Inclusion of students with disabilities in schools

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

PERES, Sidneis Queiroz [1], MARTINS, Edson [2]

PERES, Sidneis Queiroz. MARTINS, Edson. Inclusion of students with disabilities in schools. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 01, Vol. 07, pp. 90-101. January 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/inclusion-of-students   

ABSTRACT

Inclusive education in Brazil for a long time was done in specialized centers for students with disabilities, but a few years ago these students started to have the right to enroll in mainstream schools, but there were many difficulties encountered by them when they were inserted in the school environment totally without structure to receive them, and the lack of qualified professionals to work with this student, was also worrying. The general objective of the article is to understand the inclusion process of students with disabilities in mainstream schools, and for that, research was carried out in several works published on the subject by various authors, which helped a lot in the development of the article. It is noted that much remains to be done to improve this teaching and learning process for students with disabilities in school units. In the final considerations, some suggestions for improvement were made in this process of inclusion of students with disabilities in regular schools, such as, for example, the regulation of the position of this professional who will work with this student, because in many states and municipalities this function is not regulated in its respective organic law, and the creation of a public tender for the specific position, the structural part of the schools, is being readjusted to serve these students.

Keywords: School inclusion, mental disability, teaching-learning process.

1. INTRODUCTION

The choice of the theme was made through the need for a better service to students with disabilities in the school environment and that almost always has professionals unprepared to work with these children, as they did not receive any type of training, which left their work very difficult. wish in the beginning.

Research on the topic was carried out if necessary, as the number of students included has grown a lot over the years and many schools are not yet prepared to receive them adequately both in the structural and in the professional and psychological part of the professionals of the units schoolchildren who for the most part never worked with students with disabilities.

This article is the result of a bibliographic research based on the works of some authors on the process of inclusion of students with disabilities in the regular school, a process that has been modified a lot over the years, always seeking to improve service of students with disabilities in schools, scientific articles, magazines and books published on the internet, laws and decrees published by the government on the internet will be used.

This article aims to understand the process of inclusion and teaching learning of students with disabilities in schools and to emphasize to all the authorities and the community in general about their importance and seek to offer a quality school structure that can meet the expectation of quality education for all students without exception and their full development.

The article was divided into six parts, the first part of which introduces a preview of the article, and the second part deals with the subject studied in greater depth, while the third part deals with the objectives of the article, the fourth part deals with theoretical basis of the article, and the fifth part is the final considerations that brings observations and suggestions for improvement in this inclusion process and in the sixth and last part it is the bibliographic references of the article.

2. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL INCLUSION

It can be said that the inclusive policies of students with disabilities originated in 1968, after UNESCO, joined with great specialists and from there emerged a program that sought the assistance of students with disabilities – thus guaranteeing the bases that will conceptualize what today is already called Special Education. I highlight one of the excerpts of the referred document, it is observed that:

The objectives of Special Education for children with mental, sensory, motor or affective disabilities are very similar to those of general education, that is, to enable the individual development of intellectual, school and social skills to the maximum. (UNESCO, 1968, p. 12)

In the 1970s, countries with more consolidated practices on the subject decided to put in practice some initiatives, Santos in 1997, says that mobilization actions were triggered in several countries on the European continent after that there was the emergence of the so-called “philosophy of inclusion ”, Still in the same year of 1960 of the last century. But it will still take many, many years for literature (MADER, 1997; JÖNSSON, 1994 and others) to become evident at the international level.

He understands that in order for there to be a change in something, a stimulus is necessary to provoke that change, because, if it were not for the interest of change in this context of inclusion, this process of inclusion would still be stagnant along the same lines as the past, thus making it difficult for these students to access with disabilities in school units, and with the need for a different look at these students, the community in general began to question that traditional view that no longer matched reality, as we will see below;

According to Reis and Boss, (2008, p. 3-4)

What led to the original stimulus in this context was the questioning of the traditional view and deeply rooted in society, which already saw the need for integration with the responsibility to be assumed, literally, by the person with special needs dispensing the society to participate in this process. . It is this conception that will lose strength. Ideas related to normalization and integration, which previously were prevalent, were being replaced by the principle of systematically combating any type of social exclusion of people with disabilities.

As seen in the excerpt cited above, the idea that in the past was that people with disabilities was a “family problem”, but, over time, this vision has been diluted within society in general where everyone has a little bit responsibility towards students with special needs, since, being a human being, he deserves all the affection and respect of everyone, thus guaranteeing all his rights.

Baroni (2007) talks about the important advances achieved by Brazil on this subject, but it alerts us; that the country needs to evolve and much in its legislation and also on the position of each citizen on the subject.

