TRIGUEIRO, Edla Maria Gonçalves de Alencar 
TRIGUEIRO, Edla Maria Gonçalves de Alencar. Inclusive education in a critical view of the curriculum: Curriculum, culture and Include a model that can transform the School education of the public. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 06, vol. 01, pp. 13-29, June 2018. ISSN:2448-0959
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Who is the inclusive public
- 2.1 the inclusion by the existence of the exclusion
- 3. The critical curriculum and changes in education
- 4. Rules for an inclusive education in view of the critical curriculum
- 4.1 the legal support for inclusive education
- 5. A resume is not adapted to the excluded in cultural vision
- 6. The culture and your power within the school by supporting social inclusion
- Final considerations
- Bibliographical references
This work hereby presents possibilities found in a bibliographical research with the goal of adding value and practical significance of inclusive education with education for all, making a complex reform on the way to work to education. Through these possibilities, actions of integrations and innovative developing interactions among the judged not being able to get the knowledge by your difference visible and invisible in the eyes of a society that tends to dictate regars and want to front of everything and everyone, to decide what is important to them to your way. Have to say that through this research we have come to the aspects of the history of the curriculum and could be made a better understanding of the meaning and mind your CLA relating to culture. Not settling the past, sought to pay attention to this education and create possibilities for the future, involving community school, parents, and society. It is recommended that you consider a school model at present where inclusion is present but does not happen as if you want to to with this target audience. This is how we think of the Union of a curriculum, culture and inclusion to an inclusive education in a critical view of the curriculum, to transform education in the training of citizens, not just form possible workers. It is understood that through this Union formation in all layers of society.
Key words: curriculum, culture, education, Possibilities, Inclusion.
This article has as its main purpose to analyze and present research conducted through references to support educational development for all through a critical curriculum. Complex thinking related to education in General must contain the referent to all in the general sense. This is the action of inclusive education, related to the advances that the appropriate and flexible curriculum along with the appreciation of culture coming with students can promote the development of this target audience.
Education was separated into their rules of power to defend in conjunction with quality knowledge training to citizens providing a better life in the world of appearance and selective qualifications. This complexity of upbringings shaped with a curriculum that relates the ideas of a society, to unite cultures will strengthen the identity of each person by analyzing and learning from each individual involved. Learning should be for everyone and in the real sense of the collective forgetting individualism.
Studies in the last few centuries in Brazil makes a curriculum goal for research in various research lines. The realization among teaching and curriculum practices work helps to understand that your resume needs a context where the subject and others interested in building a knowledge should receive guidance through a curriculum directed its real needs. The less fortunate in the face of globalisation are victims of economic and social actions.
Relate knowledge of curriculum, culture and Union is the achievement for which education happens all the. In this context, students and teachers have specific role in the development of this curriculum. In the case of your role is to prepare teachers to direct their projects from the curriculum guidelines, with its experience and legitimacy of knowledge and authority to resolve the possible problems that may arise seeking be flexible in modify some actions that are in the formation of your initial design and adapt in common agreement the public needs involved that will be assisted during your responsibility.
The issues of curriculum practices analysed in all stages of education, from the initial higher education series, shows in terms how much is need to be expanded with greater clarity the curriculum including the perception of the culture of the individual and the context of disability which puts him on the list included in front of social prejudice. The managers who are ahead in the preparation of the curriculum must have a look of sensitive knowledge that can analyze differences, similarities and needs to the public of the different social, but they are assisted legally in LDBEN No. 9,394/96 which guarantees education for all.
How will the inclusive education in a critical view of the curriculum, that is the biggest concern. This research does not yet have enough references to prove the sufficiency if the actions were to be deployed will solve the real need for an education, these issues pertain to the school, we need to reach all without discrimination. It is also other analyses of curricula, cultures and inclusion through further research.
2. Who is the inclusive public
In this dilemma of a confused version to talk about who really is part of the different schools that meet to form of inclusive education in some regions only have the concern to accommodate disabled and forget the audience is on margin of risk, those who suffer abuse of any social status, the circus artists, the meant by having visible appearance who escapes to the standards of normality and others involved.
