Gender equality: Traditional conceptions, resistance and advances in gender relations

0
12
DOI: ESTE ARTIGO AINDA NÃO POSSUI DOI SOLICITAR AGORA!
PDF

ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

EPIFÂNIO, João Lazaro [1]

EPIFÂNIO, João Lazaro. Gender equality: Traditional conceptions, resistance and advances in gender relations. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 11, Vol. 16, pp. 76-92. November 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/gender-equality 

SUMMARY

This study has as its basic concern to reflect on gender equality, in view of the challenges of gender equality relations, challenges arising from traditional conceptions and resistance struggles for occupation of spaces of female contingents. This article aims to analyze the problem of gender equality in the context of traditional conceptions, feminist struggles and the relationship between genders, facing the forms of oppression to which the female gender is subjected. The study was conducted through a bibliographical research considering the contributions of Fischer and Marques (2001); Gebara (2001): Antunes (1999); Oliveira (2001) and others, trying to emphasize the factors that have historically contributed to the formation of a mentality that gave rise to an unequal society, where women are oppressed, from the perspective of technological evolution and globalization. He concluded that gender equality relationships are still guided by traditional conceptions, although reactionary movements and the construction of new relationships have advanced the macho mentality still persists in oppression of the female gender.

Keywords: Gender equality, tradition, education, relationship.

INTRODUCTION

This article seeks to reflect on gender equality, with the concern of tradition, struggle and construction of gender relations, with a view to elucidating the formative conceptions that underpin female exclusion practices, fundamentally historical factors, patriarchal mentality and its implications in the educational, social, political, cultural and economic scenario in the context of the technological evolution of the globalized world.

In this perspective, to understand the forms of oppression, an approach on historical cultural factors is fundamental with a view to the mentality of patriarchal society and its implications in the female contingent of the less favored classes, ethnic factors and economic situation. In this sense, guiding questions were constructed to guide the study: How are gender relations constructed in the sociocultural context? Does the way they are structured reflect feminist struggles for the conquest of spaces?

When the issue of gender is addressed, a vertical hierarchical system is presupposed, propitious to the process of submission and oppression in the relationship between genders. Thus, it is assumed that the issue of gender equality is quite complex and covers several factors, which, interconnected, contribute to an oppressive and conflict situation.

Antunes (1999, p.109):

The relations between gender and class allow us to observe that, in the universe of the productive and reproductive world, we also experience the realization of a sexual social construction, where the men who work are, since childhood and school, differently qualified and qualified to enter the world of work (…).

In this sense, the aim of this article is, therefore, to analyze the problem of gender equality in the context of traditional conceptions, feminist struggles and the relationship between genders, facing the forms of oppression to which the female gender is submitted. In order to achieve the objectives, bibliographic research of qualitative nature was used as a methodological resource, carried out from the detailed analysis of materials already published in the literature and scientific articles published in electronic media.

The final text was based on the reflections of authors such as Fischer and Marques (2001); Pañuelos (2007); MMTR/RS (1995); Gebara (2001): Antunes (1999); Oliveira (2001), among others, which address the relationship between genders within the historical and sociocultural context and the forms of oppression that affect female contingents.

In order to elucidate the reader, the text was divided into six parts, where we seek to make a critical and reflexive approach about gender equality, where it is observed that the female class, protected by the male class, is subjected to an oppressive process, in a society thought out from male values.

FACTORS TRADITIONALLY PRESERVED AND ACCEPTED BY SOCIETY IN BRAZIL

The history of peoples and their social, political, economic, cultural, legal formation, among others, bring together a set of factors that express ideas, the values, the culture conceived, formed or absorbed, ethical principles, philosophical, sociological, religious, ideological, cultural and, above all biological conceptions that served as a guideline to lead societies in the formation of concepts about physical differences, rights conquered, guaranteed and/or attributed according to the nature of the roles or functions performed by each of the members of the society in which they are part, namely, the male and female genders.

Since the earliest times, men and women perform activities according to their abilities and abilities, observed the roles assigned to them within the first human groups, culturally accepted or imposed and transmitted from generation to generation as a model in the definition of functions performed between genders and their social relations. The male domain overlapped, taking into account the physical aspects, especially in the nomadism where the struggle for survival was the fundamental point of the perpetuation of human groups. In this context, the male gender performed better, whether in the search for food, in the war or in the tasks that required physical strength, command capacity and leadership. Thus, the relations of power and dominance between genders were established.