In 1999, the Inter-American Convention was drawn up to eliminate all forms of discrimination against people with disabilities, which was sanctioned in Brazil through Decree No. 3,956 of September 2001, where the country assumed many commitments and set goals to achieve the objectives. proposed. Therefore, it can be said that through a simple assessment of the goals achieved to date, it can be seen that Brazil has made many advances in the implementation and construction of inclusive public policy, however, there is still much to be done, and for this it is necessary to intensify the commitment of all governmental and non-governmental bodies, so that even better results can be achieved, in the face of a topic of such importance for the school community in general. (BARONI, 2007)

3. PARADIGMS OF INCLUSION

In antiquity before Christ, people with disabilities were viewed with bad eyes, because people saw disability as a form of God’s punishment for the sins of the person with disabilities or their parents. society and this happened for many, many years, for this reason families with children with disabilities preferred to keep their children at home isolated from society to prevent their children from undergoing humiliation in the face of society, but, over the centuries, this paradigm that disability was God’s punishment was being broken. Bible (John 9: 2-3)

And with this paradigm shift, the relationship of people with disabilities has improved and it is very clear that even people who, even indirectly, act in a prejudiced way with people with disabilities, more, this has improved a lot, nowadays people to accept people with disabilities as part of society, and has sought to include in a general way within society, where they have the same right as everyone, but, focusing on education, there are great advances that have greatly improved access to the school environment. (MACIEL, 2000, p. 1).

This leads to the need to think about issues of access and quality in education, thus seeking the attention of education systems for the need for a reorganization of educational spaces from a more comprehensive view of the curriculum, with the aim of eliminating barriers and obstacles that hinder or impede the participation and learning of the people who are included in the school. In this sense, any public policy aimed at inclusive education presupposes the creation and development of structured actions to meet the needs of each student in this process, among the actions is the expansion of the supply of resources and services so that the conditions of education can be guaranteed. accessibility of people with special needs in educational institutions.

Because the unit needs to be adapted to receive these students and guarantee the well-being and safety of all, for this it is necessary to build ramps, tactile floor placement, handrails and bathroom adaptation for students with special needs of the school unit, as well such as the removal of any and all obstacles that may hinder the passage of students, and the teaching materials must be adapted for the student according to his disability.

Alves (2006, p. 3) says that:

The principle of accessibility is present in the conception that guides the construction of the inclusive school, indicating its transversal dimension that opposes the existence of parallel systems of special education and regular education and starts to plan schools with accessible and non-discriminatory environments, guaranteeing rights citizenship and attention to human diversity.

This principle is very important for the process of inclusion of students with disabilities in schools, as it is about orienting the adequacy of existing school units and planning the construction of new schools within the inclusion standards to receive students with disabilities, where the unit must meet several requirements to become an inclusion school.

The teacher must work differently with each student included, as a coloring activity or something that will attract the student’s attention, not taking the student with disabilities that toy that makes him calm, as this may make the student even more susceptible to a momentary crisis this is clear depending on the disability or the degree of disability of each student.

For this reason, the correct thing is to encourage colleagues to interact and not leave the student with disabilities isolated, as he also needs to interact with other children to better develop his psychic and motor skills in the school environment, even when the student does not play. it is important that it be together with the other students in activities both inside the classroom and in classes outside the classroom, because this moment is very important, even if the student’s disability makes it impossible for him to interact with the other students it is important that he is with the students in the games even if only looking, because, for many students included, it is already very rewarding and in the school environment your caregiver must be aware of this.

In the context of public education, where the government provides an individual caregiver for each student with a disability, during the hiring process, people trained to work with the child, know their routine, tastes and strategies on how to keep the child calm should be selected, and especially knowing how to act at the time of the child’s crisis, because he knows that there are many types of disabilities and some of them can leave the person with that disability subject to momentary crises that can make him even violent towards other people and himself and this professional must be prepared to know how to deal with this type of situation, because even among children without disabilities this issue of violence can happen, but, the professional must always be attentive to his student, because, depending on his disability he will not have no sense of danger and you can easily get hurt.

The inclusion process of students with disabilities in schools is something that guarantees the right of every Brazilian, who is to attend a common classroom, together with the other students where he can stay and interact with the class and with the school. school in general, therefore, starts from the constitutional principle where it says that everyone should be treated equally.

Research on the topic was done if necessary, as the number of students included has been growing a lot and many schools are not yet prepared to receive them adequately.

“Sorry we are not prepared to receive your child” this is the answer that many parents hear when they try to enroll their children with disabilities in a regular school. However, schools can no longer accept this type of response and remain silent. It is necessary to go a little deeper on the subject and make the professionals involved in the teaching-learning process aware that what is guaranteed in the Law on inclusion is fulfilled. This is the contribution that this research can bring to the academic environment and to the community in general.