Taking for example the hearing and your feature deafness is "a non-visible disabilities physically limited to reach a small part of the autonomy of the individual" or as the absence, difficulty or inability to hear, sounds specific environments and the sounds of human speech (FERNANDES, 1989, P. 38) About these definitions some authors believe that clinical information can only affirm the degree of deafness, and that the educational work in the deaf guy is educator quality should get to know about the culture and language of the deaf community difference (STROBEL & DAYS, 1995, p. 7-8).
Is no shortage of cultural history of the deaf, the lack of records that many generations were not their narratives in writing mode, very few records, but rich made public the existence of already used sign language between listeners and deaf, it is very important to delve into Deaf culture as Walter Benjamin says (1892-1940): "it is essential to preserve the memory of those who have no place in history, safeguard the testimonies and statements".
Studies show that there are different categories of deaf identity proving a heterogeneity in building or groups of deaf communities. According to SKILLAR, 1998 the deaf identity has the following form: a deaf identity politics that dominates the visual experience with the use of sign language; a deaf hybrid identity that deaf people use sign language sometimes and other times orally depending on the moment; a deaf identity of transition that is characterized by the time the deaf this passing world of listeners for the conviviality with other deaf people; a deaf identity incomplete is the subject lives under pressure of deaf all other identities not to identify with other deaf people; and a deaf identity floating in which these deaf deaf and not accepted and seek to live a life as listeners.
"As we all know, besides being the primary vehicle of communication, it is also the most important means of identification of the individual with your culture and the knowledge of the reality that surrounds us. The problem of linguistic minorities is often not just the deprivation of mother tongue, but especially your culture identity deprivation "
The importance of each person have your culture and through this knowledge the development can be your valuing and others aggregate cultural knowledge they spent together in the formation of knowledge within regular schools, where one realizes that " It has become commonplace to emphasize the diversity of the cultural forms of the contemporary world "(Silva, 2005, p. 85.) Minorities should be accepted and the critical curriculum be rationalized to not err in attendance for these future citizens.
Beliefs, myths, legends, and folk tales interpreted in a negative way the different cultural conditions and their, and their apparent limitations would leave them in a situation of exclusion. Thus "the curriculum policy, metamorfoseada in curriculum, was, in short, a process of inclusion of certain knowledge and of certain individuals, excluding other" (Scott, 2001, p. 11). Looks like this information there is a negligence toward the behavior, attitudes and knowledge of the various that involve all the disabled and marginalized for whatever social problem that put them in this list.
2.1 the inclusion by the existence of the exclusion
Studies have turned to show the history of the struggle of various subject to decentralize power in that public policies the minority deaf and other areas of disability ended up being hurt all because of the exclusion of a policy driven by interests, where it was more viable to produce abnormal subjects, where the deafness was regarded as disease and in many cases that dementia was judged unable to learn, to be literate, thus marginalized and excluded, this Act or action to include only I'd give that before deleting favored a higher income to public policy. Mouth Shana: "allow yourself to" hear "these hands, only in this way will be possible to show to the deaf as they can" hear "the silence of the written word. "(Shana Miller)
"We, the deaf, need to be included in the social context. Include is not giving opportunities to show our ability because we don't need to prove anything to anyone, the good intention is not inclusion. "Inclusion is to include by the talents and not for the limitations."
Solange Quatrin-deaf instructor-Foz do Iguaçu-2003
For years were produced the excluded, and those marginalized from social environment and collective. In this way of thinking what did exist was the simple inclusion put complex fact deleting have strength of character to the organizers of these economic policies. That strength came from losing your goal when society became more human to what was being swept under the rugs society. Decree No. 5,626/05 who promoted Brazilian Sign Language-POUNDS as the second official language of deaf people in Brazil and with the power to modify the curriculum to meet the deaf guy, making this curriculum in terms specific to the new inclusion policies in colleges and universities with existing legislation that recognizes adequacy and authorizes the brazilian sign language law No. 10,436/2002 and Decree No. your 5,626/2005 a compulsory subject for the Teaching and courses degree in General and in the course of a speech therapist.