According to Fischer and Marques (2001, p. 02), “Relations between men and women, over the centuries, maintain an exclusionary character. They are assimilated in a bipolarized way, being designated to the woman the condition of inferior (…)”. Man in the condition of being rational imposes himself on the weakest, his ability to think associated with biological characteristics were determinant to impose the idea of inferiority to the opposite sex.

Traditional conceptions had a strong influence on the affirmation of male superiority, both in biological terms and in the condition of command, status and social importance. In ancient Greece it is possible to perceive a strong influence of the on-call and Aristotelian ideas of male supremacy, whether intellectual, aesthetic, political, military, etc., placing the most fragile being, in this case the female gender, in a situation of inferiority. Aristotelian conceptions, accepted in the Middle Ages and associated with religious thought, reinforce the idea of gender inequality. This assertion is so true that the idea of inferiority of the female gender has become an imperative for the construction of a macho mentality, culturally accepted about gender inequality.  Also according to Fischer and Marques (2001, p. 03) “The gender relationship formed by men and women is based on biological differences, usually transformed into inequalities that make being a woman vulnerable to social exclusion (…)”. These conceptions justify male supremacy, placing the female gender in a lower position.

The construction of concepts, which attributes to the female gender the degree of inferiority, is based on physical and organic, biological and productive characteristics, which are seen as a classification criterion for the ability to produce, to be imposed by strength and mastery, on the power relationship and in the division of tasks. In this sense, the female sex was seen as unable to perform the same activities as the opposite sex, especially in relation to periodicity, or even as the male sex, as a chief so defined.

According to Pañuelos (2007), patriarchal traditions present in the language that preopende to simplify the female sex, the modes used and their contents seen as an aggressive act observed in daily life, both individually and collectively, ridicule the female gender with expressions, consciously or unconsciously, that are loaded with sexist elements, discrimination and violence against women.

Associated with this mentality, the religious doctrines created in the context of the Middle Ages mainly and, confirmed by narratives created by elites, predominantly male, resonat the religious doctrines created in the context of the Middle Ages, confirmed mainly and, confirmed by narratives created by the elites, predominantly male, in order to guarantee their privileges, creating, including laws that determined the rights and duties of genders to thus exercise their roles in society. In this sense, inequality, understood as normal, went on for a long time without any signify of change, followed the course of the elitist mentality, as a cultural element accepted by society in its various segments.

Observing the historical process, it is the birth of the industrial revolution that the struggle for equal rights has gained more consistency, due to the unequal treatment at work in factories. It also gained momentum in the legal, political, social, etc., due to the process of exploitation to which they were subjected in the productive sphere, especially in western countries, where revolutions (Enlightenment, English and French revolutions) that occurred at later dates had already pointed to ways to a more just and equal society.

The formation of new concepts, in relation to women, the construction of legal devices, in terms of reducing inequality, political ancestry among other aspects, is mainly due to the technical/scientific, cultural and economic development that enabled the formation of a new society (modernity) in the face of the demands and needs of the modern world, demanded by capitalist society before the globalized world.

However, the society model persisted in the adoption of exclusionary concepts that have always placed the female sex at an inferiority level, contributing to its marginalization, being seen even as a human condition, observed the economic, social, color and birth situation. According to MMTR/RS (1995), it was from the patriarchal society model that the various forms of oppression and exploitation intensified on the female sex, creating roots and perpetuating among peoples.

Thus, it is perceived that there are numerous factors that, traditionally, justify the narratives of affirmation of inequality and overlap, at the level of exclusion, of the male gender to the feminine, depriving them of the rights of equality. In addition to these, there are others that strengthen the concepts of gender inequality, highlighting the feeling of possessive mastery that, moreover, conceives the most fragile, sensitive and physically subdued female gender. Gebara (2001), points out that women in this view of inferiority are seen as beings belonging to other beings, that is, men, thus, the idea that women exist to serve men. The female gender is attributed desire, passion, pleasure, therefore the feeling of possession where a conceptualized treatment prevails in the form of object, the dominant attributes impositions and conceives the dominated as an object of manipulation.

