the initial series” (BRANDI, GURGEL, 2002, p. 113).
According to Chassot (2003), science can be considered as “a language to facilitate our reading of the natural world” and to know it as a description of the natural world helps us to understand ourselves, consequently, the environment that surrounds us, to understand it in its natural representation, allows us to understand the environment in which man is inserted and his function in the environment. For the author cited above, “The natural world is used here within the meaning of our organic and inorganic world, which forms what we call nature” (CHASSOT, 2003, p. 93).
For this author, explaining the natural world means to elaborate a set of acquired methods and when describing nature would be the subject doing Sciences, and the understanding and reading of this description, we could call it so-called scientific language, thus, it would be be scientifically literate. Still in this dimension, there is a requirement to be considered by the author with regard to THE that should “provide men and women with a scientific literacy from the perspective of social inclusion” (CHASSOT, 2003, p. 93).
Science Teaching, as a scientific and technological area, is fertile for the promotion and propagation of scientific knowledge, and has as possibility to awaken in students reading and writing skills, promoting THE, in order to train critical citizens and involved in socio-scientific issues.
Researchers in the area of Science Teaching have as proposed the observation of some skills demonstrated during the CA process in students from the initial years of elementary school, thus expressing potentialities in promoting the construction of the knowledge of science at this school stage. Such evidence is the result of observations of students’ requested skills in order to identify the existence of AC indicators that reveal how “students work during the investigation of a problem and the discussion of science themes provides elements to say that Scientific Literacy is in the process of developing for them” (SASSERON, 2008, p. 68).
Sasseron (2008), states that in order to build the CA in the classroom we must use the AC indicators that would also be the specific skills of scientific doing, reinforcing the idea of teaching Sciences through investigative activities, relying on the curiosity of children in this educational phase and stimulating and reinforcing this interest in researching, reflecting, becoming a critical citizen.
In this sense, this article aims to propose a reflection on the role of experimental activities within Science Teaching, in order to encourage the understanding of the construction process and the social character of scientific knowledge, to approximate these visions, for an educational training that prioritizes citizenship.
To achieve this goal, the teacher of the researched class applied a didactic sequence (SD) in order to ascertain whether experimental activities in textbooks have pedagogical characteristics that facilitate CA in students of the early years. The use of DS in this research is due to the fact that they are “activities ordered, structured and articulated to achieve certain educational objectives, which have a principle and an end known both by teachers and students” (ZABALA, 1998, p. 18).
This SD was elaborated from the experimental activity of the Textbook used in science classes in a class of the first year of elementary school for further investigation, observing and discussing which AC indicators allowed the process with the students surveyed.
1.1 THE DIDACTIC SEQUENCE IN SCIENCE TEACHING AND ITS CONTRIBUTION IN THE SCIENTIFIC LITERACY PROCESS
In view of the growing technological and scientific development present in our daily lives, it is necessary to understand the implications arising from this evolution and its consequences for society, thus science classes focusing on Science Technology and Society (CTS) makes it possible to work with students technological advances with the contents providing greater meaning to what will be worked with the students (FAGUNDES et al. 2009).
In this perspective, the contents treated in Science classes in the first Years of Elementary School should be involved with the problems of daily life, linked to socioscientific issues in order to provide discussions aimed at training critical with students from an early age.
Official documents such as national curriculum parameters present science teaching with the Science, Technology and Society (CTS) focus, and their educational contribution to social, political, environmental, economic issues, ethics and public health, themes with relevance for appropriation of training for citizenship in Science Teaching. Pertinent topics that develop critical and instrumentalizing thinking in making conscious decisions for their own health and for the environment.
The NPs advocate for the teaching of sciencein the initial years, the child the training for citizenship, thus this document establishes that:
The child is not a citizen of the future, but is already a citizen today, and, in this sense, knowing science is to expand its present possibility of social participation and enable its full capacity for social participation in the future (BRASIL, 1997, p. 22-23).
The age group of students found at this stage of Basic Education, that is, in the early years, it enables to treat scientific knowledge in order to expand information, aiming at the most efficient training because it is essential for our development society and its dependence on these advances for its dissemination of science. “Increasing the level of public understanding of Science is today a necessity, not only as an intellectual pleasure, but also as a need for man’s survival” (LORENZETTI, DELIZOICOV, 2001.p. 5).