"When I accepted the language of someone else, I accept the person. When I reject the language, I rejected the person because the language is part of ourselves. When I accept I accept sign language the deaf, and it is important to keep in mind that the deaf has the right to be deaf. We must not change them, we should teach them, help them, but we have to allow them to be "
All this work is to seek to understand why the POUNDS, being the mother tongue of deaf people, who have the same needs of educational, health care, leisure, sport, gastronomy, large jobs market in others, receives so little attention on the part of those responsible for the training of new professionals who will be directly in front of these target audience the deaf. The Pounds as L2 in higher education institutions of enforcement only comes from Araguaina law nº 10,436/2002 and of your Decree nº 5,626/2005 getting elective courses of the health area and other areas of equal importance to the two types of public interest and who received care by professionals who are in training.
To what extent the lack of knowledge of Pounds, will be awkward, being a discipline of choice in higher education courses of the health area like dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, physical education, medicine and others who directly or indirectly will be receiving the deaf audience. The remaining courses in compulsory character receive Pounds in higher education institutions of Araguaína as the pedagogy is receiving targeted content to specify the course or just the Pounds for beginners. That care about the content be geared to the real needs of the course will facilitate the understanding and importance of attendances with the target audience. This curriculum was not prepared to meet the minority who will depend on the future professionals who left these institutions.
3. The critical curriculum and changes in education
Ensure accessibility of transportation and communication in its dependencies, develop methodologies and pedagogical practices that may meet the individual demands or in a given group is of obligation to all educational institutions, in literacy even in higher education, but certainly the difficulties in a curriculum suitable for each local reality is still a big problem for inclusive education that also values the culture. The initial proposal is a flexible curriculum, but that in reality will not be applied and much less redirected to what is emerging in the process of teaching and learning. This change of look the critical curriculum must be decisive to cover the educational needs of the area of inclusion that are related to the teaching-learning process in General.
The curriculum should consider a brazilian educational legislation already exceeded due to initial concern not including the different and the disabled, who were off the charts of interest of industries of large-scale production. The laws of political guidelines necessarily did not meet the requirements for the time, it is understood that inclusive education does not apply in an easy way, including those who are disabled. The quality of education should be the biggest concern for what might happen the learning. Educational institutions must offer a quality education to all students and reorganize their operating structures and methodologies for which the curriculum is adapted and ensure that professionals working in education are aware of your importance in the practice of teaching and schools become truly inclusive.
4. Rules for an inclusive education in view of the critical curriculum
All students who make up the target audience need to receive your training including during initial educational action that should be present in the culture, valuing each person in your individuality by taking advantage of knowledge each benefits that the curriculum critic can do positively so that everyone can obtain knowledge.
"For the Historical-critical pedagogy, education is the Act of producing directly and intentionally, in each individual, the humanity that is produced collectively by all and men".
SAVIANI, 2001, p. 30
According to the author still Saviani, society consciously determines a critical priorities to be given minority in all effects within the education I have always suffered from such interference, hindering all education and educational development of listeners and deaf people different and similar have as an example the Congress of Milan in 1880, which banned for a whole century the use of sign language in the whole world, happened this irreparable loss which marked the history of deaf people around the world as part of your identity and deaf culture.
Education is a work to be performed in Union, there is no knowing only one person, education doesn't happen in schools from the inside out, she needs to know from the outside to the inside, where the culture of each person come to unite, and meet the different. The school inclusion is different from inclusive education and can't happen so cluttered, needs direction and positioning.
4.1 the legal support for inclusive education
The documents that organize regular education are valid to attend all public rights are guaranteed by the Law of Guidelines and Bases for national education (LDBEN) No. 9,394/96 which changed the angles of education and inclusive education to ensure the improvements and meet the needs of these students. The curriculum was guaranteed through the National curricular parameters (PCN ´ s) that the Ministry of education (MEC) created to guide teachers on the content that would need to be presented in schools during the school year through activities individual and group. Does not exist and will not exist special curriculum for any kind of public, there is a molded curriculum to meet everyone in education, but the applications Yes should be different.