From the above, it is possible to have a notion about the origins of gender inequality, which can be considered the starting point for understanding the process of exclusion of women and various aspects related to rights and the long journey of struggle for equality. These conceptions are supported by cultural traditionalism that still governs societies and that conceives the female sex as an object of control and manipulation. However, it provides important information for the understanding of the society that was formed from the 21st century, although governed by the values of capitalism and some precepts of religion and concepts imbricated in the mentality of traditional and conservative culture.

THE CONTEXT IN FAVOUR OF CHANGE

Faced with the new demands of the modern world, the struggles for freedom in its various aspects and in the most varied fields of activity intensified, especially on the threshold of the 21st century: culture, politics, economy, education, production, sport, work, the dynamics of social relations, the performance of high functions in various fields of activity, etc. Faced with these new challenges, new ideas arise and, consequently, mentality changes, a favorable environment that allowed women to conquer new spaces in society, but still seen as a minority. The new ideas strengthened class movements, which have increasingly gained expressiveness in the face of technological dynamics and the development of science, as well as the new demands and needs of the modern world.

According to Mota apud Duque, (2000, p.41), “the situation of women in recent times has been redefining itself, taking new force both in social relations and in production, and this reorganization has provoked a balance within the new context that is currently being defined”.

This balance is due to the rise of the female sex to the labor market, executive positions, performance in several productive segments, which provided more independence, as well as the formation of a new mentality about the role of women in society. However, traditional paradigms still persist in defining it as inferior in several aspects, when the issue is analyzed from some points of view, especially those involving conservative content. As for the other aspects mentioned above, the changes in conception occurred, and occur, according to the contexts and demands arising in them, because they are the ones that define the criteria of equality between genders. “Equality presupposes a order to be achieved through equity policies, because they are the ones that consider differences and presume identities” (FISCHER E MARQUES, 2001, p. 07).  Other points that should be considered are related to the class to which it belongs and the lineage, that is, the class to which it belongs and ethnic origin, are also substantially important factors to be considered when analyzing the issue of gender inequality.

In all this cipoal of ideologies, concepts, conceptions, factors, aspects, struggles, promotions or constructions are intentionalities that point out and justify the conceptions in which the argumentative forms of inferiority are anchored. Struggles for equity policies arise from purposes or a condition, whether economic, social, birth or color, and generally denote situations of exclusion.

The right to gender equality has been, over time, the subject of debate and discursion in society, especially in today’s world, defended as a fundamental right, which is really in fact. Being a fundamental right is also a natural right, assuming that everyone is born equal. If gender equality is analyzed from this angle – of the fundamental right – we can come to the conclusion that there should be no distinction between the son-in-law, because everyone is born with the same rights, so the law should be the same for everyone, not only in theory, but also in practice. Therefore, it would not be necessary the organized struggles of the female gender to ensure something that is already yours by right. According to Fischer and Marques (2001, p. 08), “(…) since the 1980s, women’s struggles have taken a new direction, which has allowed the formation of a new concept for the cause of women, gender.” This new concept, created in order to strengthen women’s struggles, was only possible thanks to the entry, more intensely, of women in university courses that allowed the production of studies on the subject, which led the issue to debate in academia, giving greater visibility to women’s struggles.

In this sense, it is necessary to understand that laws are elaborated according to the process of evolution of society and the ideology that guides a given context, assigning functions, roles, establishing norms and rules. However, the laws that govern society also build on traditions, and breaking tradition is not an easy task to accomplish, because radical changes have impacts on cultural, political, conceptual and social structures, especially if they have been based on religious values. On the other hand, traditional forms are reinforced by the popular ideal, built from crendices and mysticism, still very influential in the formation of popular consciousness in the present times.

The approaches presented bring together arguments that help to understand the origins of gender inequality. It is known that theories are built to change concepts within the needs of a new context, created or arisen from technological inventions, scientific discoveries, wars or natural catastrophe. These contexts require restructuring processes to suit the new reality.

WOMEN’S RESISTANCE TO INEQUALITIES

The struggle of women for equality has had a great contribution from science. Research has shown that women have the same abilities as men in a variety of ways. The dissemination of such studies has thickened feminist movements, class organizations, among others, bringing together other social segments, also discriminated, such as homosexuals and afro-descent and indigenous minorities. According to MMTR/RS (1999), it was found that since the second half of the 19th century, women were already part of social movements, such as the abolition of slavery. In the 20th century, they became part of political parties, later entered industrial production and the fight against dictatorship in the military period.