This article is part of an ongoing Master’s survey that aims to investigate experimental activities present in textbooks from the first year to the fifth year of elementary school (Initial Years). The choice of the application of SD in an experimental activity, of the book of Sciences, was mainly due to the best practical understanding of the students, according to Vasconcelos and Souto (2003):
The science book should provide the student with a scientific, philosophical and aesthetic understanding of his reality, offering support in the process of formation of individuals/citizens. Consequently, it should be an instrument capable of promoting reflection on the multiple aspects of reality and stimulating the student’s investigative capacity so that he assumes the condition of agent in the construction of his knowledge (VASCONCELOS, SOUTO, 2003, p. 4)
According to Krasilchik and Marandino (2004), one of the important aspects of experimental and practical activities is to foster conditions in students to interpret phenomena, manipulate and experience new resources with the participation of all.
We can justify in this article that the discussion about experimental activities, of paramount importance, should be placed at all educational levels, including in the initial years and especially in the training of teachers.
Our greatest responsibility in teaching Science is to try for our students and students to transform, with the teaching we do, into more critical men and women. We dream that with our education, students can become agents of transformations – for the better – of the world in which we live. (CHASSOT, 2003, p. 31).
The experimental activities in the teaching of sciences in the early years, even for a student in the process of literacy, performs the function of adding theory to practice, children already have in themselves the natural curiosity of the age group and interest in technological matters, daily and scientific. This intensifies when the proposal has attractive themes in dynamic activities, that is, the proposal of a practical and real experiment, is a facilitator, guarantee of a concrete situation of teaching and learning, which do not always happen in regular classes.
For Lorenzetti and Delizoicov (2001), Science Teaching in the early years, the open, reflective and investigative activities in which students perform logical reasoning and the construction of meaningful knowledge, understand the research function individual and collective in the room. The AC understood […]” as the process by which the language of natural sciences acquires meanings, constituting a means for the individual to expand his universe of knowledge, his culture, as a citizen inserted in society” (LORENZETTI, DELIZOICOV, 2001 , p. 8-9).
In this perspective, in ac care process and knowledge construction in the early years, the Didactic Sequence (SD) aims to facilitate and give meaning to experimental activities, in view of an interactive process between educating/educating and educating, even if students do not yet dominate the process of coding reading and writing.
Zabala (2010) recommends that the conviviality between teacher and students and these with their peers, has importance and influence in the learning process so that the acquisition of knowledge is defined, experimental activities favor this practice of socialization and Interaction.
The SD has as its premise the oral and or written communication, among students who do not master certain textual genres alone, consequently their use as a strategy, allows overcoming obstacles because it is a oriented activity, directed in a way systematized aiming at the teaching of reading, writing, orality, providing phases of organization of the educational process. (BARBOSA, 2011).
For Zabala (1998), the organization of an SD has the characteristic of valuing activities in significant order for a reflection of the steps, allowing “planning, application and evaluation” (ZABALA, 1998, p.18).
Didactic unit, programming unit, pedagogical intervention unit when referring to sequences of structured activities to achieve certain determined educational objectives. These units have as virtues of maintaining the unitary character and gathering all the complexity of the practice, while they are instruments that allow to include the three phases of all reflexive intervention: planning, application and evaluation (ZABALA, 1998, p. 18).
Zabala (1998), proposes the use of the textbook in his class, but cannot depend exclusively on them, since pedagogical work should have as a proposal the use of instruments and resources that enable the task of teaching “but are necessary materials that are at the service of our didactic proposals and not the other way around; that do not supplant the strategic and creative dimension of teachers, but encourage it” (ZABALA 1998, p. 175).
The textbook can and should be used as a didactic resource, as it presents supporting texts, links or websites related to the theme it presents, and also suggests experimental activities facilitating research, communication between concepts, manual actions, other exploratory possibilities available to the teacher and the class.
The content of the textbook values socialization in the classroom, proposes mediation between teacher/student, mediating situations of respect and collaboration to others, group work, organization, curiosity, critical thinking, creativity among others. “Teaching happens through the constructive mental activity of this student, who manipulates, explores, listens, reads, asks questions and exposes ideas” (CARVALHO 2009, p.35).