"since the first day, all students must be involved in interesting activities, that are worth to be learned and that involve the Maximo with their classmates. Do nothing or isolated activities, biased or frustrating can lead students to dislike the environment […]
Stainback, p. 235, 2008.
The participation and involvement of all is "action to include" activities within and outside the classroom and responsible for integration and interaction, a sense of teamwork, socialization and students learn as much as they can in activities composed of disciplines and resources daily surroundings where the student feel good and secure with what is offered. All students are given the opportunity to learn from the equality objectives are reached more quickly.
It is said that it is through curriculum that things happen in schools, that your curriculum composition ensures systematically pedagogical efforts, but actually this critical curriculum reality that can ensure a prospect multicultural. It is necessary to live the educational inclusion as a proposal of the society and the school, teachers don't need to be experts, but assume the teach, what to teach and how to teach to students with disabilities, breaking with the unique curriculum models break with the models of traditional schools and inflexible in the face of problems that arise within schools. Benjamin (1892-1940) said: "it is essential to preserve the memory of those who have no place in the manuals of history, safeguard the testimonies and statements." Write a new story not to erase the bit and dirty that existed on the non-inclusive practice, but a version that enhances the knowledge and skills that will receive independent that know.
Inclusive education is governed by various rules based on the Federal Constitution of 1988 that equal conditions for access to and permanence in the educational institutions to all specialized care for all preferably in regular education. Is strongly evidenced in laws emphasizing the Federal Decree No. 3956/2001 which promulgates the Inter-American Convention to come to eliminate of all forms of discrimination against persons with disabilities (Guatemala Convention) and the Federal Decree No. 6949/1996, it promulgated the International Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities-CRPD/UN/2006.
In the Federal law of Guidelines and Bases of education no. 9,394/1996 and resolution CNE/CEB No. 02/2002, establishing National Guidelines for special education in basic education, the question of a differentiated and flexible curriculum to students that form this target audience of inclusive education, in which the National Policy document of special education in the perspective of inclusive education (BRAZIL, 2008) major changes to get an organization to the educational system, as a mainstreaming of education Since the children's education to higher education, a specialized service with continuity of schooling, teacher training for this specialized service, more participation of families and communities, also a accessibility deployed in schools to make access more practical for everyone with your securities composition, transport with intersectoral participation in the implementation of public policies.
Should be offered also in Specialized Educational Care schools (AEE), ara deaf education with the protection of an interpreter in the classroom and strengthening intermediary in your mother tongue the POUNDS (Brazilian Sign Language) made official by law of Pounds N º 10,436/2002, regulated in Federal Law No. 10,098/2000 (accessibility).
We still don't have a solution to the matter proposed here, but inclusion urgently needs be deployed in education along with the appreciation of culture and real inclusion. The different and the deaf just need a more human look for professionals or those responsible for curricula of general education schools may be redoing their resumes through incisive action so that everyone can be users full of health and education services at all levels and in other areas forgotten by society should be included.
5. A resume is not adapted to the excluded in cultural vision
Initially about culture we must substantiate the issue of identity, and of the possible identity crises that can affect a person or a community. In our knowledge society are not always passed along out of fear or for personal and group issues. Social issues interfere with the transfer of knowledge, including prejudice, lack of ethics, lack even the importance of the Division of knowledge. Through this transfer of information is that you build the culture of a community or a society. These knowledge formed by common ideas should be divided and interacted with in order to consolidate the cultural identity.
This work show the reality of the importance of cultural identity of human beings, especially those who for too long were behind a society full of contempt and pride to be deleted. This target audience for centuries cannot form or take your own cultural identity, simply they were often forbidden to circulate among the considered normal and of cultural identity already defined and considered superior. A part of the sociological community is divided into a question of in how to accept the different. The acceptance by the majority simply make life of this minority right more practical and the cultural identity of each one of them could be formed with higher quality to for evidence in society
In the midst of modernity, that cultures differ, come in strengthening to generate in your individual cultural identity. The formation of culture makes pieces of information experienced, known information, of naivety or being clever on the actions that occurred in your experience, which passed in the form of knowledge contributes to others from acquiring new knowledge. Culture cannot be removed from human being, just added according to the need that these beings are in need. Cannot be split, just added, but this sum doesn't make this unique culture for all, on the contrary this culture will be unique to each person due to this human being absorbs through your need and claim to how you want to live. For Edward Tylor define culture as:
"complex which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs and any other habits acquired by man as a member of society"
NEBRASKA PRESS, p. 25, 2008.
