DIAS, Kátia Gonçalves 
DIAS, Kátia Gonçalves. Full-time education: A brief overview. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 06, Vol. 02, pp. 33-51. June 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/full-time-education, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/full-time-education
Integral education is an important part of the history of citizenship, therefore, of man, and, thus, it is a theme that has been deeply discussed and its concepts reworked over the years. This proposal aims to discuss and reflect, from a literature review, on the Full-Time Education Program. This is a bibliographic and descriptive study. It is hypothesized that in order for education to be, in fact, integral, only to increase the length of stay in school does not entail integral education. Considering this context, the article will deal with the paths taken by comprehensive education, focusing on this program. The fact that integral education, even today, even if it has become popular, is a challenge for the country, due to the lack of resources and training of teachers in most schools, which justifies the relevance of the study. Public policies on the theme will be presented and how this proposal has been consolidated in Brazil.
Keywords: Integral School, students, Public Policies, citizenship.
One of the pillars of the new methodology in front of Brazilian public schools is school democracy and a new path is established in decentralization and autonomy, assigning to schools the responsibility of enabling the particularity of the administration and organization of access to applicability and social control (PARO, 2007; LIMA, 2002; SOUZA, 2009). It is up to the school community to recognize and understand where to focus within the school. The research will discuss about integral education from a historical perspective, aiming to verify the impacts arising from this theme in school units, which, for the most part, affect aspects of responsibility and administrative autonomy, collectivity and encompass decisions. Brazil is a country whose miscegenation, inequality, socio-economic-cultural problems interfere in the most diverse sectors, especially in the education sector, which, historically, was the privilege of those who had capital.
The country made historic gains with the creation of the Ministry of Education, an agency of the country’s federal government, created under President Getúlio Vargas in 1930. It was intended to expand school education and make access to it more viable, especially for the more restricted populations, serving all who needed it. Questions about out-of-school education, public health and medical and social support have become government agendas. The MEC – Ministry of Education began to deal only with the national education policy, and, with a directed look, it is concerned with the preparation for the exercise of citizenship and the large masses of the population, offering services demanded by society. The MEC imposed many programs in order to address some immediate needs necessary for that social and political framework of the time, and thus planned policies aimed at equal opportunities and social inclusion (GHANEM, 2004; ARELARO; JACOMINI; CARNEIRO, 2016; PEREIRA; BATISTA, 2016).
Integral school education in the country is a demand for basic education and should be public, considering aspects of a social, cultural and historical nature. Aiming at the transfigurations of society and establishing themselves in practices and meditations that concern the methods that constitute to help in the socialization and citizenship of Brazilian education (SANTOS; PEREIRA; MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURÍCIO, 2009). The relevance of the theme is due to the fact that comprehensive education and public policies sustain its success and if the teaching proposal is feasible in schools, it is possible to achieve the goals objectiveed by the government program, and thus there will be meaningful learning with its apprentices. It is understood that educating is to ensure the development of all, in all dimensions, including intellectual, physical, affective, social and symbolic, a view that opposes the traditional idea that education extends to the school process fixed in academic knowledge.
The school space focused on normal or traditional school is often not enough to ensure the set of learning necessary for children, adolescents, young people and adults to face social impasses in contemporary times (SANTOS; PEREIRA; MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURÍCIO, 2009). The comprehensive school offers new methods to the challenge of educating in the 21st century. Directed to a demand, integral education offers educational processes that cross the school experience with the experience of life in society and makes it a responsibility of all. It is necessary to understand students as the center of the teaching-learning process, and thus understand that each is unique, with its own rhythm and style. The school team, collectively, should enable a planned and organized educational process. The objective of this work is to list and describe the paths that lead to full-time education, emphasizing that it should be accessible to all students.
2.1 PUBLIC EDUCATION POLICIES
The Education Development Plan (PDE) of 2007, conceived as state public policy, validated by Complementary Law No. 130 of July 14, 2010, has the function of improving basic education in Brazil (SAVIANI, 2007; VOSS, 2011; CAMARGO; PINTO; GUIMARÃES, 2008). One of the major actions is the More Education Program (PME), which promotes the increase of the school day, and thus proposes the inclusion of the comprehensive education program in all schools in the country. In 2007, the Federal Government launched, in April, the Education Development Plan (PDE), and aimed to find constitutional means to establish a National Education Policy, with the aim of ensuring an inclusive quality education, which would help in the construction of students’ autonomy and respect for diversities. It is based on means of direct, being basic education, higher education, professional education and literacy.