In the city of Cuiabá, capital of the state of Mato Grosso, it can be seen that all school units were suitable to be an inclusion school, bringing more tranquility and comfort to the included students, but, you know that this is not a reality at all the state and the country in general, in Brazil many states have not yet managed to adapt all of their units to the standard required for the unit to become an inclusion school, but little by little Brazil is moving towards the standardization of all the schools.

Beyer (2006, p. 11), says that:

The big obstacle, when we think about the child with special needs, is the frequent isolation that he experiences in the family, in school life or in life in society. Isolation, from the Vygotskian point of view, is not just a social or ethical problem, but represents a very delicate psychosocial facet.

It also makes it necessary to know and understand the correct terms to refer us to certain deficiencies, because, many times, using the wrong term can make the child or even the parents embarrassed, using the incorrect term can often be understood as prejudice. or even as a way of mocking the disabled person in any environment.

Without the proper structure to receive them, it is very difficult for teachers to work with included students, and this causes the student to be excluded from society. But if the schools are well suited to receive the included students and the professionals are trained, this would help a lot in this process of inclusion of students with disabilities and would make students and their families feel inserted in society.

Another thing that should be worked on in schools is the prejudice of other students with the included students, just as Leandra said in a 10-year-old student from a school in the city of Salvador “One day I hugged an autistic colleague and I was told that I had leaned against a sick person ”, something very sad to hear, so prejudice must be worked hard so that this does not happen and that students with disabilities and their parents can feel welcomed by everyone at school .

With the promulgation of the Federal Constitution of Brazil (1988), and with the creation and regulation of the Law of Directives and Bases of National Education / LDB, Law nº. 9,394, of December 20, 1996. Where people with disabilities started to have all the right of access and permanence in the school space, and quality education should be guaranteed to all students.

Looking at it this way, the inclusion process in schools has made major contributions to the Federal Constitution (1988), which guarantees, in its Article 205, the inclusion of all people with disabilities in the social and school sphere:

Education, the right of all and the duty of the State and the family, will be promoted and encouraged with the collaboration of society. Aiming at the full development of the person, their preparation for the exercise of citizenship and their qualification for work (BRASIL, 2013, p. 34).

In view of this scenario of inclusion, the school must guarantee access and permanence for all students with disabilities in the classrooms at the unit, valuing above all the differences of each student, and in its teaching curriculum ensure a methodology that will include all students equally and without distinction.

4. INCLUSION IN THE CURRENT

It is noticed that the inclusion theme is being discussed a lot in the last years. They are treating the theme with a little more seriousness, it is also noted that what is discussed more are ways of bringing public power closer to society and the discrimination suffered by people with disabilities. in their daily lives, discrimination that is often promoted even innocently due to lack of knowledge of how to refer to a person with a disability, for this reason guides those who, when referring to or addressing a person with a disability, always use the name of the person to avoid embarrassment of the person with the misuse of incorrect terms.

Nowadays this inclusion process has been improved a lot, and teachers, in addition to receiving complementary training through the education departments, now receive a specific subject in the curriculum of higher education courses, mainly the Pedagogy course, which is the subject of Libras (Language of the Deaf and Dumb), which will help the teacher a lot in the classroom if he comes to work with students with hearing impairment.

As the person with disabilities is also a human being like anyone, so they cannot be allowed to be treated with prejudice or excluded from the social life where everyone has this constitutional right, many people and groups have emerged engaged in the fight against any form of discrimination and exclusion such as occurs with people with disabilities.

People like Mantoan (2005, p. 24) who cite the school as the creator of a more just society and provide opportunities for all. According to her, “In the inclusive school, teachers and students learn a lesson that life hardly teaches: respect differences”.

Nowadays it is easier for a child to live with differences than an adult who has had his or her mentality formed and almost always taking into account that what is different is bad, children are still in body formation as well as their mentality of what is right and wrong and as the school is a place where the student lives with all kinds of differences between them, that’s why they are more susceptible to accept other people even with their differences, because at school everyone is the same and receives the same attention, thus guaranteeing the right of all. (MANTOAN, 2005).

The Constitution of 88 (art.205) guarantees the access of all to quality education, and those with Special Needs should receive better service that guarantees the special student a Regular school with quality education and with a lot of respect for differences. and this respect for differences must be worked on in the early years in schools, so that children grow up knowing how to respect the differences between them.

