Satisfaction of the expectations of the internal stakeholders of the 11 de Novembro University and its implications for the quality of teaching

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

CAPITA, Flaviano Luemba [1]

CAPITA, Flaviano Luemba. Satisfaction of the expectations of the internal stakeholders of the 11 de Novembro University and its implications for the quality of teaching. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 02, Vol. 05, pp. 147-174. February 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/internal-stakeholders

ABSTRACT

The constant pronouncements that discredit higher education in Angola challenge the conscience of all those who directly or indirectly have been striving for an interventional University capable of raising a critical and discerning conscience. The need to contribute to reverse this situation encouraged the conduct of this research, which, based on the theory of expectation, which establishes that the effort undertaken by an individual depends on the ability that the reward has in satisfying the created expectation, aimed at diagnosing satisfaction expectations created by the internal Stakeholders of the 11 de Novembro University. For data collection, the research used the questionnaire and documentary analysis. The data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS. The analyses made allowed us to conclude that, effectively, the internal stakeholders of UON have their expectations dissatisfied or partially satisfied, which reduces the probabilities of achieving the goal of improving the quality of teaching. To this end, there is an urgent need for a reactive and proactive attitude on the part of the agents who intervene in this process, that is, students, teachers and the Government, to mitigate the negative implications due to the dissatisfaction of stakeholders’ expectations and to ensure improvement teaching quality.

Keywords: Expectations, Stakeholders, Quality of teaching, Satisfaction.

1. INTRODUCTION

The modern conception of the term Organization (whether for profit oriented purposes or for social purposes) includes, in almost all approaches, two converging elements that determine its functioning: people who interact with each other in search of common goals and the resources used to achieve these purposes.

In this perspective, it is indisputable to say that the University is an Organization, in that it needs people and resources for its functioning and for the achievement of its strategic objectives. Therefore, the application of appropriate management models through a correct interpretation of the four traditional management functions (planning, organization, direction and control) becomes an imperative so that the output corresponds with the previously established objectives.

At a time when the watchword is the qualitative revolution in Higher Education, the absence of good governance practices in Higher Education Institutions (hereinafter, IES) can compromise the materialization of this objective and, therefore, hamper the development path ongoing in the country. Therefore, improving the quality of teaching in IES in Angola does not depend solely on the adequacy of methodological and pedagogical aspects or on the differentiation of the teaching staff, but also on the adoption of management models that satisfy the expectations of internal stakeholders, that is, students , teaching and administrative workers, as well as all other local external groups interested in the activity of the University. Among the different paradigms that lead to this end, management is gaining more and more space, including within its strategies the concerns of all its Stakeholders whose action is indispensable for the Organization’s success.

Over and over again phrases that discredit higher education in Angola are heard, such as: “Angolan Universities have no quality”; “The staff trained by Angolan Universities are incompetent”; “The quality of higher education in Angola is far from meeting the requirements of the country and of globalization”, etc. Very recently, at the inauguration ceremony of the Secretary of State for secondary education, on 12 June 2020, the President of the Republic, João Lourenço, expressed the desire to see Angolan Universities well positioned in the ranking in Africa and in the world . To that end, the government official pointed out that it is necessary to correct the maleficence of the general education subsystem, in order to prevent us from continuing to have university students, many of them already graduates, who do not know how to speak and write an essay. These and other findings challenge the conscience of all those who, directly or indirectly, have been working towards the construction of an interventional University capable of raising critical awareness and discernment.

The need to contribute to the identification of the causes that motivate the persistence of the referred weaknesses that compromise the present and the future of the country encouraged the realization of this research. The scientific literature on the management of organizations shows the existence of a direct relationship between the satisfaction of Stakeholders’ expectations and the effectiveness of the organization. Hence, the discrepancy between the output and the programmed objectives in terms of product quality of the Angolan IES can, among other factors, be attributed to the dissatisfaction of the expectations of its Stakeholders. Based on these findings, this research seeks to find out to what extent the 11 de Novembro University (later, UON) has managed to satisfy the main expectations of its internal Stakeholders.

An exploratory study conducted through informal interviews and participatory observation allowed us to foresee that the internal Stakeholders of UON, have their expectations partially satisfied, generating discontent and unproductiveness, conditioning the achievement of the quality that is desired in this teaching subsystem.

1.1 OBJECTIVES

Globalization and the country’s requirements for reconstruction and sustainable development require a new way of action for IES. Universities are responsible for awakening in today’s man and tomorrow’s man a critical conscience. Based on the expectation theory, which establishes that the effort undertaken by an individual depends on the ability that the reward has to satisfy the created expectation, in the present study, it is intended to diagnose the degree of satisfaction of the expectations created by the internal Stakeholders of UON. And, in order to operationalize the referred objective, we tried, in the first place, to identify the main expectations of its internal stakeholders and to characterize the UON in the teaching domain.

1.2. METHODOLOGY

Globalization and the country’s requirements for reconstruction and sustainable development require a new way of action for IES. Universities are responsible for awakening in today’s man and tomorrow’s man a critical conscience. Based on the expectation theory, which establishes that the effort undertaken by an individual depends on the ability that the reward has to satisfy the created expectation, in the present study, it is intended to diagnose the degree of satisfaction of the expectations created by the internal Stakeholders of UON. And, in order to operationalize the referred objective, we tried, in the first place, to identify the main expectations of its internal stakeholders and to characterize the UON in the teaching domain.

Figure. 1 Stages of application of the deductive perspective

Source: FONTELA, E., 1997: 21.