Composed of programs and actions, and here, the More Education Program is inserted, it aims to feed integral education from socio-educational activities in the period opposite the classroom (SANTOS; PEREIRA; MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURÍCIO, 2009). The funding would be depending on the actions of the program mediated by the Fund for the Maintenance and Development of Basic Education (FUNDEB) that supports education. It is a financing of Basic Education and includes the valorization of education professionals, opening a space for integral education. To sustain all Comprehensive Education Programs, they should be maintained. Fernandes, (2014) highlights the value of (FUNDEB) and the importance of valuing education professionals. This type of teaching became more common after the decree of November 13, 2007, no. 6,253, which provides resources for public basic education.
And then came ordinance 873, of July 1, 2010, which ensures the financing of comprehensive education with FUNDEB. The offer of such finances, coming from the PDDE, made it possible for schools to make some investments, such as improving their infrastructure and improving their pedagogical practices, represented by teachers, and thus, with the offer received, both in administrative and pedagogical terms, progressive education could be aimed at improving learning rates in basic education (DAVIES, 2006; SENA, 2008; ROSEMBERG, 2010). The money and passed on the schools by transfer, was based, for this, on the number of students enrolled and took into account the school census of the previous year, without having to resort to agreements or projects, among others (SAVIANI, 2007; VOSS, 2011; CAMARGO; PINTO; GUIMARÃES, 2008).
Pinheiro (2012), reiterates that, over time, the PDDE became responsible for receiving resources, and, thus, started to consider numerous modalities and similar programs that deal with the permanence in the public school environment: PDDE Educação Integral, o PDDE Functioning of Schools on Weekends (FEFS), PDDE Escola Campo, PDDE Água na Escola, PDDE Escola Acessível, School Development Plan (PDE Escola) and the Innovative High School Program (ProEMI). Pinheiro (2012) stresses that each receiving unit must stick to the fact that the amount received should be used as a source of funding for different needs, such as, for example, the purchase of consumable materials and teaching materials. It also points out that the acquisition of resources must be something permanent. France (2005) states:
The educational management, in the decentralizing view involves the participation of the school and local community in decision-making, especially in the planning, execution and evaluation of activities and also in the exercise of pedagogical, administrative and financial autonomy of the education system (FRANÇA, 2005, p. 140).
France (2005) alludes that the resources received should be discussed and put into vogue from a conversation with all who integrate the school space, thinking about the right time for such application and in the best way are essential guidelines, aiming at meeting the demand of the school institution, aiming at the realization of democratic management (PARO, 2007; LIMA, 2002; SOUZA, 2009). It is a way of extending the commitment to all so that the interests of the school community are met. The presence of the school board is indispensable. France (2005), in its research, states that the destination and final verdict of how to apply the appeal should follow the determinations of the FNDE and the PDDE. Autonomy should be part of the decisions suggested by the members who form the school and by the deliberations on the cost of the PDDE, thus acquiring a “decreed autonomy” that prioritizes the school units, pointing out the best uses for such resources.
The direction of financial resources must always be aligned with the objectives of general interest, in order to ensure the effective participation of all components of the school space, also ensuring social commitment and the realization of a work aligned with the wishes of the actors who make up the school with regard to the financing of education, which requires the development of strategies that ensure the complete participation of the members of the school board in the search for a quality education in the context of the educational institution to which they are part. França (2005, p. 153) points out that “decision-making in the allocation of resources for expenses means choosing, within a list of possibilities, between what can and should not be spent on the resources of the Salary-education of the Federal Quota, released by the FNDE/MEC”. Cardoso (2009), in turn, understands that the contributions of the PDDE promote the democratization of school autonomy.