Along with the emergence of social and popular movements, many women who lived in the countryside took the initiative to organize themselves as a way to claim their rights, such as the “Movement of Women Farmers in Santa Catarina and the Organization of Women of the Swidden in Rio Grande do Sul”, (MMTR/RS, 1999).

The organization of the movements gave rise to conferences, in which documents were prepared defining policies and programs aimed at reducing inequalities between men and women, through measures to combat inequalities. Action programmes resulting from meetings and conferences and reinforcements of international bodies such as the United Nations have lately achieved good results, as governments have come to recognize the need to define policies specifically aimed at recognizing the rights of discriminated groups and minorities.

Brazil, which has always treated part of its population badly, such as indigenous peopleand their descendants, homosexuals, the elderly, poor, blacks and women, especially those in the middle and lower classes, has recently achieved great progress in combating inequalities, especially in relation to women who have been breaking barriers, breaking traditions and conquering spaces previously restricted to men. However, it cannot be said that everything has already been resolved, there is still much to do in this long journey of struggles for gender equality.  Gebara (2001), points out that feminism aims to put the female gender in equalness with the male sex.

Being an emerging country, or developing, and aspiring to the group of developed countries, Brazil often seeks to modernize its legislation with extensive texts and full of gaps, empty spaces and difficult to be fulfilled, because they are always concessions that the majority of the population does not know, do not understand, difficult to interpret and, therefore, without much practical effect. According to Frei Beto (2001), under pressure, the United Nations (UN) declared the International Year of Women in 1975, and in the same decade and in the 1980s, inaugurated what would be the Decade of Women, declared worldwide.

Advances in legislation, in favor of equal rights and in the guarantee of their defense, in relation to issues of inequality between the various social segments, and especially between genders are extremely important achievements and to some extent immeasurable to the eyes of the excluded. However, there are factors, in addition to the several already mentioned, which directly and impact the application and observation of laws and their recognition that are the educational, ethnic, social, religious, economic factors.

EDUCATION AS AN ELEMENT OF RESISTANCE TO GENDER EQUALITY

Education, offered freely and compulsorily to Brazilian society, still does not include a genuinely national educational model, there is always some element resulting from external copies beyond, of course, the gulf that has formed between education and the changes processed in the context of technological evolution and scientific discoveries, which have occurred in recent decades. Thus, it results in a deficient education that forms citizens with intellectual disabilities, unable to promote changes that lead to the transformations so necessary by society.

According to Oliveira (2001), although school and social movements teach peacefully both have the political sense of the educational process, both the school and the social movements, in the author’s opinion, should be favorable places for the development of a critical, emancipatory education. It is understood, therefore, that the true role of the school and the movements that mobilize society, for a certain cause, must contribute, fundamentally to the construction of fundamental knowledge the social transformations of equity, of a more just and fraternal society.

According to Fischer and Marques (2001, p. 07-08) “Education, whether informal domestic or school education, is one of the bases of exclusion and violence against women, disseminated in various contexts of society (…)”. Thus, it is necessary to advance, preferably in intellectual formation (research and extension) so that a popular mobilization associated with the engagement of the struggle for the demystification of stereotypes and breaking of prejudices, emptying of traditional concepts and conceptions that act unfavorably in the educational process. Paulo Freire (1989), in his analyses on the educational issue, referring to the formation of the subject, teaches us that the true meaning of education is to contribute so that the oppressed can fight for the transformation of reality, that is, to free themselves from the condition of the oppressed.

Educational institutions still offer in their curricula elements, filled with prejudiced contents, which reinforce the ideals of male hegemony, the fruit of patriarchy, traditionally built in the medieval context and accepted as a model of society. This, roughly speaking, contributes directly or indirectly to the perpetuation of the ideation that conceives gender inequality as a natural normality.

On the other hand, there is, with great frequency and repercussion, the dissemination of content in the main communication and information instruments that also reinforce the ideas of inferiority of the female sex, preserved culturally, expressed in the mass media, film industry, soap operas among others. The intention of these media and information vehicles, perhaps not to reinforce these concepts or ideas that lead to discriminatory processes, what is questioned is the difficulty or inability of most viewers, users, listeners or internet users to absorb, digest, understand and interpret the true meaning that these contents conveyed by television, newspaper, internet and social networks.