The reference universe for the present study is constituted by the internal Stakeholders of UON, namely teaching staff, administrative staff and students. For the present study, only teachers and students are taken into account, given the convergence of the vast majority of expectations of teaching staff and administrative staff, despite belonging to different regimes. On the other hand, due to the numerous characteristics of the referred universe, a stratified sample is defined, comprising 80 professors and 400 students, selected at random from the six Organic Units of UON.

As for data collection techniques, the obligation to carry out a longitudinal analysis of quantitative and qualitative information that describes the historical path of UON, determined the need to use document analysis as a technique for data collection. The questionnaire was also used because of the need to collect quantitative data on a significant number of internal stakeholders of the UON in a more simplified way and in a short period of time. To analyze the data, the statistical program SPSS was used, because through this program it was possible to identify the risk factors on which to intervene in order to reduce the dissatisfaction of internal Stakeholders aiming at improving the quality of education.

2. THEORETICAL REFERENCE

Throughout the last century, as a result of the demands imposed by the dynamics of the phenomenon of economic globalization, which requires organizations to constantly update their techniques and methods of operation for a better competitive positioning in the market, in management studies different currents of thought have emerged that show the evolutionary path of this area of knowledge, whose first manifestations date back to the centuries before Christ.[2] Among the developments that marked the last century, the following stand out: the structural, human and integrative perspectives.

The human perspective of management, whose object is to study the human dimension of organizations[3], represents a mandatory reference for studies related to corporate governance and Stakeholders Management, as it puts man at the center of his attention. In this theoretical perspective, which was based on the experiences of Hawthorne, conducted by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States (1924-1932), the work of Kurt Lewin and the research conducted by Robert Bales and Douglas McGregor in the 50s, we defend it is understood that the satisfaction of workers’ expectations, the incentive to make group decisions and the need for good leadership are assumptions that contribute to the reduction of dissatisfaction and resistance to changes and to the increase in work productivity.

2.1 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

The definition of the concept of Corporate Governace evolved from a purely protectionist conception, which privileged only the interests of Shareholders, to a more comprehensive one in which the expectations of all the constituents are integrated among the concerns of the organization, striving to satisfy everyone. Thus, while Shleifer and Vishny (1977) related Corporate Governance to the concern of investors in ensuring the return on their investment, OECD (2004) went further, considering Corporate Governace as “a set of relationships between the management of a company, the Board of Directors, the Shareholders and the other constituents ”.

This view coincides with that defended by Filho (2006), insofar as he maintains that, “governing organizations implies cultivating transparency, informing the main multiples and increasingly respecting the rights of Stakeholders, those who, despite not being shareholders, are affected for the actions and strategies of organizations ”. Thus, it can be said that Corporate Governance is a system made up of a series of parts, both internal and external, that interact with each other (ESPERANÇA et al., 2011), whose interests must be considered, otherwise the organization will lose its reputation in the market.

This is the multistakeholder paradigm, which is based on modern moral philosophy, particularly in the tradition of the social contract, explained by several exponents who support modern Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR later), which is based on the idea that The company must be at the service of all stakeholders, and not just that of the Shareholders.[4] According to the aforementioned perspective, which is of a normative type, CSR is an extended governance model of the company in which whoever governs the company has responsibilities that extend to all stakeholders of the company, both internal and external (Cfr. SACCO et al., No. 578 112). For the neo-contractualist theory of CSR, a company is defined as socially responsible, when it recognizes the rights and duties of all its stakeholders, carrying out an extended governance model that promotes a hypothetical social contract among all stakeholders, which constitutes the essential normative content of CSR.

2.2 EXPECTATION AS A DETERMINANT OF EFFORT

An organization, whatever its corporate purpose, develops relationships with different internal and external partners, without which, the materialization of its objectives would not be possible. For this reason, the satisfaction of the expectations created by each one of them must be a concern to be integrated in the strategic plan of the organization. According to the 2011 Illustrative Practical Dictionary, the word expectation, from the Latin expectatu, means hope based on supposed rights, probabilities or promises.

A reference for studies on the satisfaction of expectations is the theory of expectation, formulated by Victor Vroom in 1964, which argues that “the strength of the tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of the expectation that this action will bring a certain result and the attraction that this result exerts on the individual”. According to the diagram illustrated in Figure 2, it is perceived that the theory of expectation focuses on three relationships: [5]

a) Effort-performance relationship: it is the probability perceived by the individual that a certain amount of effort will lead to performance, that is, an employee feels motivated to detach an effort when he believes that this will result in a good performance evaluation;

Figure 2. Theory of expectation

Source: ROBBINS, S. P. et al., 2011: 216

b) Performance relationship – reward: is the degree to which the individual believes that a certain level of performance will lead to a desired result, that is, believes that good evaluation will result in organizational rewards (salary increase, promotion, etc.);

c) Reward relationship – personal goals: it is the degree that organizational rewards meet the personal goals or needs of the individual and the attraction that these potential rewards exert on him.

Therefore, the motivation to detach a given effort depends on the employee’s conviction that this effort will result in a good performance assessment that, in turn, will revert to organizational rewards such as promotion, salary increase, and that these rewards will meet their personal goals or expectations.[6] The three relationships of the theory of expectations explain the reasons why several employees feel unmotivated, dedicating themselves only to the minimum necessary to stay in the job.