Díaz, Alonso and Mas (2003), affirm that in Science Teaching the most important purpose today is THE CA, because it proposes socially located scientific knowledge, brings personal and social practical benefits to students, allowing, creating and enabling conditions for decision-making related to problems that afflict them, in short, a learning, an education for life.
To identify the CA, Sasseron (2008) proposes that on the planning of classes we should focus on the three structuring axes of the development of CTS skills, which would be: a) understanding of fundamental terms, concepts and scientific knowledge, b) understanding of the nature of sciences and the ethical and political factors that surround their practice, and c) understanding existing relations between CTS and the Environment. The author also raised indicators (Chart 1), whose function is to classify the actions of the development of students in the classroom to diagnose whether there is a CC during the learning process.
Table 1 – AC indicators proposed by Sasseron (2008)
|Scientific Literacy Indicator||Skills Developed During the Scientific Literacy Process|
|Information Statement||It is linked to the establishment of bases for investigative action. It does not necessarily provide for an order that should be established for the information: it can be a list or a relationship of the data worked with or with which one goes to work.|
|Information Organization||It arises when you try to prepare existing data on the investigated problem. This indicator can be found during the arrangement of new or previously listed information and occurs both at the beginning of the proposition of a theme and in the resumption of an issue, when ideas are remembered.|
|Classification of Information||Appears when you seek to establish characteristics for the data obtained. Sometimes, when sorting the information, it can be presented according to a hierarchy, but the appearance of this hierarchy is not a sine qua non condition for the classification of information. It is characterized by being an indicator aimed at ordering the elements with which one works.|
|Logical Reasoning||It understands how ideas are developed and presented and is directly related to the way thought is exposed.|
|Proportional Reasoning||Like logical reasoning, proportional reasoning tells of showing how thought is structured, and also refers to how variables have relationships with each other, illustrating the interdependence that can exist between them|
|Hypothesis Survey||It points out moments when assumptions are raised about a certain theme. This survey of hypotheses can arise both in the form of an affirmation and being a question (attitude widely used among scientists when faced with a problem).|
|Hypothesis Test||These are the steps in which the previously raised assumptions are put to the test. It can occur both in the face of direct manipulation of objects and at the level of ideas, when the test is done through thought activities based on previous knowledge. The|
|Justification||It appears when, in a statement any uttered, he uses a guarantee for what is proposed. This makes the statement gain approval, making it safer.|
|Forecast||It is explained when affirming an action and/or phenomenon that succeeds associated with certain events.|
|Explanation||It arises when you seek to relate information and hypotheses already raised. Usually the explanation is accompanied by a justification and a forecast, but it is possible to find explanations that do not receive these guarantees. Therefore, explanations are still in the construction phase that will certainly receive greater authenticity throughout the discussions.|
Source: Adapted from Sasseron (2008, p.335)
The Science classes focused on the CA, having as theoretical framework the indicators of AC proposed by Sasseron, when employed in the experimental activities of textbooks, promote challenges, construction and deconstruction of hypotheses and ideas, argumentation and problem solving, among other skills, promoted from collective and collaborative work in the classroom, so that students do not dissolve the school knowledge of their reality and have their learning ensured for life.
On the choice of textbook, this should be done very seriously and rigorously. According to Nuñez (2000), the selection of textbooks to be used is a task of relevance to the learning success of students.
Therefore, the importance of seeking specific criteria for the given contexts, which allow the teacher to participate in the evaluation of textbooks. Generally the established criteria, are generated in different instances of analysis, of which teachers, as collectives, represent the instance that should make the most appropriate decisions, thinking about the student with whom they work. The selection of textbooks should not exclude teachers as active builders of knowledge that develop this important professional competence (NUÑEZ et al, 2000, p. 02).
The choice of textbook with the validation of the teacher, today is a great advance, because in the Teaching of Sciences of the Early Years, the book is a reference. Teachers highlight their function in the classroom, consider the book as an important auxiliary resource to break with the methodology “stank” of memorization and mechanical copies, accumulation of information without an evident educational purpose. The teacher’s gaze offers a coherent choice for the teaching proposal and methodologies to be applied, favoring a type of use that stimulates research and research of phenomena; that science works for good; that meets the demands and expectations of social reality; contribute to the formation of the citizen.