On the objective of the program, it is important to learn that it requires the presence of a political, bureaucratic idea, present within the norms of decentralization and autonomy when dealing with received resources, and, thus, it is up to the discussion on decentralization, since the entire process of implementation of the program is imposed by ways and means of organization established by law from the FNDE. Therefore, it is worth noting, here, that the autonomy that is desired in the school environment is met by the demands, and also the creation of the executing units is the one that promotes the right to the transfer of money, believing, then, that it is this transfer that entails the achievement of success of the school in terms of meeting the first line needs that emerge in the daily school through the received budget (LECLERC; MOLL, 2012; SILVA; SILVA, 2013; PENTEADO, 2014; DAVIES, 2006; SENA, 2008; ROSEMBERG, 2010).
It is defined as comprehensive education, in a simple and peculiar way, that it occurs and manifests itself when the school aims to assist the student in full or in totality to offer the child’s development in the school journey, extending the appropriate school space for their learning (SANTOS; PEREIRA; MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURÍCIO, 2009). The student is the target in school for the development of their learning skills in their school life. The objective is, then, a quality teaching that can guarantee learning at school and in the child’s life. Such longings are guaranteed by the Federal Constitution (1988):
Art. 205. Education, the right of all and the duty of the State and the family, will be promoted and encouraged with the collaboration of society, aiming at the full development of the person, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work. Art. 206. Teaching will be taught on the basis of the following principles: I – Equal conditions for access and permanence in school; II – Freedom to learn, teach, research and disseminate thought, art and knowledge; III – Pluralism of ideas and pedagogical conceptions, and coexistence of public and private educational institutions; IV – Gratuity of public education in official establishments; V – Valorization of teaching professionals, guaranteed, in the form of the law, career plan for the public teaching, with professional salary floor and entry exclusively by public competition of tests and titles, ensured single legal regime for all institutions maintained by the Union; V – Valorization of teaching professionals, guaranteed, in the form of the law, career plans for the public teaching, with professional salary floor and admission exclusively by public competition of tests and titles; (Drafting given by Constitutional Amendment No. 19, 1998) V – Valorization of school education professionals, guaranteed, in the form of the law, career plans, with admission exclusively by public competition of tests and titles, to those of public networks; (Wording given by Constitutional Amendment No. 53, 2006) VI – Democratic management of public education, in the form of the law; VII – quality standard assurance. VIII – national professional salary floor for public school education professionals, in accordance with federal law. (Included by Constitutional Amendment No. 53, 2006) Single paragraph. The law will provide for the categories of workers considered professionals of basic education and on the setting of a deadline for the preparation or adequacy of their career plans, within the Scope of the Union, the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities. (Included by Constitutional Amendment No. 53, 2006) Art. 227. It is the duty of the family, society and the State to ensure the right to life, health, food, education, leisure, professionalization, culture, dignity, respect, freedom and family and community coexistence with absolute priority, and to put them safe from all forms of neglect, discrimination, exploitation, violence, cruelty and oppression.
According to the literature (SANTOS; PEREIRA, MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURÍCIO, 2009), Law No. 9089/1990, of the Statute of Children and Adolescents (ECA), discusses comprehensive education and its importance. In this device in question it is possible to visualize the contribution of the integral school in the formation of the individual. In Art. 53 The child and adolescent are guaranteed the right to:
[…] education, aiming at the full development of their person, preparation for the exercise of citizenship and qualification for work, ensuring them: I – Equality of conditions for access and permanence in school; II – Right to be respected by its educators; III – Right to challenge evaluation criteria, and may resort to higher school bodies; IV – Right of organization and participation in student entities; V – Access to public school and free of charge near your residence. Sole paragraph. It is the right of parents or guardians to be aware of the pedagogical process, as well as to participate in the definition of educational proposals. (Child and Adolescent Statute, Art, 53, 1990).
Law no. 9394/1996, which instituted the Law of Guidelines and Bases (LDB), ensures the implementation of comprehensive education in Brazil, especially Art. 34, § 2, which holds the State responsible for the provision of full-time education in a progressive manner.
Art. 34. The school day in elementary school will include at least four hours of effective work in the classroom, and the length of stay in the school is progressively expanded. § 1 – The cases of night education and the alternative forms of organization authorized in this law are prohibited. § 2 – Primary education will be given progressively full-time, at the discretion of the education systems.