Stephen Robbins et al. (2011, p. 73-74) speak of the existence of two more common approaches used to measure job satisfaction. The first refers to the single overall classification and consists of answering a question such: Taking everything into consideration, how satisfied are you with your work? The second is to identify the main factors of the work and classify them on a standardized scale, and then obtain an overall score of satisfaction with work through the sum of all factors. For the present study, the second approach will be proposed, although it is not intended to classify the factors in scale, because what is intended is not to identify the main causes of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the internal stakeholders of the UON. Based on a bibliographic research and informal interviews directed to 12 professors and 53 students of the Faculty of Economics of the UON, it was possible to identify the expectations created by each of the stakeholder groups under study in their relationship with the University, as illustrated in Chart 1.

Table one. UON Internal Stakeholders Expectations

0/1 STAKEHOLDERS Expectations
01 Students • Gain training that is on the transformation of your personal life

• Favourable conditions for their training

• Competent teachers

• Social benefits

02 Teachers • Adequate working conditions

• Decent remuneration

• Career opportunities (promotion)

• Recognition of work

• Committed students

• Social benefits

Source: Own elaboration from the formal interviews and bibliographic research

It should be noted that, with these expectations, students yearn for quality training that allows them to acquire the necessary skills for better insertion in the labor market and to develop their critical capacity, self-confidence, sense of responsibility, entrepreneurial spirit and professionalism. These inputs help you to interpret social phenomena more critically and to propose innovative solutions to the different problems that hinder the development of the country. On the other hand, the expectations of teachers are essentially aimed at improving their quality of life, through the satisfaction of basic needs, their safety and their self-esteem.

3. DATA ANALYSIS AND COMMENT ON EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

The study aims to diagnose the satisfaction of the expectations of students and teachers of the UON. For this purpose, 400 questionnaires were addressed to students from the six Organic Units and 80 to teachers. The questionnaire contains closed questions. Of the 400 students, there are 335 satisfactory answers, equivalent to 83.75% of the sample. And of the 80 teachers, 66 answers are satisfactory, which corresponds to 82.5% of the total number of teachers integrated in the sample. It should be noted that the satisfaction analysis, as conceived here, results from a set of key elements that involves the expectations of students and teachers.

3.1 UNIVERSITY CHARACTERIZATION NOVEMBER 11

UON is an Institution of Public Higher Education, created in the light of Decree No. 7/09 of May 12. From 1999 to 2009, the institution functioned as the nucleus of the Agostinho Neto University, on which it depended administratively and financially. After his accession to the University, integrated in the Academic Region III in 2009, concatenated in the provinces of Cabinda and Zaire, with headquarters in the city of Cabinda, defined its Institutional Development Plan (PDI), whose goal was to expand its activity in the municipalities of Soyo and Buco-Zau.

In view of its role as a conservative, regenerative and generating a cultural heritage of knowledge, as Edgar Morin (2004, p. 85) states, the University is called to assume an irreplaceable role in the search for solutions to the problems that enduring the development of the region in which it is part. We are therefore talking about a “Citizen University” and capable of perpetrating the formation of critical and open-minded citizens, that is, citizens “capable of broadly understanding the reality of the world, reflecting rigorously on the various contexts in an integrated way, making radical criticism and acting on local specificities, without losing the dimension of globality” (Cfr. SILVA, 2016, p. 58). The response to this expectation of society has required the UON to act in the three axes of intervention of the University: teaching, research and extension.

To meet the growing social pressure demonstrated by increasing candidates enrolled in the access exam (from 4,116 in 2010 to 14,943 in 2020), and in ways to match the expectations of the National Management Training Plan, since 2010 UON has committed itself to the creation of new Organic Units and new courses. Thus, while in 2010 the UON consisted of 5 Organic Units that offered 10 courses, in 2020 it has 6 Organic Units and 21 courses. This growth allowed the number of vacancies made available, which in 2010 was 1,040, to 2,166 in 2020, thus increasing the student universe from 3,193 in 2010 to 12,004 in 2020. This progress was the basis for the increase in the number of graduates, which increased from 433 in 2013 to 678 in 2019. According to statistics from the UON’s Directorate of Academic Services, from 2010 to 2019, UON presented 4,414 Graduates in the different fields of education sciences, economic sciences, legal sciences, health sciences and engineering, as well as 20 Masters in Business Management and 4 Masters in Administration and Local Development.

3.2 MEETING STUDENTS’ EXPECTATIONS

Students are key actors in the teaching and learning process. Moreover, it has been said that they are the reason for the existence of teachers and administrative staff of an institution. Therefore, in seeking the reasons that condition the improvement of the quality of teaching, one cannot ignore the importance of this agent in this process. The study involved 335 students from the six Organic Units of the UON, 170 male and 165 female, and the preference relapsed over the students of the third and fourth years, judging their familiarity with the reality of the institution.

3.2.1 MATERIAL AND INFRASTRUCTURAL CONDITIONS FOR TRAINING

The provision of favorable conditions for their training was one of the expectations idealized by the students when they joined the UON. These conditions pass through the set of material means and infrastructureavailable to ensure quality training, namely: laboratories, comfortable classrooms and libraries to match.

From the universe of respondents, 97% stated that the course they attend requires a laboratory. However, as illustrated in Table 1, only 41.8% say there are laboratories for practical classes. On the other hand, of those who claim to exist laboratories, only 29.3% qualify their conditions as satisfactory, i.e. conditions at the level of course requirements, while 45% and 25.7% consider them unsatisfactory and sufficiently good, respectively.

Table 1. Existence of Laboratories

Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Cumulative percentage
Valid Exist 140 41,8 41,8 41,8
There are no 185 55,2 55,2 97,0
No 10 3,0 3,0 100,0
Total 335 100,0 100,0

Source: Field research, 2018.