In this article, the methodology used was descriptive research, which has as its function the registration, interpretation, analysis of the facts of the physical world without the interference of the researcher and aims to observe, record and analyze the phenomena without entering the merit of content (BARROS, LEHFELD, 2007).
This type of research allows the experience report, which prompted the presentation of this investigation, in which the researcher makes a discussion and analysis of an experimental activity taken from the textbook in a class of 1st year of elementary school.
For the conduction of SD, the researcher applied an experimental activity on the meanings of the human body, whose chapter of the book is entitled “My Body Perceives”, and the activity is called “Identifying objects by Tact” present in the book used as a resource pedagogical in their classes.
To achieve her goal, the researcher/teacher used a didactic sequence that aimed to verify approximations between the experimental activity and the CA process, analyzing the possible indicators of Scientific literacy (SASSERON 2008) present in the application.
3. RESULTS AND ANALYSES
Experimental activities in the early years value the understanding of the nature of science and the importance of epistemological references in pedagogical practice. According to Moraes (1998), experimental activities can have their development in different conceptions: demonstrative, empiricist – indutitivist, dedutitivist – relatalist or constructivist. Demonstrative activities, according to some authors, such as Gaspar and Monteiro (2005), Araújo and Abib (2003), Pinho and Alves (2000), are motivational, pleasant and facilitate the participation of students and can happen in the classroom itself, becoming a Lab. In the empiricists – indutivista, refers from the sensory part, following an established rule, obtaining data to observations and predictions throughout the activity.
And in the dedutilist-relationist, previous knowledge and observation directly influence the coherence of the methodology and construction of knowledge. In constructivist experimental activities, characteristics such as dynamics and interactivity should be counted, promoting the development of thought structures, argumentation and logical reasoning “in which it contributes to developing a reasoning practical behaviour of the human condition” (ROSITO, 2003, p.200).
In this perspective an SD needs planning, classroom organization, made in small groups, the teacher must circulate in the classroom, be accessible, help in understanding the experiment, perform comparisons, reflections and arguments involving students in the activity, making the class profitable and interesting.
In the early years, when we say it is science class, they are already excited and curious, when it comes to experimental activity, we must reinforce existing concepts. “For the scientific spirit, all knowledge is an answer to a question. If there is no question, there can be no scientific knowledge. Nothing is evident. Nothing is free. Everything is built” (BACHELARD, 1996, p.18).
The National Curriculum Guidelines for Basic Education (2013 p. 91) determine pedagogical practices should enable the child to live “experiences and understanding of the world made by the totality of their senses, in the knowledge it builds in the relationship intrinsic between reason and emotion, body and verbal expression, practical experimentation and conceptual elaboration.”
3.1 DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL ACTIVITY THROUGH A DIDACTIC SEQUENCE TO IDENTIFY SCIENTIFIC LITERACY INDICATORS
The experimental activity, entitled “Identifying Objects By Tact” was applied through an SD in four 45-minute divided classes at moments namely:
1st classes: Organization of students in groups, survey of previous knowledge through problematization according to table 02.
In the course of the discussions, the students were very euphoric, with an active participation and when there was disagreement, each student argued as for example:
Table 02 – Previous Surveys / Exploring the Theme (A1: student 1, A2: student 2… and so on)
|Questions (Problematizing)||Oral discussion, moment of recognition of students’ previous knowledge|
|a) Do you know what the word means: texture? Tell me now what texture your clothes, pants, blouse, sock…? (Teacher)||(A1) My pants are smooth, my blouse is thick… (A2) My blouse is of a line made of holes (crochet type) … |
(A3) My sock is thin and flat…
(A4) Prô, my sock is full of balls, come see… (A5) My sock is very thick wool, wool is warm.