According to Freitas (2009, p.21), “public policies are expressed by laws, regulations, budgets and are translated into government guidelines, aimed at guaranteeing the social rights of all citizens”. Castro (2001), in turn, emphasizes that:
[…] an autonomous and decentralized entity of public administration, with assets consisting of own resources, and created by law to perform services of a state and collective interest, making possible the unification of the spending policy for elementary school and allowing to compress personnel and operational costs (CASTRO, 2001 p. 87).
Cooperation, interaction and communication are fundamental to the proper functioning of the School’s Training Network, and thus act as an effective means to achieve the objectives of the planned proposal, considering the guidelines of the Program at the national level. According to Moreira and Rizzoti (2009, p. 15), “to fulfill this purpose, the school organizes its management based on a set of norms and procedures derived from the system of public administration of education to which it is linked”.
2.2 COMPREHENSIVE EDUCATION IN BRAZIL
Education, in Brazil, came to the Jesuits who taught in schools for the children of feudals and catechesis was offered to the less favored classes. Emphasizing that, in Brazil, education began to be a reason for the government’s interest in the mandate of Getúlio Vargas, in the year 1930, when the transposition of the exporting agrarian model to the agrarian-industrial model occurs, thus being born a new economic scenario. With the new economy, education began to be seen from another perspective: it was associated with the industrialization process, and thus the labor force understood as cheap and with little qualification to mitigate the need for the market was prepared. With the Revolution of 1930, the school process underwent significant changes, due to the reforms that took place in several states. Some names are important: São Paulo, represented by Sampaio Dória (1920), Ceará, represented by Lourenço Filho (1923), Bahia, represented by Anísio Teixeira (1925), Minas Gerais, represented by Francisco Campos and Mario Casassanta (1927) and, finally, Brasília, represented by Fernando de Azevedo (1928).
Anísio Teixeira is an essential name when discussing education as a whole, since he was responsible for the Manifesto of the Pioneers of the New School in 1932 and, thus, is known to be a strong supporter of education. His ideas fostered a new Public Education System (SANTOS; PEREIRA, MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURITIUS, 2009). It ensured and defended education as a means of national restructuring within compulsory and lay public education, adapted to cultural and state characteristics to meet the interests of students at their most diverse levels of learning. It aimed, in this way, at the importance of education to live in society. His attitudes and thoughts turn to the integral formation of human life, an inheritance brought from his formation in the most diverse universities and areas. Anísio Teixeira defended a philosophy always based on truth, with aparatos in science.
It is based on the ideas of John Dewey, and, thus, it aimed to implement a new trend regarding human existence, and, for that, it was based on questions pertinent to the sphere of education, because, according to Anísio Teixeira, it is education who fosters a more egalitarian world and prioritizes the integrity of the human being. From these ideas was born the Public Education System in Brazil, especially for students who, historically, have always been denied access to education (SANTOS; PEREIRA; MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURÍCIO, 2009). He prepared several books on the theme of education and participated in the drafting of the Law of Guidelines and Bases for National Education. He fought hard in defense of public education, and among his main works, “Education and the Brazilian crisis”, from 1956, and “Education is not a privilege”, from 1957 stand out.
He was persecuted by Brazilian bishops and in 1958 he was accused of being an extremist and thus dismissed from the federal government. Under Juscelino Kubitschek he was exiled from public life, and then began to help the United Nations Educational, Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO) at the behest of the governor of Bahia and then took over the Department of Education and Health. During this period, the Popular Center of Education Carneiro Ribeiro, Escola-Parque, located in the Liberdade neighborhood, Salvador, was inaugurated. Students had access to comprehensive education, received food and socializing activities and preparation for social life. He was able to fulfill his dream in the area of education. The ideas of the Carneiro Ribeiro Educational Center expanded to other schools in the country. Anísio wanted full-time education to value the human formation that should take shape from varied activities to be performed throughout the day (SANTOS; PEREIRA, MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURITIUS, 2009).
Teixeira (1997) aimed at a school education with activities and curricula of practical life, which formed real-life attitudes, and thus imagined a miniature of society. In this sense, this type of school should cover activities that value the most diverse dimensions of human life (SANTOS; PEREIRA, MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURITIUS, 2009). They should be offered in two shifts. However, one of the biggest challenges still today is the lack of resources, professional training and an adequate space for training to be, in fact, integral. The proposal is defended because it was from the ideas of Anísio Teixeira that the most disadvantaged classes had access to a quality education. It was from the activities performed at the Carneiro Ribeiro Center that other schools began to aim for this modality. It worked as follows:
The primary school would be divided into two sectors, that of education, itself, that is, of the old school of letters, and of education, itself, that is, of the active school. In the education sector, conventional work would be carried out, that of the class, the teaching of reading, writing and aritmetics and more physical and social sciences, and in the education sector – socializing activities, artistic education, manual work and industrial arts and physical education (TEIXEIRA, 1962, p. 82).