Regarding the conditions of the classrooms, 50.4% of the interviewees said that there are only a few rooms that meet the necessary conditions for the exercise of the school activity. The lack of air conditioning, the excessive number of students in a room for some cases, are the deficiencies most highlighted by students, which have conditioned to a large extent the concentration, understanding of the contents and, consequently, their good academic performance. This finding confirms the thesis defended by Elali (2003), which states that the conditions of the environment where the school activity takes place interfere in the students’ performance and, in many cases, in their health, especially when the classrooms present problems of luminosity, ventilation, acoustics, temperatures and other insufficiencies that limit the probabilities for academic success.

Table 2. Existence of decent classrooms

Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Accumulated Percentage
Valid Yes 97 29,0 29,0 29,0
No 69 20,6 20,6 49,6
Only a few 169 50,4 50,4 100,0
Total 335 100,0 100,0

Source: Field research, 2018.

As far as the library is concerned, the main concern is the ability to meet its training needs. In fact, 80.9% of respondents believe that the available bibliographic collection partially meets their needs and only 12.2% are fully satisfied with the available bibliography, taking into account their formative needs. The internet and the material provided by the teacher have been the alternatives to fill this gap. However, as we know, the Internet does not replace the library and the support material is a summarizing of the contents that serves as guidance, whose deepening requires a contact with the literature on the subject.

It is concluded that, from the perspective of the students, the infrastructural and material conditions available in the respective Organic Units do not fully align with the expectations created, because they are insufficient to ensure a quality formation and capable of raising critical awareness of discernment. Despite these deficiencies, it is recognized that titanic efforts have been undertaken to minimize the negative impact of these weaknesses on the university’s final product.

3.2.2 COMPETENCE OF TEACHERS

According to the “managerial” perspective proposed by Mac Clelland in 1974, the term competence refers to the “intrinsic characteristic of an individual in relation to the causal relationship with an effective or superior performance in the task” (Cfr. ZANTEN, 2011, p. 132). In this approach, in convergence with the others, three elements are identified that define competence, that is, knowledge (knowledge), experience (know-how) and behavior (knowing-being), evidencing the plurifactorial character that the term is characteristic.

Thus, the students of the UON expected teachers with knowledge that would be transmitted to them in the best possible way in an environment of mutual consideration. However, according to the perception of 58.2% of the students, only a few teachers reveal that they know the contents well, based on the assumption of appreciation of the safety they manifest during the transmission process.

Table 3. Perception of the competence of teachers

Know (%) Know how to do (%) Know how to be (%)
Yes

No

Only a few

Total

  37,6  31,0  30,7
4,2 4,2  1,8
58,2 64,8 67,5
100,0 100,0 100,0

Source: Field research, 2018.

Knowledge alone does not guarantee that the teacher can get the knowledge to the recipient in the best possible way. It is necessary that the question of what to teach, is aggregated the question how to teach, which leads to teaching methods. Regarding this indicator, the study revealed that 64.8% of students consider that only some teachers use methods that facilitate the absorption of content, which in some cases translates into a negative academic achievement, since many students, unfortunately, depend almost exclusively on what the teacher teaches. Regarding the evaluation method, 63.9% stated that teachers evaluate what they teach, while 33.7% claim that only some teachers have strictly evaluated what they teach, which raises some concern because, according to Margarida Serpa (2010: 28), the evaluation aims, among other purposes, to clarify and improve learning processes, to synthesis their performances and to certify their results.

Regarding the human or behavioral dimension, 67.5% of the students claim that only a few teachers have expressed appropriate behaviors in their relations with students. Since the teacher is entrusted with the responsibility of assisting students in the construction and search for knowledge, as well as to arouse in them the critical spirit and prepare them for personal and professional life (LIBARDI, 2010, p. 13), a less human attitude can affect the interactive relations between teacher and student, inhibiting them from exercising their rights or expression , or participation in debates and other formative actions in the classroom. There is no doubt that, despite the efforts made to differentiate the teaching staff in order to strengthen their skills, the perception of students reveals that much still needs to be done in order for their expectations in this area to be met.

3.2.3 ACCESS TO SOCIAL SERVICES AND BENEFITS

In some cases, the demands imposed by academic life, constraining students to remain in the institution for many hours during the day. Unable to return home for meals, students need a decent space where they can have their meals during their stay at the institution. Unfortunately, only 23.9% of students consider the space available for meals worthy. This has led 74.9% of those who disprove the conditions of the dining space to go to the nearest restaurants, while 12.9% prefer to stay hungry, taking into account the prices charged in these restaurants and another 6.7% carry food from their homes and find a place to eat.

Table 4. Access to social services

Decent dining space (%) Student follow-up (%)
Exists

There is no

Total

23,9 13.1
76.1 86.9
100 100

Source: Field research, 2018.

With regard to the existence of an area dedicated to the monitoring of student life, 86.9% stated that there are no areas in charge of properly following students, in order to help solve the main difficulties they face in their daily lives at the institution. And, asked about the entity that fulfills this task in the absence of a responsible area, 63.2% say there is no one who is in charge of following up on its most varied problems of non-academic forum, 14.4% say that the task has been performed by the academic area and 21.6% have resorted to the Executive Secretariat of the Association of Students of the respective Organic Unit.

In the context of social benefits, UON has a university residence that houses 107 students from different parts of the country. On the other hand, under the executive’s policies, UON controls 1,371 domestic scholarship members, who benefit from an annual allowance to assist the costs associated with training. In either case there is a high imbalance between supply and demand, because many students seeking these benefits are unable to access them, given the level of supply shortages.