|b) What part of your body do you feel the water is hot or cold? (Teacher)||(A1) My hands, my back (when I bathe my back turn red, my mom said it’s because the water is too hot… (A2) My foot (I put my foot first to wet when I shower) … (A3) Sometimes the water falls first into my body, ah so all right!|
|c) Is it possible to recognize objects only by touch? (Teacher)||(A1) No, I can know what object is by smell, when my aunt fries steak, I know the smell… (A2) I smell (aff) of candida when my mother is using, she says it is dangerous and that “nois” has to know how to read papers (labels)… |
(A3) Hearing something fall, for example a glass when it falls and breaks we use the ear right?
|d) Is a thicker blouse warmer than a thinner blouse? And what’s the blouse that heats up? Answer: Is it you or the blouse that’s hot? (Teacher)||(A1) It’s warmer. (A2) Thin blouse doesn’t heat up, because it’s thin… |
(A3) When it’s cold and I don’t bring blouse, I get shrunk, then I don’t feel so cold…
(A4) I’m hot, but the blouse is also… (A5) The blouse can be hot without being thick… (A6) I felt fever and my body warmed up from there I took medicine and I will…
The texture of blouses, the type of fabric such as cotton, helanca and the handmade blouse, because it presents points that gave a certain relief and the type of line. There were times when the argument was in who produced and how it was produced, since the crochet blouse was made by grandma.
The issue of hot and cold water, this moment was of great astonishment, since in the middle of the discussion one of the students said “then all skin is tactful”, at this time the teacher proposed the following question: someone knew the function of the skin, one of the students replied that it was for the organs do not fall and another to protect the “things” of the environment.
The question of object recognition, there was comparison with the organs of the senses, such as smell, vision and hearing, as examples said that when hearing a glass fall, they know that it was a glass, which in taste class, felt that it was orange, that there was salt in the lettuce between other comments.
On the issue of the blouse, there was a resumption of the question about texture and about, thick fabric, thin, boring, without hole, fabric of the colleague’s jacket and if the skin, an interesting question entered the discussion, one of the students had become ill the week before, which motivated her lack, she commented that she had had a fever at this time, the teacher intervened with an explanation because the body increases temperature and we have the so-called “fever”.
This first lesson, brought everyday facts so that students could use and thus defend their ideas, it was a relaxed class, rich in information and interaction between all.
It was possible to perceive, that scientific literacy was in the process, however, verbally. We analyzed some indicators with the answers, present in Table 03.
It was observed that the indicators of CA (SASSERON, 2008, p.335), Explanation and Justification, were in process, since the students, when explaining their arguments, used their previous knowledge, and the information revealed in the dialogues was resulting from the characteristics of the materials, also using the facts existing in colleagues’ statements and everyday situations.
The Hypothesis Survey indicator was present in only one of the questions more explicitly, since there was questioning, question by deduction, observation or even affirmation.
Table 03 – Activity: recognition of objects through texture
|No.||Students’ responses||AC indicators|
|01||Smooth, thick, woven with holes, half with polka dots, very thick line||Justification |
|02||My hands, my back, my foot, my whole body||Justification |
|03||By the smell, label reading, hearing something fall,||Explanation |
|04||Warmer, the Blouse is not hot because it is thin, when I feel cold and I have no blouse, I curl to decrease the cold, the blouse is hot, but I am also, the blouse can be hot without being thick, I felt fever and my whole body got hot||Explanation |
Regarding the questions regarding the skin as an organ of the touch and about fever, we noticed the presence of the Hypothesis Test indicator, since the students actively participated in the experimental activity and ideas based on previous knowledge.
In class number 02, the distribution of surprise bags began by the teacher who requested that each student in his group, without looking, enter the hand and take only one object, and try to guess what it was, done this the student said what the object would be and create them the models you used for the recognition of the same. And so all the students went through the experience and verbalized the criteria. The objects were varied and of various textures, shapes and temperatures.
Thus, there was a recovery of the content seen in the previous class and a motivation for them to watch the movies of youtube channels, about the senses and functioning of the organs related to them and how this information runs through the body to the nervous system. We talk at this time also about emotions and other developments as well.
Many other examples were given when it comes to daily life, the information contained in the statements, showed that even without proper writing, the students developed scientific literacy in the process (Chart 04).