The Center would be composed of rooms, each one in its different functions, that is:
(…) schools, i.e. schools of teaching letters and sciences (…) school-park where the other functions of the center would be distributed, that is, social and artistic activities, work activities and physical education activities. The child will take a shift in school-class and a second shift at the school park. In this school, in addition to locations for their specific functions, we have more children’s library, dormitories for 200 of the 4000 children attended by the Center and general and food services. (…) In addition to the school reform, we have the addition of this food assistance service. Five percent of them will receive more from boarding school. They will be children called abandoned, without a father and without a mother, who will become not the unfortunate and sad guests of orphanages, but the residents of the park school, to whom will be the honor of hosting their classmates, as well as the joy of attending with them the class schools. (TEIXEIRA, 1962, p. 83).
Traditional activities, historically seen as school, would take place in Class Schools and other diversified activities in the evening. Therefore, it is not enough to increase the hours of this student at school, it is necessary to ensure that all aspects of human life are being developed. They must be able to exercise citizenship consciously and integrate the labor market, however, of equal importance are the moments of sport, culture and leisure along this journey (SANTOS; PEREIRA; MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURÍCIO, 2009). This is the full-time school designed by Anízio Teixeira. Classes were organized based on the age of the students. Escola Parque contemplated a comprehensive education designed and designed to achieve the objectives of that context. The students, in addition to school subjects, had contact with the plastic arts; sports; recreation; socialization, artistic and cultural activities.
In the project there was the planning for the construction of this space. Another objective advocated is that at least five percent of the students should be those who did not have housing. In a first instance the school aimed to integrate this student with the school community from activities that favored communication among students. It aimed to form critical and conscious minds about their rights and duties, and the main challenge was to make these students able to exercise social citizenship. Concerns about teacher training were already common at the time and continue as an obstacle to the sport to this day (SANTOS; PEREIRA, MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURÍCIO, 2009). The activities offered also favored the habits for a healthy life. It should also be noted that:
It is against this tendency the destructive simplification that this Popular Center of Education arises. We wish to give the primary school its full school day again. We wish to give you your five years of course. And we wish to give them their complete program of reading, both aritmetic and writing, and more physical and social sciences, and more industrial arts, drawing, music, dance and physical education. In addition, we want the school to educate, form habits, form attitudes, cultivate aspirations, really prepare the child for their civilization – this civilization so difficult because it is a technical and industrial civilization and even more difficult and complex because it is constantly changing. In addition, we want the school to give health and food to the child, since it is not possible to educate them in the degree of malnutrition and abandonment in which he/s[…]he lives in primary school, will be something that resembles a small children’s university (TEIXEIRA, 1951, pp. 141 and 146).
Integral Education, according to Anísio Teixeira, solved many social problems of the time. In this context, the Carneiro Ribeiro Educational Center applied to be the defended model of education: “It was with the objective of offering a model for this type of primary school that the Carneiro Ribeiro Center was designed in Bahia, which constitutes the first demonstration” (TEIXEIRA, 1962 p.25). In 1960, Anísio Teixeira, then manager of INESP, at the behest of Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, began to celebrate the “Human Plan” and had as helper Darcy Ribeiro and Cyro dos Anjos. Organized by the commission, the Educational System of Brasilia was an educational model for the country, which should manifest itself at the elementary educational level, and thus thought of a model of comprehensive education based on the salvador model, but more sophisticated. It started operating from the School-Class with Kindergartens.