3.2.4 IMPACT OF TRAINING ON PERSONAL LIFE

The current challenges of the labor market lead to the demand for an increasingly skilled and specialized workforce, causing increased pressure on universities, from which stakeholders expect knowledge capable of awakening critical capacity and entrepreneurial spirit, raising the level of professionalism, re-restraining confidence in themselves and increasing their responsibility. All these elements contribute to the construction of the skills that graduates need to cope with the complex tasks of social and professional life.

Wanting to know about the incidence of training obtained so far on their critical capacity, 44.1% of students stated that the training has contributed a lot to their critical capacity, while 49% qualify as little influence of training on the growth of their critical awareness. This result, although reasonable, does not cease to cause some concern, because among the tasks reserved for the University, in the scope of teaching, according to the vision of Pedro Conceição et al. (1998, p. 34), stand out those of providing the establishment of knowledge networks, meeting the expectations of intellectual development and developing a critical spirit in students.

Table 5. Perception of the impact of training on personal life

Critical capacity (%) Entrepreneurial spirit (%) Professionalism (%) Self-confidence (%) Responsibility (%)
No

Little

Very much

Total

6,9

49,0

17,3

48,4

7,8

41,2

3,6

38,8

2,7

21,2

44,1 34,3 51,0 57,6 76,1
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0

Source: Field research, 2018.

The search for knowledge that allows the development of the entrepreneurial spirit has excited many young people to enter universities. And, as is read in table 5, from the universe of respondents, only 34.3% say they feel a great impact of training in the emergence of the entrepreneurial spirit, while 48.4% claim to feel little impact on their desire to become an entrepreneur. It is true that everyone should not be entrepreneurs. However, in a country where the largest employer is the State, it would be useful for higher education to be able to raise this interest or even develop innate capacities, since, as Pedro Conceição et al states. (1998, p. 34), “university education should promote the appreciation of group skills, as well as develop proactive attitudes in young graduates”.

With regard to professionalism, it is known that each individual has a inclination to exercise a certain professional activity and university education has been, in many cases, the privileged means to acquire the necessary preparation for the exercise of this profession with the greatest possible professionalism. In this sense, 51% of the students mentioned that the training has greatly influenced their level of professionalism. Although 41.2% said they felt little about this impact and 7.8% did not feel anything, it is perceived that the University, even timidly, is responding to this expectation judging the number of former students inserted in different sectors, who develop their own activity with a high degree of professionalism.

Pope Paul VI, in his Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio (1967, no. 35), argued that education and vocational training allow an individual to gain confidence from himself and discover that one can progress with others. The statement of the Supreme Pontiff is attested through this research, because 57.6% of the students interviewed confirms that the training has contributed a lot to their self-confidence, while 38.8% say it has little impact and only in 3.6% there is no impact. It is an encouraging result because self-confidence allows the development of one’s own creative capacities and openness to socialization.

The other element that students expect from the University is the promotion of their sense of responsibility. Contrary to other items, university education has a great impact on the level of responsibility of students, since 76.1% of the interviewees recognize the merit to the University for the degree of responsibility they now bear.

The motivation for the studies derives, according to Yoba and Chocalate (2007, p. 36), intrinsic and extrinsic factors, being intrinsic factors, those that are associated with the psychological device of the individual and the extrinsic, those that are related to the external environment and that interfere in the individual, influencing his behavior. The level of motivation with which the student faces the studies depends, to a large extent, on the degree of satisfaction of the expectations created. When the level of satisfaction of expectations is high, the motivation for the studies tends to be higher and, consequently, the final product will tend to the quality criteria.

3.3 SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS’ EXPECTATIONS

The research involved 51.5% of teachers with the category of trainee assistant, 31.8% assistants, 10.6% Auxiliary teachers and 6.1% associates. Although the sample was randomly selected, this representation reflects the reality of the UON in terms of teacher category. Until the time of the research,[7] the UON had 167 full-time national teachers, of which 87 in the category of trainee assistant, 51 in the assistant category, 21 assistant professors, 7 associate professors and only one full-time teacher.[8]

3.3.1 RECOGNITION OF WORK AND CAREER PROGRESSION

The possibility of making a professional career is one of the expectations created by teachers in their relationship with UON. Decree No. 3/95 of March 24, which approved the Statute of the university teaching career, repealed by Presidential Decree No. 191/18 of 8 August, set a period of at least 3 years of permanence in the categories of assistant and teachers, provided that the other requirements necessary for the transition of category were met. However, according to the data in Table 6, 90.9% of the questions remained in the same category for a period of more than 3 years, even with all other conditions met for progression, contrary to what was set in Decree No. 3/95 of March 24. This situation created congestion, especially in the initial categories, which obviously generated a high level of demotivation, as teachers were prevented from progressing and achieving their professional aspirations.

Table 6. Length of stay in category

Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Accumulated Percentage
Valid Less than 3 years 5 7,6 7,6 7,6
For 3 years 1 1,5 1,5 9,1
More than 3 years 60 90,9 90,9 100,0
Total 66 100,0 100,0

Source: Field research, 2018.

It should be noted here that, while promotion and salary increases are important tools for employee motivation, there are other less costly ways of recognition to motivate employees and increase their productivity, such as praise and appreciation. In fact, as Bob and Peter (2006, p. 73) point out, “recognition is one of the most powerful activities a manager can resort to to increasing productivity, raising morale and giving employees a sense of objectives on a daily basis.” And when associated with the desired performance, the same authors say, the recognition “becomes a great driver of the improvement of this same behavior, both in relation to the quality and quantity of efforts made and individual results achieved”.