The deficiency of the educational system does not correspond to the demands that emerge from society, with regard to the needs that the context in which information is processed, that is, an uninformed society in the information age. The educational policies offered by the State hinder the processes of change and transformation, whatever they are, especially in the spheres of changes in conceptions and in the formation of new concepts about intolerance, discrimination and prejudices, concerning gender equality. Conte (2008, p. 04) states the following: “It is through oppression and exploitation suffered in daily life, and finding forms of reaction, through subversion, especially collective, that women are allowed, liberation and self-esteem”. The above reinforces the idea that forms of oppression can serve as a stimulus to resistance movements, from the development of critical formation through emancipatory education.

The struggle of women for the guarantee and recognition of their rights has found, and continues to encounter, strong resistance, which could not be different, in the face of a sexist and exclusionary society. Some of the achievements achieved by the female sex, at the expense of many efforts, sometimes even with loss of life are not always respected. Aggression, ill-treatment, discrimination, feminicide and prejudice continue, were there not yet threats, which most often prevent the application of the law and, consequently, nullify all rights earned or even acquired. The deficiency in educational education hinders the evolution of processes that offer intellectual subsidies for the construction of knowledge that allows recognizing the equality of rights between genders, without distinction of gender, ethnic origin, sex, color, religious creed and financial condition.

WORK, A MATTER OF EXTREME DISRESPECT

The feminist resistance and search for equal rights movements have already had positive results in the scope of legislation, such as the definition of policies that aim to promote, actively the elimination of forms of discrimination and exclusion on the rights of women and develop actions to support participation decision-making in the country. According to Fischer and Marques (2001, p. 05), “the exclusion of women [at work] cannot be explained by economic circumstances”. For the authors, the hierarchy of patriarchy keeps women in a condition of inferiority, assigning them functions of free work, which, according to them, is of “great relevance to society designed for men” (FISCHER and MARQUES, 2001, p. 05).

In this context, it is worth mentioning what concerns violence and sexual harassment, which are perhaps the most difficult to be fought or eliminated, due to the fact that they occur in the domestic environment and at work. “In the case of Brazil, violence against women has been a concern of researchers and researchers, together with the struggle for the right to citizenship in the legal, educational, sexual and economic spheres…” (FISCHER AND MARQUES, 2001, p. 06). Violence, manifested in various forms, is a problem faced daily by women, where the most frequent are domestic assaults and sexual harassment.

The aggressions accompanied by threats, blackmail and indifference puts the aggressor in a privileged position in relation to the victim, who often ends up being shut up in the face of the situation. This is due to several reasons, among which stands out the fear of losing work, financial dependence, due to low wages, fear of scandalizing the family, especially children, when there is and reputation as a woman and reprisals.

Fischer and Marques (2001, p. 05), point out that: “The logic of globalization and production chains, very timely for contemporary capitalism, incorporated the world pockets of cheap labor, without necessarily raising its income (…)”. In this sense, the wage issue is one of the most ooted factors attributed to the female gender, and the salary paid for work performed by women follows the logic of the treatment given to gender: lower.

In this context, there are also issues related, specifically to work, with regard to the wage issue, where according to studies, a majority of paid women receive lower values than males, performing the same activities. Women’s participation in the labour market is lower than that of men. This reflects the high level of poverty, observed in the less favored layers of the population.

FEMINISM IN SEARCH OF EQUALITY AND SOME ASPECTS OF LEGISLATION

The approaches to gender equality, the adoption of measures and policies in the fight against inequalities and the special attention of government agencies to the cause of women becomes an imperative, since the actions defined, strategically on the feminist issue, have not yet effectively guaranteed significant changes in discriminatory processes against women, especially from the less favored, Afrodescendant and indigenous classes. Thus, the struggle for the expansion of rights is still a long way from actually realizing itself and matching those of the male sex.