There was a block at the Park School to welcome the students on the counter shift. The School-Class was designed so that the development of physical, sports, artistic and cultural activities would leave the plane of ideas and become a reality in these spaces. The structure was architected by the famous architect Oscar Niemeyer and had an enviable and unique physical space, capable of up to 30,000 people on the four courts. The integral school had another important historical fact in the 1980s, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, with Darcy Ribeiro, who instituted the CIEPs – Integrated Centers of Public Education, based on the ideology of Anísio Teixeira (SANTOS; PEREIRA, MELLO, 2019; MENEZES, 2012; RIBETTO; MAURITIUS, 2009). Five hundred and six schools were created in the two governments of Leonel Brizola, architected by Oscar Niemeyer and baptized as “Full School full-time”. Darci Ribeiro (1986) points out that:
CIEP is a school that operated from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., with the capacity to house 1,000 students (…). In the main block with three floors are the classrooms, a medical center, the kitchen and the cafeteria, in addition to the support and recreation areas. In the second block is the covered gym, with its volleyball/basketball/football hall court, bleachers and locker room. This gym is called a multipurpose hall, because it is also used for theatrical performances, music shows, party, etc. In the third block of the case-like form, there is the library and, on it, the houses for resident students (RIBEIRO, 1986, p. 42).
With the Interministerial Ordinance No. 17 and No. 19, on April 24, 2007, the Mais Educação Program was established (LECLERC; MOLL, 2012; SILVA; SILVA, 2013; PENTEADO, 2014). He, in turn, designed the Plan of Articulated Actions (PAR), to be implemented by states and municipalities to receive donations and to receive technical assistance from MEC. The view on integral education, according to MEC, is as follows:
Art.1º Institute the More Education Program with the objective of contributing to the integral education of adolescent and young children through the articulation of actions, projects and programs of the Federal Government and their contributions to the proposals, visions and curricular practices of the public school system and schools, changing the school environment and expanding the offer of knowledge, methods , educational processes and contents: Single paragraph: The program will be implemented through support for the realization in schools and other sociocultural spaces, of socio-educational actions in the counter-school shift, including the fields of education, arts, culture, sport, leisure, mobilizing them to improve educational performance […] (Ministry of Education, 2009, p. 14).
Therefore, the More Education Program supports the idea that it is necessary to implement comprehensive education aiming, for this reason, integral training “as a means of ensuring development in all areas of the human condition” (Ministry of Education, 2009, p. 42). Since the integral school has become popular throughout the country, it is necessary, however, to emphasize the need to train citizens in its most diverse dimensions, focusing on the right to come and go and, also, on their rights and duties as Brazilian citizens (LECLERC; MOLL, 2012; SILVA; SILVA, 2013; PENTEADO, 2014).
2.3 TEACHERS, PROPOSALS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
To ensure quality education, the MEC has joined several bodies, such as the National Fund for Education Development (FNDE). According to Moreira and Rizzoti (2009, p. 40): “it is up to the FNDE to the redistributive function of the social contribution of salary-education”. Thus, 10% are directed to programs, projects and actions aimed at the equality of basic education. When talking about comprehensive education in the country it is worth noting that it has evolved a lot, but the difficulties for its effective implementation are still many. Among them, questions related to the teaching and planning management process, the scarcity of teaching materials and resources, the absence of continuing education of teachers, the non-correlation between theory and practice and the lack of application of an adequate curriculum stand out. These factors prevent the full effectiveness of full-time education.
The articulation, the improbity carried by the students to the school, the difficulties in the field of reading and writing and in the understanding of the knowledge of logical-mathematical reasoning, questions about nature and society, the evaluations applied and gender issues are some of these difficulties. It should also be emphasized that problems related to integral education, the planning process and the fact that teachers do not consider the profile of students and the lack of adequacy of practices to the individuality and capacity of each student prevent this efficiency. It can also be highlighted inadequate planning, lack of experience with the different and poor teacher training, which motivates disastrous experiences. Planning directs education within the decision-making process, as emphasized by the Document of the Ministry of Education (2009, p. 18):
Integral Education is a strategic action to ensure protection and integral development for children and adolescents living in contemporaneity marked by intense transformations: in access and production of knowledge, in social relations between different generations and cultures, in forms of communication, in greater exposure to the effects of changes at the local, regional and international levels.