Unfortunately, intrinsic forms of reward are little used by managers of the Organic Units of the UON, because, according to the study, only 24.2% of the interviewees have been recognized for their good work through a thank you from the manager and only 22.7% receive praise from the manager, each time they perform a good job.

In a context where the use of extrinsic forms of rewards to recognize the good work of an employee as financial incentives is almost nil, the manager is called to use the best and most current management resources to keep employees motivated every day, namely recognition programs that, according to studies referenced by Stephen Robbins et al. (2011, p. 249), represent a form of cheap recognition, since “thank you and compliments” are free.

3.3.2 FRUITION OF A DECENT REMUNERATION

Remuneration is, according to Kiamvu Tamo (2019, p. 227), the main among the means of rewards that determine the mobilization and motivation of human resources. Decent remuneration allows the individual to meet at least his basic needs, i.e. transport, housing, leisure, health and food.

The research revealed that 69.7% of the teachers interviewed have a means of personal transportation, especially the members of the higher categories. However, asked about the source of resources for its acquisition, only 4.3% said they had acquired it exclusively with the remuneration of UON, 80.4% with the use of other sources and 8.6% benefited from an offer. This clearly shows that, if it were to depend on the remuneration paid at the UON, the majority of teachers would continue to rely on taxis, hitchhiking from colleagues, or even students, which would not dignify the class.

Table 7. Satisfaction of needs with uon salary

Means of personal transport (%) Guarantee of medical care (%) Daily meal guarantee (%)
Yes 69.7 10.6 39.4
No 30.3 89.4 60.6
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Field research, 2018.

With regard to medical guarantee, only 10.6% of teachers say they can afford the costs associated with medical care with the remuneration obtained at uon. The remaining 89.4% cannot guarantee the medical assistance of their household with the uon salary. The lack of health insurance further aggravates the situation of teachers who, to this end, must resort to other sources to ensure their medical and family care. Thus, 53% resort to indebtedness, 21.2% have the prestimos of family and/or friends and the remaining 15.2% use other sources not mentioned.

Food is the other indispensable need for satisfaction. According to medical rules, an individual must have three to five meals a day to maintain their physical and mental stability. But this obviously requires the use of resources which are often insufficient to meet this need. As for uon teachers, 39.4% say that they have been able to guarantee the main daily meals to the family, with the use of the salary obtained in the UON, while the 60.6% say that the remuneration of the UON has not been enough to meet the needs of the family in terms of food.

Table 8. Property of the house in which you live

Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Accumulated Percentage
Valid Own 33 50,0 50,0 50,0
Holding 23 34,8 34,8 84,8
Family 6 9,1 9,1 93,9
Other 4 6,1 6,1 100,0
Total 66 100,0 100,0

Source: Field research, 2018.

Regarding the property of the house in which he lives, 50% of teachers say they live in their own home. Although it is an interesting indicator, since the macroeconomic context in which the country has been immersed since 2014 does not facilitate the acquisition or construction of a house, the result does not cease to cause concern because the 34.8%, who live in an income home, and the 9.1%, who live in family homes, are all responsible for families. It is a concern because the right to housing is a prerogative enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the violation of which puts at risk one’s own well-being and that of the family.

Article 4 of Decree Law No. 10/94 of 24 June entitles all civil servants to a period of 30 days of leave in each calendar year. The measure is intended, as set out in Article 3, to provide a period of rest after a certain period of service. However, as observed in table 9, only 19.7% of teachers can enjoy this period for a leisure trip with the family, while 59.1% assume never before to have made a trip of this kind during the holidays. Asked about the reasons for such deprivation, 71.7% point to insufficient financial resources as the main element to determine such disability.

Table 9. Family trips for leisure

Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Accumulated Percentage
Valid Yes 13 19,7 19,7 19,7
Never 39 59,1 59,1 78,8
Rarely 14 21,2 21,2 100,0
Total 66 100,0 100,0

Source: Field research, 2018.

Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reads that “all human beings have the right to a standard of living capable of ensuring the health and well-being of ones and their families, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and indispensable social services…”. The remuneration paid by UON teachers is far from guaranteeing this right because most of them face difficulties in meeting the costs associated with meeting these needs.

The immediate consequence of this deprivation is the search for alternative sources that involves the assumption of a second job, or even the abandonment of the University to fit into other ministries, where salaries are more attractive. Therefore, the University attends the departure of many of its professors, some of them endowed with a high sense of responsibility, ability to work as a team, possessing a positive spirit and with accumulated experience that allows them to solve complex problems in a short time. The research revealed that, due to the limited ness of resources available to ensure a dignified life, 56.1% of teachers perform a second professional activity outside the UON, and 45.9% of them are in activities not related to teaching. This has contributed to the insufficiency of the time dedicated to research, to extension and, consequently, to quality education.

3.3.3 WORKING CONDITIONS OF TEACHERS

Working conditions represent, in kiamvu Tamo’s view (2019, p. 276), a set of factors related to the context of work that participate in the sustainable development of human resources and the organization. At the university level, Eugénio da Silva (2016, p. 99) argues that the requirement for quality teaching and learning requires the existence of adequate conditions because they “stimulate intellectual activity, generating a favorable academic environment for study and research and creating situations conducive to a fruitful dialogue between the actors involved in the teaching-learning process”. The author points out two categories of conditions necessary for quality education: infrastructural conditions, namely classrooms, amphitheaters, offices, laboratories, libraries and the conditions of technical-material equipment, i.e. computers, printers, computer media, bibliography.