From this perspective, it is worth mentioning that the rights of equality are already guaranteed in law, the problem is the observation of these laws that, in the case of Brazil, need to be reinforced by other laws. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN (United Nations), establishes in article 2. That:

All human beings may invoke the rights and freedoms proclaimed and present in that Declaration, without distinction, including race, colour, sex, language, religion, political opinion or other national or social origin, fortune, birth or any other situation. Furthermore, no distinction will be made based on the political, legal or international status of the country or territory of the person’s naturality, whether that country or independent territory, under guardianship, autonomous or subject to some limitation of sovereignty, (DECLARAÇÃO UNIVERSAL DOS DIREITOS HUMANOS, 2009, p. 5).

The text of the article was, over time, expanded and reinforced differently by the conferences held in the 1970s and 1980s and especially in the 1990s, when its effects were approved by the UN General Assembly. In view of the process of exclusion of minorities, especially women, initiatives have become capable of containing discriminatory actions and removing the various obstacles that act unfavorably against gender equality. The text, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, does not mention specific segments, classes or social groups, it makes no distinction, that is, if the law were observed and taken as a model among peoples it would facilitate societies to break with stereotypes and curb discriminatory forms that inferiorize the female gender.

Deliberations, in defining roles and assigning functions to genders, are characteristics of hierarchical societies that preserve socially accepted and preserved values. They are constructed and passed on behaviors from generation to generation and, therefore, difficult to be eliminated, because they are traditions ideologically imbriated in the formation of the popular mentality.

Nevertheless, the issue of gender equality needs to consider which model the state, territory, country or social groups is organized or structured within the world context. In the case of Brazil, contained in the capitalist system, gender equality will not be overcome so easily, because the characteristics of this system prevent such a situation from occurring. In the capitalist system inequality is one of its main characteristics. Thus, the construction of equality in this system can never be achieved, it may even be mitigated or relieved, but never fully overcome. In this sense, Meszaros (2002) argues that equality between men and women, classes or social groups is impossible in the capitalist system.

Seeing from this perspective, the possibility of equality becomes difficult to achieve, only the utopia that feeds the struggles and the dream of equality remains. This allows us to understand that laws, programs and actions, proclaimed by international bodies, such as the UN, or even by national laws are not complied with, because, being organs or bodies at the service of capitalism, countries know that their propositions are unfeasible.

It is known that in recent decades there have been several achievements and significant commitment of governments, entities and institutions and, we can mention Brazil, to meet the demands of feminist movements, and the government was willing to debate on the issue of gender equality, but in an agenda where the agenda does not have much priority. Legislators argue that debates need to mature, and that the discussions must undergo a more thorough appreciation so as not to run the risk of precipitation and make mistakes.

The Brazilian Constitution of 1988, in Article 5, establishes the principle of equality, when it states that: “All are equal before the law, without distinction of any nature and that the right to life, liberty, equality, security and property is guaranteed” (BRASIL, 2004, p. 7).

It is perceived that the above establishes the equality of all without any distinction, but in the face of reality one questions: If all are really equal because there are those excluded? Why then do we have the class movements, the feminist movements fighting in search of equality? These are issues that go up, because theoretically the law establishes all guarantees, the ideologies that guide the practice are antagonistic to legislation.

According to the Constitution, article 3 determines as a fundamental objective: “To promote the good of all, without origin, prejudice of origin, race, sex, color, age and any other forms of discrimination” (BRASIL, 2004, p. 31).

The legislation clearly expresses equality by ensuring the right fultimus, extending it to all without distinction. This refers to a reflection on what this equality should be without distinction and about inequalities, as well as the process of overcoming, through class struggles and, spatially, feminist movements. The fact that equality exists in law, in a legal way, does not mean that it is in fact assured to all as predicted, so there would be no movements that seek to conquer freedom in its fullness.

Feminist movements have already achieved important achievements in Brazil, such as the Maria da Penha Law, an important instrument to combat inequality and, substantially important in this process of struggle to overcome inequalities, aggressions and disrespect to which women are subjected in our society. The Maria da Penha Law reinforced what determines Article 5 of the Federal Constitution. Sanctioned in 2006, the Maria da Penha Law established changes in the context of the reality of women and proposed increasing the rigor regarding the punishments applied to aggression, ill-treatment and disrespect of women.

Women were present in almost all the great moments that marked the history of Brazil, but it was in recent decades that they actually began to be recognized in the country as important personalities in the construction of society. This is because in recent decades they have been highlighted in national and international sports competitions, in music, art, politics, productive activities, sciences and, above all, in education, which gave them greater visibility in the fight for equality.