The places, cities, capitals and countries never go out of seats remained fixed, but people who live or are passing through these places, these suffer major changes to your cultural background that every day they acquire more information, your reference codes and important features to the transformations of the human being. Culture can be understood as ideas put into practice and shared to benefit the greatest number of people and not a single person. The knowledge of the other enters as backup to enlarge and not to fear to others in your thoughts for being right or wrong. So many places like society begin to suffer a positive and fundamental transformation to come be put into practice for the benefit of all.
Before, only people considered normal could participate in this exchange of information and absorb new ideas get even inheritances, not knowledge. People with some disabilities apparent or invisible, in the case of the deaf, those living, where they couldn't receive or inheritances, not get married not to generate more freaks. Some records throughout history they bring information abuse, isolation and spacing so that they do not signal with his hands as well as the blind and disabled, to avoid drawing attention to your disability towards society.
Mankind during the course of history records on all of the positive way he produced, in matters of literary knowledge, philosophical, scientific, artistic and other, so the culture was during all this period as a unique and universal culture. Many studies in the interdisciplinary field came to democratize culture. According to Barro (2009) knowledge don't ask for permission the Academy or any other official instances to expand socially. For Duschatzky & Skliar (2000) the making of an image of another work to "classify people who are not like us" and "fit them in teaching apparatus, or therapeutic assistance that fall into our raison d ' être, in our culture and identity. ".
To be truly put into practice that inclusive education if it makes necessary studies, analyses and discussions of reality sites for the problems about Araguaina what really bothers this audience unassisted come find inclusive actions suggested solution before. As says Dermeval Saviani "[…]come to the conclusion that the specific function of education consists of the reproduction of society she inserts" there's no way to deny that there is a huge requirement for program that inclusive education within the schools in General, but you will just not only the good will of a minority to make it happen.
"Each and every one of us we found existing in the world (existence that is acting, feeling and thinking). Such existence takes place naturally, spontaneously, until something stops your course, interferes in the process by changing your natural sequence. Then the man is taken, is required, the stop and examine, search to find out what it is that something. And it is from that moment on he begins to philosophize. The starting point of philosophy is, is this something we call problem ", p. 17, SAVIANI 1985.
This inclusion requires breaks, investments and formulations are necessary to ensure that everything works. During this search bibliographic reference to understand what happens with the various regular schools taking also the case number of the deaf in Araguaína over 1152 hearing impaired among children, adults and seniors with mild, moderate, severe and profound hearing loss with most of CID n° H and H 91.3 90.3, ranging from bilateral, unilateral, reversible and irreversible. It was clear the size of indifference on education, in which the majority is still away from schools.
For this public education a higher quality to the school of attendance and disability can be defined as one that educates all students in regular classrooms and provides them with appropriate educational opportunities and challenging, however adjusted to the needs and abilities of each. In this way, the disabled or non-disabled students have the opportunity to prepare for life in the community, learning how to live and coexist with difference collaborator and active in society. Teachers, for your time, expand your vision of what teaching and learning develops creativity and grow as people and as professionals, that profile will take the students to the middle-level and higher studies with less difficulty.
For a change in the education curriculum, culture and inclusion should be reviewed in sequence with unique goals in reach according to the needs of each student. This educational action will promote the Union an adaptation and the professor will enter as lead actor on this journey. The possibilities of this Union will bring the success of the school and the student automatically. You can't deny the school as a cultural institution, with your training in historical data, this culture that comes to schools comes full of situations and values related to the idea of ensuring the right to education for all and the law school.