Table 10. Existence of physical infrastructure

Sector library (%) Offices for teachers (%) Decent classrooms (%)
Yes 80.3 12.1 12.1
No 19.7 87.9 18.2
Only a few —- —- 69.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Field research, 2018.

Regarding the situation of the UON, 80.3% of our informants confirm the existence of a sector library in the respective Organic Unit, of which 60.4% expressed their dissatisfaction that the existing texts do not meet the needs arising from the teaching and learning process and research. And to address this insufficiency, 75% use the internet and 25% to other libraries to meet their research needs.

As for the work space for teachers, 87.9% of the participants in this research say that there is no decent space reserved for teaching-related work, such as tutoring, overcoming doubts, preparing classes, among others. To cover this insufficiency, 34.8% of teachers use the teachers’ room, 33.3% use classrooms when they are free, and 19.8% perform these activities in their own home.

Regarding the conditions of the classrooms, 69.7% stated that only some rooms meet the necessary conditions for the exercise of the school activity. It is noted that, in this chapter, the perception of teachers does not differ from that expressed by students.

Thus, it can be concluded that the UON lacks adequate conditions for quality teaching and learning to the extent that there are glaring weaknesses in physical infrastructural conditions and technical-material equipment, especially in organic units operating in facilities designed for primary and secondary cycles, including the rectory itself.

3.3.4 STUDENT COMMITMENT

The student is an active agent in the teaching process. In a lecture on the profile of the university student held at the Faculty of Letters of The Agostinho Neto University, in the context of the opening of the academic year 2018, the student Rosa Camolaquenda said that “the university student is an incessant researcher, with developed critical thinking, and with a search for endless knowledge”. In fact, this is the attitude that puts the student in a position of protagonist and not of a mere receiver.

Table 11. Teachers’ understanding of student commitment

Attendance (%) Responsibility (%) Creativity (%) Independence (%)
Little

Very much

Excellent

Total

45.5 50.0 69.7 65.2
48.5 43.9 21.2 19.7
 6.0  6.1  9.1 15.1
100 100 100 100

Source: Field research, 2018.

Unfortunately, what is reflected in table 11 does not seem to be compared with what Camolaquenda said, because from the perspective of teachers, students are not very committed to their studies, since 45.5% consider students little assiduous, 50%, little responsible, while 69.7% and 65.2%, little creative and independent, respectively. It is noted that in the four indicators used to measure the variable “students’ commitment to studies”, with the exception of attendance, all others present a result that opens space to concern.

As can be seen, most students are considered unserious, uncreative and with little capacity to independently develop the academic-scientific activities that are oriented to them. One of the factors to which this attitude can be associated is the fact that some of them have enrolled in courses that were not their preferred option. The study revealed that 23% of the students opted for a course that was not part of their preferences, 70.1% of whom chose it because the UON did not offer the desired course. This may be explaining, in many cases, the low academic achievement and weaknesses that some present even after completing their degree course.

3.3.5 ACCESS TO SPONTANEOUS SOCIAL SERVICES AND BENEFITS

Spontaneous social benefits are compensation sums not provided for by legislation that organisations voluntarily adopt to increase the quality of life at work. Due to the nature of the activity carried out by the teachers, four benefits are considered here: transportation for teachers, decent space for meals, existence of health insurance and assistance for continuing education. The totality of teachers interviewed indicates that there is no single institutional means of transport, which supports teachers in the home service trajectory and vice versa. For these trips, 69.7% use the personal means, while 25.8% must use taxi services, while the remaining 4.5% depend on rides.

Table 12. Social services and benefits

Means of transport for teachers (%) Decent dining space (%) Existence of health insurance (%) Continuing training aid (%)
Yes 0.00 6.1 0.00 57.6
No 100.0 93.9 100.0 42.4
Total  100.0 100.0   100.0 100.0

Source: Field research, 2018.

Regarding the space for meals, 93.9% say that there is no decent space where teachers can have a meal, especially on days when the workload does not allow returning home for this purpose. This time, 29% have resorted to restaurants, 58% have preferred to remain without the meal and the remaining 13% carry their food from home and look for a place to eat.

As for the guarantee of health care, all the informants stress that they do not receive any health insurance. And in order to meet their own health situations, or those of their families, 92.4% use their own resources and must be indebted whenever the available resources prove insufficient for this purpose.

The guarantee of continuing training and career progression based on public tests of pedagogical aptitude and scientific competence can, in the view of Eugénio da Silva (2016, p. 91), “constitute a good system of permanent requalification of the faculty, aiming at its best performance”. To ensure this continuous training, UON has been assisting the training of teachers who are in the career. Thus, according to the research conducted, 57.6% of the interviewees benefited from some training subsidized by the institution, of which 31.6% received support for a short course, 52.6% for the master’s degree and 15.8% for the doctorate. Although this number of students is not sufficient, taking into account the glaring formative needs, it is recognized that the efforts undertaken have contributed to the training of teachers, with a view to ensuring the quality of teaching and research for which they are the main responsible. Social services and benefits are, therefore, important compensation instruments that contribute to employee motivation and their degree of commitment, with positive implications for productivity.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The central question that underscored this research was: to what extent has the University of November 11 been able to meet the expectations of its internal stakeholders? The analyses carried out here show that the internal partners of the UON, namely students and teachers, have their main expectations partially met. This finding is supported by the answers obtained from the questionnaire addressed to the two groups.

The inadequate working conditions to which teachers are subject, the remuneration received, which does not allow to satisfy at least their basic needs, the scarcity of public access tenders for career progression, the little recognition for the work done, the lack of basic social benefits and the low commitment of students to their studies are the elements that confirm dissatisfaction or partial satisfaction of the expectations of the teachers of the UON.