The pedagogical practice related to the planned objectives makes the teacher able to reach an effective and meaningful learning within the plan, sharpening the student’s permanence in the school, and also this work favors the educational system and the constant evaluation of the teacher’s performance in the classroom. However, being in the classroom, in this context, is still something difficult, which affects the quality of the teaching offered. It is not a question of blaming the didactic-pedagogical organization of integral education, however, the modality must meet the profile of students in order not to inhibit the educational processes desired. The professional is indifferent to the indifferences in the classroom, and thus should be able to focus beyond the programmatic contents, not to be a simple executor of tasks, but to act in a reflexive way, as pointed out by Anísio Teixeira:
Education is life, and to live is to develop is to grow. Life and growth are not subordinate dweller to any other purpose, save more life and more growth. The educational process, therefore, having no end, beyond itself, is the process of continuous reorganization, reconstruction and transformation of life, and making the conditions of life such that everyone learn in the process of living, is the richest process that the school can achieve. Thanks to this habit, education as a continuous reconstruction of experience is assured as the permanent attribute of human life (TEIXEIRA, 1994, p .49).
Reflection is part of their work in the classroom, because it is she who enables the construction of knowledge in pedagogical practice, and thus the teacher needs to be open to the new, the changes, and also devote himself to work and have commitment to his student, in order to improve development in the area of learning. Ambrósio (1998), stresses that the teacher’s commitment goes far beyond the discipline in which he works and graduated, and thus, this professional needs to form the citizenship of the learner. Therefore, the teacher is the builder responsible for the intellectual and personal growth of his students.
In this context, it is important to learn, considering the responsibility of the teacher, that this professional, among other objectives essential to pedagogical-didactic practice, must have the mastery of techniques and methodologies so that he can enter the world of students and leads them to understand that knowledge knowledge helps to improve the quality of their lives. The didactic-pedagogical materials and resources are still scarce, and thus teachers find it difficult to teach these classes full-time successfully, which makes, in many moments, there is no approximation of it with the reality of students and the teaching and learning process becomes insignificant, as Sacristan (1998) points out):
Modern curricula are required to, in addition to the classical areas of knowledge, to give notions of personal hygiene, traffic education, sex education, education to consumption, to promote certain social habits, to prevent drugs, to open up to new media, to respond to the needs of a youth culture with problems of integration in the adult world. , that meet the new scientific and technical knowledge, that welcome the whole of the social sciences, that recover the aesthetic dimension of culture, who are concerned about the deterioration of the environment, etc. (SACRISTAN, 1998, p. 58).
Based on the curriculum, the teacher must position himself as a transforming agent, motivating his students in the constant improvement of knowledge, and, thus, need to go beyond theory, always enter into practice and provide this knowledge to their students so that they can have a relationship of theory with practice in daily life.
Teaching requires respect for the students’ knowledge […], discussing with students the reason for some of this knowledge and the relationship with the teaching of the contents […]. Teaching requires availability for dialogue […] teaching requires the recognition and assumption of cultural identity […]. Teaching requires apprehension of reality […], transforming reality to intervene in it, recreating it […]. Teaching requires security, professional competence and generosity […]. The fundamental in learning the content and the construction of responsibility, freedom that is assumed […] (LEMOS, 1999, p. 20 apud FREIRE, 1996, pp. 7-8).
The teacher plays a primary role in educational institutions, because, when receiving the student, he reconstructs his practice, and thus it is necessary to consider his entire trajectory within the school. Accepting the student is easy, but respecting their difficulties and providing him with conditions of stay at school for him to continue his studies is the main one. Thus: “to know that teaching is not to transfer knowledge, but to create possibilities for its own production or its construction” (FREIRE, 1996, p. 47). The difficulties encountered by teachers are not few, because, in many times, relating educational action to a social action demands the action of all those involved in the teaching-learning process and this requires the student to act actively in the society in which he lives.
[…] educators should clearly analyze and define the educational action, perceiving it as a social action establishing a proposal that considers school-community relations and the cultural portrait, producing an educational practice articulating theory with practice, having the student as the subject of the learning process. (LEMOS, 1999, p. 19).
Difficulties related to the articulation of the curriculum and its elaboration and the absence of clear objectives, because, in many times, they do not present or do not meet the expectations and expectations of their students, are frequent and worrying. According to Lemos (1999), it is necessary to list the diversity of the desired audience and consider some factors in the preparation of the curriculum, and thus, one must create models that meet the desires of its students, which implies the adequacy of contentconsidering the characteristics of students, the distribution and selection of curriculum contents and the verification of the objectives of education within a process of constant reflection. Including activities aimed at training the student for life requires a continuous teaching process. It is education that fosters the formation of the citizen.