Table 04 – Post-film: Discussion, doubts and deductions made by students
|Speak of Students||Scientific Literacy Indicators in process|
|(A1) So when I smell, in my head, my celebrate gets the smells?||Organization of information: content organization indicator and resumption of previous concepts|
|(A2) How do I feel about the skin running through the body until it gets to the head?||Information classification: organization of data that relates to movie information|
|(A3) I’m afraid of cockroach, so when I see I scream, it goes through the eyes then it gets in the head, that is, in the brain?||Logical reasoning: Understanding the ideas addressed in the film and organizing thought for the exhibition of understanding|
After the discussion, the students resumed the drawings of the objects they removed from the bag, placing their characteristics and what criteria they used for recognition. On the board the teacher had written about the five senses and their name: touch, smell, hearing, taste and vision.
Class number 03 began with the exhibition of the edited film “Fun Mente”, which aimed to work sensations such as fear, sadness, disgust, joy, anger, fear, the issues that motivated post-film discussion.
A conversation wheel was formed, it was found that 97% of the students had already watched the film in their homes, the discussions were exemplified with situations of what each one felt about the sensations that the protagonist of the film felt too, the question of resilience, and the need to work the look that each should have with the other.
In this class, the AC indicator (Sasseron, 2008), shown in this activity was the Information Series, this indicator is not intended to establish strict criteria of methodology and arrangements. This indicator was demonstrated by the statements, since the repertoire used by the students is verbal language (orality).
For the closure, students were asked to draw “emojis” that express emotions technologically, via mobile phone in conversational applications, we asked them to relate the drawings to the feelings and sensations proposed in the film and we extend to issues present in our daily lives, such as: with what face do you wake up with? At meal time, what face do you make? When do you get hurt? When do you sleep? Among other questions that were emerging in class, proposed by themselves.
Class number 04 began with oral exposure of group work, that is, each group presented for the rest of the class their drawings and after this, they glued on a brown paper for future exposure.
In the second moment, closing with questions to remedy doubts, began the construction of the book let’s get about “the senses” in MDF, and this should also be exposed in presentations of the school’s work, which takes place at the Knowledge Fair.
Here, the indicator that evidenced the CA process, proposed by Sasseron (2008) was the indicator of the Forecast, because it found that during the preparation of the booklets, there was a use of the concepts developed during the proposed activity.
4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
The experimental activities in the early years attract the attention of students to science teaching, arousing interest and curiosity, becoming a very efficient methodology, because it is a practical and open class, children develop the thought for the given activity, but that transcends in the construction of knowledge, seen as a motivating tool (GONÇALVES, 2009).
“Teaching Sciences is to provide students with learning situations” (GUIMARÃES, 2009, p. 12/13). We should plan classes according to the social context, articulate with content that provides meaning to students, enhancing and enabling students to formulate hypotheses, promoting the use of Science in everyday life, relating science and society.
Using the didactic sequence on the senses, proposed in this research, it was observed that DS are planned activities within a thematic axis, ordered and articulated with educational objectives that allow in their practice the possibility of observation of the individuals involved (ZABALA 1998).
With regard to the concepts structured in Science classes, with CTS focus, SD proposes an involvement of students, in view of the theme, “Identifying objects by Touch”, because it is directly related to the sensations and response of their body in the environment that surround it, stimulating research through the problematization of daily life, bringing discussions that lead to explanations based on facts lived daily, hypotheses, are confronted with the answers of the group, thus developing dialogue based on justifications that permeate the universe of students.
The application of this SD promoted the learning and development of the CA, to the extent that the organization contemplates the active participation of the student, the survey of previous knowledge, during the performance of scheduled activities, thus facilitating the construction of scientific concepts, starting from the experience, with the use of simple materials, but that include the communication and construction of scientific knowledge demonstrated through oral language, written.
Through this Didactic Sequence, it can be observed that the INDICATORS of CA were present, which shows that Scientific Literacy took place throughout the process, the curriculum is appropriate to the Textbook, which is recommended in the Common National Base Curriculum (BNCC), foster students capable of being people with scientific knowledge, who act critically in society, understand their reality.
According to BNCC, THE CA has as a formative objective in Science Teaching, that the student has “the ability to understand and interpret the world (natural, social and technological), but also to transform it based on the theoretical and procedural contributions of Science” ( BRAZIL, 2018).