On the other hand, the scarcity of adequate material conditions for the measurement of a formation that raises critical awareness of discernment, the existence of some teachers with performance that does not facilitate a quality learning, the lack of courses that align with those existing in high school and the absence of some basic social services are the confluent reasons that allow to assess dissatisfaction or partial satisfaction of students’ expectations.

The consequences of this dissatisfaction are, among others, the permanent escape of teachers to other ministerial departments that certainly go in search of better living conditions, demotivation and the search for alternative sources of income, which limits the time of investigation and the possibility for exclusive dedication, conditioning the improvement of the quality of teaching.

Therefore, the improvement of the quality of university education in Angola is, first of all, an awareness on the part of all about the negative consequences of this problem for both the current generations and future generations. However, the awareness alone will not solve the problem. It is also necessary that there is a willingness on the part of the actors, especially the Government, which has the responsibility to define policies according to the objectives desired and to create the infrastructural, human, material and other conditions indispensable to build a citizen and interventional University.

The guarantee of quality education presupposes a priori to define what is intended (the purpose) because only in this way will the most appropriate means be defined (such as?) which make it possible to achieve that purpose as effectively as possible. It is worth remembering here, that a good end always requires the use of good means. Thus, the revolution in the quality of teaching involves improving the quality of the means used: teachers, bibliographic collection, infrastructures, curriculum plans, committed students, among others. We have enough reason to ask ourselves: where did we come from? Where are we now? And where do we want to go?

5. SUGGESTIONS

The conclusions of the research show the need for a reactive and proactive attitude on the part of the agents involved in the process, that is, students, teachers and the Government, to mitigate the negative implications of dissatisfaction with stakeholders’ expectations and ensure the improvement of the quality of teaching. Among the interventions aimed at this end, the following are suggested:

a) establish a performance evaluation system that includes factors that allow to recognize with positive evaluation the effort undertaken by the individual, which should be duly rewarded with a promotion or other form of reward that is attractive to the employee. It is, therefore, a reward system that is attractive and capable of retaining and motivating its employees;

b) to study new mechanisms for evaluating candidates for higher education in ways that mainly enter citizens who meet the minimum requirements necessary to face the University with great responsibility;

c) create retention and incentive policies, thus preventing effective teachers from having links with other institutions, especially those that are not related to teaching, as this reduces the length of stay of teachers in the institution and research, thus influencing the quality of teaching;

d) encourage scientific research, making it a presupposition not only for category progression, but also as a prerequisite for remaining in the teaching class, since the teaching practice is intended for the transformation of the student and, therefore, requires self-reflection, selflessness and research;

e) to carry out every year a study that aims to identify the main academic expectations of those entered to facilitate the definition of an efficient strategy of guidance and follow-up during their training course;

f) change the current paradigm in which to earn an acceptable salary it is necessary to have higher education, because this model causes many, even without the motivation to meet the requirements of the University, run the risk of studying for a single purpose: acquisition of a diploma to increase the salary;

g) adopt leadership models aimed at recognizing and rewarding daily the successes and progress achieved by employees in achieving their tasks, so that they remain motivated every day.

REFERENCES

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ELALI, Gleice. O ambiente da escola: uma discussão sobre a relação escola-natureza em educação infantil, «Estudos de Psicologia», v. 8, n˚ 2, 2003, pp. 309-319.

ESPERANÇA, José. et al., Corporate Governance no espaço lusófono, Alfragide: Texto Editores, 2011.

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ROBBINS, Robbins. et al., Comportamento Organizacional: teoria e prática no contexto brasileiro, 14ª edição. S. Paulo: Pearson, 2011.

SACCO, Pier; VIVIANI, Michel. La responsabilità sociale d’impresa. Prospettive teoriche nel dibattito italiano, Quaderni-working papers DSE n. 578.

SERPA, Margarida. Compreender a avaliação: fundamentos para práticas educativas, Lisboa: Edições Colibri, 2010.

SILVA, Eugênio. Gestão do ensino superior em Angola: realidades, tendências e desafios rumo à qualidade, Luanda: Mayamba Editora, 2016.

TAMO, Kiamvu. Gerir os recursos humanos: entre constrangimentos e alternativas, 3ª edição. Luanda: CAPATÊ Publicações, 2019.

TEIXEIRA, Sebastião. Gestão das organizações, Lisboa: Escolar Editora, 2013.

YOBA, Carlos, CHOCOLATE, Francisco. Exercício da profissão vs formação universitária, Luanda: CAPATÊ publicações, 2007.

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APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE REFERENCES

2. For further research into the developments recorded in the evolution of management science, it is recommended TEIXEIRA, S., Gestão das Organizações, pp. 13-25.

3. Ditto, 20.

4. In his article on “the persuasion of companies to socially responsible behaviors: a presupposition for sustainable local development in Angola”, published in Lucere, Journal of the Catholic University of Angola, the author of this article focused on the multistakeholder perspective of Corporate Social Responsibility. The same concept is taken up in this article, taking into account its relevance to the achievement of the objective to which we set out.

5. Cfr. ROBBINS, S. P., et al., Organizational Behavior: theory and practice in the Brazilian context, Pearson, S. Paulo, 2011, p. 217.

6. Ibidem.

7. The survey was conducted in September 2018, before the implementation of the exceptional administrative provision process of teachers provided for in Article 54 of Presidential Decree No. 191/18 of August 8.

8. UON Office of Studies and Statistical Planning, 2018.

[1] Doctor.

Submitted: January, 2021.

Approved: February, 2021.

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