The curricular proposal should be multiple and the themes that refer to culture, problems and environmental solutions and discussions about social relations should guide the work of the teacher, thus, subjects capable of integrating the student into society are essential, in addition to meeting the learning needs. The teacher and his students should be able to deal with different means of relationship, prioritizing the reception of all ideas in the classroom. Freire (1996), in his reflections, stresses that the teacher should be careful not to discriminate or disadvantage the student for some reason, since the student has from his teacher the perception of his posture in the classroom, and then needs to be attentive to the reading that students perform of their work and to all situations linked in the classroom , from a silence to a smile or an exit from the room.
It is necessary to understand that the pedagogical space is a space of much reflection between the relationship established between teacher/ student. In this sense, Freire, (1996, p. 97) stresses that: “the more solidarity there is between the educator and the student in the ‘treatment’ of this space, the more possibilities of democratic learning open up in school”. Ensuring citizen education is essential, and thus the school’s commitment is great. To do so, it needs to work on aspects that involve society and nature, in this process, by limiting values, knowledge and skills, in order to help students to critically understand the reality around them. In this context, the information should be easy to understand and need to be related to the experiences of this student.
To the same extent, making the student’s interest in discovering different contexts from his is also a challenge. To provide access to various types of information should prevail in pedagogical practice. The teacher needs to be in mind that the student’s education process is not selective, but an action of reflection, which requires the discovery of difficulties and points out the positive points of each subject. Discussing gender issues when addressing gender relations and reflections on issues on inequality and social practices is crucial. Making use of various tools to conduct such discussions will help in the integral formation of the individual, because the themes are transversal and will make these students accept themselves and feel part of society.
Discovering and perceiving the need of children and, from this, rediscovering or redesigning new paths to be trodden to apply and intervene new strategies is a great challenge. Teachers, schools and public policies must assume responsibility to society, respecting the objectives of comprehensive education. It is necessary to believe in the identity of this modality and ensure its full functioning. Integral education requires and requires school centrality, and to do so, all students need to be developed broadly, and even their life experiences need to be respected and rescued by this school. That’s your job. Likewise, the role of professionals who make education something possible needs to be continuously rethought and renewed.
The political and philosophical approach of integral education and the expanded journey allows us to understand that, in fact, education is part of a civil society, and thus effective participation in public policies is essential, as it is a way to ensure a planned education within these policies, remembering the social view of the world and its social obligations. The importance of this research aims that education cannot close its eyes to the integral school, it needs to know that learning implies many variants, as varied as possible. Thus, the origins, values and feelings of the student need to be respected in the school context, which implies the approach of real-life facts and events in school and extracurricular activities, which implies a deep sociopsychological organization.
Knowing that the general norms of development are the same for all students, emphasizing that they are capable beings and fostering the continuous search for knowledge and development of new skills are attitudes that are urgent. Understanding these subjects as central agents of the educational process and emphasizing the harmony between the school and students based on reflections and interventions is fundamental. Valuing and encouraging the exchange of knowledge from these activities is also indicated. In this sense, the adaptation of the integral school is urgent, which entails the approach of significant issues to its functioning with the families of these students. The offer of workshops in the counter shift is a possibility for the expansion of the journey to be effective.
Prioritizing education is a necessary and, above all, continuous process, and thus, the development of public policies in a periodic way is important for full-time education to promote, in fact, the integral formation of the human being. It is necessary to always be attentive to the reality that surrounds us and overcome the very limits of pedagogical management. In this context, it is of paramount importance that the public authorities contribute to the improvement of full-time education from projects and actions aimed at education as a whole, thus contributing to the reduction of the distance of people from school, emphasizing that everyone should have access to quality education, prioritizing, therefore, the development of all dimensions that give life to the human being.
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 Specialist in Physical Education Teaching, post-graduated in Physical Education with emphasis in sports training, post graduated in Nutrition with emphasis on Obesity and Weight Loss, Full Degree in Physical Education, Nutrition Academic.
Sent: March, 2020.
Approved: June, 2020.