In order to share teaching knowledge, including with other areas of knowledge, the article in question is part of an ongoing master’s research and educational product, elaborated through the booklet in PDF, showing various textures and possibilities of interaction in the classroom, proving the training of students of the early years in their skills and qualifications in the process of scientific literacy.
Children have curiosity and willingness to seek answers, to develop learning situations through more dynamic classes, from experimentation, raise hypotheses and challenge reasoning. SD with experimental activity makes the class more intense, participatory and profitable, had many productive developments due to problem solving and other developed skills.
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Year/Class: 1st Year of Elementary School – Early Years
Theme: MY BODY PERCEIVES – Identifying Objects by Tact
Objectives: To recognize the skin as an organ of meaning, establishing the relationship of touch and perception with the environment and possible dangers that surround it.
Relationship with BNCC: (EFI C101) Compare characteristics of different materials present in everyday objects.
Didactic Sequence Application Time: 4 lessons of 50 minutes.
Class Organization: Group of 06 children
Material feature: cotton, fresh plant leaves, sand, sandpaper, bubble wrap, sponges, wool, velcro, cold and hot thermal bag, black fabric bags, MDF plates among other materials as other inquiries during activity Happen.
– Movies about youtube 5 senses
– Fun Mind Movie (edited)
1st class – 50 minutes
1st – Organization of students according to groups
2nd – Survey of previous knowledge
3rd – Problematizing:
- Tell me now what texture your clothes are (pants, blouse, stocking…)?
- What part of your body do you feel the water is hot or cold?
- Is it possible to recognize objects only by touch?
- A blouse thicker and warmer than a thinner blouse? What about the blouse that heats up?
4º – Conduct the answers and write down on the slate, promoting the recognition of the skin as an organ of the sense and this as a way to identify possible dangers existing in the various environments that are frequented.
2nd 50-minute Class
1st – Resume the previous class, pass the groups, the black bags of fabric, with the materials listed;
2º – Ask each student in turn to place his hand inside the bag and feel the texture of the object and say what it is, remove, pass to the colleague who must repeat the procedure at the end of the objects, say if there was a certain what criterion he used to identify them;
3º- Use the films about “The senses” of the e-addresses below, promote a resumption of the previously worked content and introduce new information on the board, in view of the discussions of the previous class;
4th– At the end of the films, request the design of the objects that were in the bag naming and giving their characteristics;
3rd 50-minute class
1st – Projection of the film Funmente on the following site: https://www.omelete.com.br/humor and make a discussion between the emotions of the protagonist and the emotions that feeling in everyday life.
(Synopsis of Pixar’s film “Funmente”, shows a fanciful (and scientifically based) look at how our emotions and memories are processed. Throughout the film we see five of these emotions personified within the mind of the main character, Riley, and his parents, and how the actions of these emotions change their behavior).
2º – Talk about perceptions and sensations, question, lead them to think about the subject for further explanation of concepts and discuss in the form of simulation:
- – How sensations are related to the environment: cold, heat, thirst, fear, sleep, joy…
- – Ways to manifest emotions: breathing, voice, facial expressions, explore the subject
- – Mime prank with facial expressions
3º– Ask to draw “emojis” with emotion characteristics (in groups) Make a conversation wheel about situations that fit with emoji drawings.
4th 50-minute class
1st – Presentation of group works: Drawings of objects and emojis
2º – Make a booklet of touch with Plates of MDF and animals so that students can test the various characteristics of textures, at the end the books will be exhibited at the Knowledge Fair so that other students of the school can see them.
 Master’s degree in Science and Mathematics Teaching, postgraduate in Literacy and Literacy Education, Educational Methodologies and Practices and clinical and institutional psychopedagogy, graduated in Pedagogy.
 Post-Doctorate In Education from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (2006); PhD in Education (Psychology of Education) From the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (2001); Master’s degree in Education (Supervision and Curriculum) From the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (1995); Degree in Biological Sciences from the Federal University of Rio Grande Do Sul (1976); Full Professor I at Cruzeiro Do Sul University.
Submitted: July, 2019.
Approved: August, 2019.