Language issues as part of your culture, learning the first language is important, no one "chooses" to your homeland, but have to actually learn it involving all definitive aspects. The orders of ideas in language learning, are the cultural factor. Taking as example of the deaf, the more he live with other deaf people, the chance to build your cultural identity will be confirmed with quality. The culture of the deaf will be what he is and your experience in the deaf community and listeners. The culture of others is no different, because they're bringing that experience between their families and their limitations in its shortcomings.
Within the various companies there are cultural differences. It's no different in deaf communities that are divided in the same city or even State. They become foreigners within the same country to use your mother tongue the Brazilian Language of Signs (LIBRAS), which is passed with strong cultural influence of each community. Culture is not a unique training and less static, adaptations, every day or according to the need that the individual or members of certain companies feel in immediate need for such a change. Is this contact with diverse cultures which makes human being empower themselves to change for the good living amid the globalized society. This process of socialization with the culture of the other is the flexibility to acquire knowledge.
Not only schools and families involved in this public quoted are responsible for interaction and integration of them in half. The issues involving rights to a quality education follow the definitions of the MEC and the LDBEN. This specific law those persons who have not reached a level or behavioral and intellectual to absorb knowledge and the gifted to be integrated schools in common rooms of regular education. The culture of this audience is as rich as many other crops of fundamental importance to you through your experiences if you can build a knowledge crucial to your future life.
Teachers can and should get a execution of student learning. The teacher cannot simply pass the cultural experiences in evidence must contextualize the knowledges and articulate them to knowledge along with life in the time of those students involved in each historical moment of each of the involved .
From what has been exposed, it is clear to see that issues of inclusive education in view of the critical curriculum, with the Union of the curriculum, culture and inclusion can be evaluated as learning transformers?
This assessment can be seen as a tool that will help with goals that must be unique to achieve knowledge. All involved have responded in different ways in the construction of knowledge, because what is important is not necessary for everyone, and so not all enjoy the same content and actions involved. Still don't have professional education to meet the real needs of this target group and much less special area in General.
No time for teacher training, due to overwork to ensure their survival with the family, lack of space, lack of greeting to the minority of different who want to study and can't for lack of commitment of schools and educational institutions are worrisome, to rework their curricula including new features such as the discipline to be inclusive way by performing different rights be met amid the majority society.
This is a result of a public policy exclusion Regent for education that has no critical conscience. Education and politics are opposite faces of a currency in a huge country with many brazils in one Brazil where education is a practical idealist and a realist policy that can coexist in peaceful manner and respect the differences and give opportunities for all.
This desire for education is in many teachers but in insufficient number to become reality. The inclusive education in view of the critical curriculum needs to be drawn up, necessarily for educational and critical thinkers transformers creators of possibilities on the impossibilities imposed by aimlessly, thus making a Group of ethical and moral educators for an inclusive education to a majority of the population and never thinking of a minority.
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Fernandes, Florestan. The educational challenge. São Paulo. Publisher Cortez (authors), 1989.
TABLES, Shana Müller. The brazilian language translator and interpreter of signs and Portuguese language. SEESP, 2004.
Souza, Marcos Torres; PORROZZI, Renato. Education for health professionals: a pressing need. Praxis magazine, v. 1, n. 2, 2017.
KOSLOWSKI, Lorena. The bilingual/bicultural model on education of the deaf. Proceedings of the Seminar Deafness: challenges for the next Millennium. Rio de Janeiro. Ines, 2000.
Moreira, Antonio Flavio Barbosa e SILVA, Tomas Tadeo. (orgs.). CURRÌCULO, CULTURE AND SOCIETY. 4th Ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2000.
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SILVA, Tomas Tadeo. Documents: an introduction to Theories of curriculum. 3rd Edition. Authentic Editor. 2010
SILVA, Vilmar et al. Education of the deaf: a retelling of the first public school for the deaf in Paris and Milan Conference in 1880. RM frames, organizer. Deaf Studies i. Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro: Blue Macaw, p. 14-37, 2006.
STAINBACK, s. et al. Learning in inclusive schools: and the curriculum?. In: STAINBACK, s. & STAINBACK, w. Inclusion: a guide for educators. Translation of Magda Lopes France. Porto Alegre: New Haven Publisher S.A., p. 240-250. 1999.