The last decade of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century culminated in the so-called era of knowledge, in the face of technical-scientific evolution, technological advances, information and communication technology, accessed by mobile devices connected to the Internet, social networks and the consolidation of the process of globalization have shaken patriarchal structures and enabled the emergence of increasingly organized movements against patriarchy and against acts of discrimination and prejudice against women.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

From the above, it is concluded that the relations of equality between genders are still guided by traditional conceptions, although resistance movements and the construction of new relationships have advanced in recent decades the macho mentality still persists in classifying the female gender with inferior. However, feminist movements have gained expressiveness in the conquest of spaces, recognition and attributing repudiation to traditional practices that hinder the process of equality. The struggle of women demonstrates the encouragement in the fight against discrimination in the search for the construction of a new society, where the confrontation of issues of class and gender interests are guided in a way that contemplates everyone in a less unequal way.

It was found that it is not an easy task to change a reality, a context already consolidated and consolidated with ideas, habits, customs, attitudes and behaviors historically constructed and socially accepted, valued and reproduced by societies over time, however technological advances in information and communication, globalization, the productive process make the environment favorable to changes in social relations and in the formation of new conceptions about gender equality.

It is known that full gender equality will not be possible as long as the current model of society, economy and politics dictate the rules and norms that guide life in society. The persistence of inequality shows that it is necessary to develop more initiatives, feminist struggles have proved to be efficient, but ineffective from an institutional point of view. The process of exclusion and discrimination by the male gender is still notorious, either by ideological heritage or for physical, ethnic, economic and social issues.

Meanwhile, for there to be indeed equality between genders, it is necessary to build new bases for the formation of a new society, stripped of discriminatory processes, ideologies, customs, oppressive conceptions and to build new knowledge that conceives human beings as equalin all areas of life. It is expected that this study can contribute with new reflections and that new perspectives turn to the problem of gender inequality, in order to point out ways and possibilities to contain the inequalities associated with the intensification of movements to conquer new spaces and accesses, participation in decision-making and the recognition of the rights of those in a state of oppression.

REFERENCES

ANTUNES, R. Os sentidos do trabalho: ensaio sobre a afirmação e a negação do trabalho. São Paulo: Boitempo, 1999.

BRASIL. Senado Federal. Comissão Temporária Interna “Ano da Mulher-2004”. A mulher e as leis: perguntas e respostas para o Brasil do século XXI. Brasília: Secretaria Especial de Editoração e Publicações, 2004.

______. Lei Maria da Penha: cartilha informativa sobre a lei nº 11.340 de 2006. Brasília: Centro de documentação e informação. Coordenação de Publicações, 2007.

CONTE, Isaura Isabel. Mulheres feministas e camponesas? Revista eletrônica
Espaço da Sophia.
Vol. 15, ano II, Junho/2008.

Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos, 2009. Disponível em: http://www.un.org/>. Acessado em 15/06/2020.

DUQUE, L.V. Abrigos e albergues para moradores de rua: uma realidade em questão. Porto Alegre: [s. n.], 2000.

FISCHER, I.R.; MARQUES, F. Gênero e exclusão social. Trabalho para discussão 112, agosto/2001.

FREI BETTO. A Marca do Batom. São Paulo, agosto de 2001.

FREIRE, Paulo. Pedagogia do oprimido. – ed. 23ª. – Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1989.

GEBARA, Ivone. Cultura e relações de gêneros. São Paulo: Cepis, 2001.

MESZAROS, István. Para além do capital. São Paulo: Bomtempo, 2002.

MMTR/RS. A evolução da mulher na humanidade. Textos internos. Passo Fundo, RS: [s.n.], 1995.

_______. As mulheres na luta. Textos internos. Passo Fundo, RS: [s.n.], 1999.

OLIVEIRA, Elizabeth Serra. Movimentos sociais e educação popular no Brasil urbano industrial – UFF/ GT: Movimentos Sociais e Educação / n.03.

PAÑUELOS. Hacia una pedagogia feminista: gêneros e educación popular. – Bueno Aires: América Libre, 2007.

[1] Postgraduate in Psychopedagogy, Graduated in History.

Sent: July, 2020.

Approved: November, 2020.

DEIXE UMA RESPOSTA

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here