5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The article aims to better understand the process of inclusion of students with disabilities in regular schools and after studies and research in the works mentioned in the theoretical foundation, it can be observed that this process started many years ago and has been changing every year seeking to improve even more these services to students with disabilities, however, much still needs to be done, in the state of Mato Grosso it is clear that schools are structurally prepared to receive these students, however, the professionals hired to serve these students in particular are temporary, which it makes it very difficult to serve students with disabilities in schools, because the same professionals will not always be hired in the following year, because the choice is made through a selection process in the state and in the municipalities and the expense with this is very high, and to resolve this problem what should be done to improve this is the regulation of the position called in the state of Mato Grosso as CSD (Caregiver of Students with Disabilities) and thus being able to carry out public tenders for this position, which would greatly reduce training expenses for these professionals, since they were held in public examinations for many years and did not need to go through the same training all over the world. year, this would greatly improve the care of students with disabilities, as both the school and the family will be sure that the child will be in the responsibility of a professional with experience and training to perform a good job with the student included taking him to his full development within the school unit.

With this selection process, the education departments of both the state and the municipalities have a very high turnover in relation to these professionals, as this selection process is only valid for the current school year and for the next school year the professional must pass through the entire academic year. process again, which discourages many of them from continuing to work in this role, but in order to alleviate this situation until the position is regulated for the contest, the education departments may increase the validity period of the selection process by 1 (one) for 2 (two) consecutive academic years, thus making it worth all the effort of the professional to be approved in this selection process, but this process has been showing little advantage, since it has become very bureaucratic in the matter of hiring, there are schools that even after months after the start of classes, there are still no teachers and not even CSD, because of the bureaucracy, something that didn’t happen with m the process prior to the selection process, where it was called point counting where it was done by the management team of each school, and the professionals counted the point at the school where they wanted to work, but, as has been said before, to improve this process mainly in what the student with a disability is regulating the position of CSD and holding competitions.

And to conclude, it can be said that the article managed to achieve its objective, which was to understand the process of inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream schools and find ways to improve this process even more, thus making the job regulation and the public tender as ways to improve this process.

REFERENCES

ALVES, D. O.  INCLUSÃO, Revista da Educação Especial, 2007, P. 4, Disponível em:<http://portal.mec.gov.br/seesp/arquivos/pdf/rev4web.pdf>. Acesso em: 13/05/2019

BEGUOCI, L. Inclusão – Revista Nova Escola. Ed. Nº 319. São Paulo: 2019

BEYER, H. O. A EDUCAÇÃO INCLUSIVA, Revista da Educação Especial, 2006, P.11, Disponível em: <http://portal.mec.gov.br/seesp/arquivos/pdf/revistainclusao2.pdf>. Acesso em: 13/05/2019

BRASIL. Constituição (1988. art. 206). Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil. Brasília, DF: Senado. 1988. Disponível em: <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicao.htm> Acesso em 15/05/2020

ECA- Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente Criado pela Lei Federal de Nº 8.069 de 13 de Junho de 1990. Disponível em: <https://www.chegadetrabalhoinfantil.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/LivroECA_2017_v05_INTERNET.pdf> Acesso em 15/05/2020

MACIEL, M. R. C. Portadores de Deficiência a questão da inclusão social, São Paulo 2000, Disponível em; <https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-88392000000200008> Acesso em 13/05/2020.

MANTOAN, M. T. E. Inclusão Escolar. O que é? Por Quê?, Como Fazer?. Editora Moderna. Campinas SP. Disponível em <https://acessibilidade.ufg.br/up/211/o/INCLUS%C3%83O-ESCOLARMaria-Teresa-Egl%C3%A9r-Mantoan-Inclus%C3%A3o-Escolar.pdf?1473202907>. Acesso em: 13/05/2019.

REIS, R. L. dos.; ROSS, P. R. A inclusão do aluno com deficiência intelectual no Ensino Regular, Disponível em:<http://www.diaadiaeducacao.pr.gov.br/portals/pde/arquivos/2216-8.pdf>. Acesso em: 13/05/2019

RIBEIRO, L. O. M. Revista Educação Arte é Inclusão, Vol 13 nº 01, Janeiro/Abril, 2017, Disponível em; <www.revistas.udesc.br/index.php/arteinclusao/article/download/9287/pdf>. Acesso em 04/04/2019

Secretaria de Educação Especial/MEC, INCLUSÃO, Revista da Educação Especial, Desenvolver a Educação Inclusiva, Vol 06 Nº 2. Julho/Outubro 2008, Disponível em: <http://www.crianca.mppr.mp.br/arquivos/File/publi/revista_inclusao/revista_inclusao_06_mec_jul2008.pdf>. Acesso em 04/04/2019.

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[1] Degree in Pedagogy and Technologist in Public Management.

[2] Advisor. Pedagogue, specialist in Distance Education, master in Education, doctor in Sciences of Religion. Professor at Faculdade FAE.

Submitted: July, 2020.

Approved: January, 2021.

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