Field education: reflections on the curriculum and the context of Learners

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TEIXEIRA JUNIOR, Dinarte [1]

BISOGNO, Jean Carlos Rodrigues [2]

TEIXEIRA JUNIOR, Dinarte ; BISOGNO, Jean Carlos Rodrigues. Field Education: Reflections On The Curriculum And The Context Of The Students. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1. Vol. 9. pp. 23-37, October/November 2016. ISSN: 0959-2448

SUMMARY

This study presents and discusses some variables about the Brazilian educational system, with the focus predominantly to the nine-year basic education developed in rural schools of the city of San Gabriel, located in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul.   About the context of those schools is meant that there is a latent need of curriculum approach adopted in this mode of teaching to the real needs of students who are placed there. Make an analysis of successful practices adopted by these schools through government programs designed to offer activities that were to meet the needs of students as complementary to actions carried out within formal school. These activities determined by schools, chosen in order to suit the preferences and fill in the gaps left by a curriculum that, in practice, does not cover the most varied contexts where schools and their students are entered. Similarly does not take into account the cultural differences existing between one location and another.  So, the goal is to present research that can contribute to the favouring of rural education through existing proposals and have achieved success in their application, especially with regard to adaptation and curriculum approach and practices to the preferences and needs pertaining to each locality, school and its students.

Keywords: context; curriculum; student; family; school

1. INTRODUCTION

The present study has as its main focus report experiences and raise questions about the inclusion of people from different segments of the school communities on the issues that influence the educational practices. Citing here also a discussion on the curriculum and methodologies used, relating them to the various cultural variables that influence in the context where the rural schools are located and therefore in the process of knowledge construction. Whereas the approximation of families and other members of school communities in the conduct of school activities may constitute a factor favoring for the qualification of educational processes. Since these individuals can act as facilitators, mainly for local contexts, meet their particularities, quirks, preferences and needs of each locality or group of students.  (AROSTEGUI, DARRETXE and BELOKI, 2013).

Following this line of thought means that the rapprochement between school communities and educational establishments may have an important role in the development of school activities in General, so when we got back the look for the rural education specifically, the need for this approach if leverages, because each community where it enters a school comprises a unique cultural acquis, mainly a range of empirical prior knowledge that students carry with them from the outside to the inside of the classrooms. These knowledge who are oblivious to the contents transmitted in these rooms, but characterize the way in which proceeds in everyday activities, usually transmitted from generation to generation. Are these labour activities, characterized by forms of planting and cultivation or by creating small herds; cultural, exemplified especially in the dances and their variations or even sporting, which manifest themselves through sports. Anyway, local cultures, most of all, depict the way of life of the people that practice.

Thus, the set of cultural manifestations specific to a locality being related to formal classroom content point, in most cases, a gap between the real needs of learners and the contents worked in schools. So that the vast majority of teachers do not have the domain or knowledge of these practices, getting in some cases formal education condemned to a second plan in the interests of these students, or having your real meaning distorted, this factor which contributes substantially to the serious problem of truancy exists in Brazilian schools.

In this scenario is as an alternative to these questions the use of members of these school communities as links of rapprochement between teaching content and previous knowledge from the local cultures. In this sense include the adoption of "more education Program" as an example of successful practice in rural schools, which offers the opportunity for a full-time education by inserting workshops that can be chosen by themselves. Taking into consideration your needs, preferences and conditions for its development, noting the existence of the possibility that these workshops can be delivered by people from the community itself, knowledgeable of the local contexts, students and their peculiarities. Noting, of course, the existence of a license or even the identification required for the development of the activity it proposes to undertake.

In this way, to find a little more this thought, to the deployment of these workshops in order to merge the empirical knowledge transmitted informally to information arising out of the contents of the curriculum, creating in this way an own methodology where the process of knowledge construction admire an active participation of the school community, valuing local culture, as well as understanding the context in which they are inserted. So the valorizassem workshops, for example, informal knowledge which was brought by the students, as issues that addressed the planting and harvesting cycles, ally to the studies developed in classrooms about soil types and other information pertinent to the issue at hand. On the other hand, also explored and valued within the physical education classes some cultural factors, through the development of work with typical dances and the local folklore, allowing them would strengthen the feeling of belonging and identification between school, student and community.

Later, with a greater involvement of the people of the community in matters relating to school was allowed to adopt a model of democratic management with an opening greater participation from parents and students about changes and improvements in all sectors that influence the processes of teaching and learning.

While still maintaining the look for the study of Arostegui, Darretxe and Beloki (2013), which focuses on the successful experience of Spanish schools to integrate the families of students in educational processes, it is important to stress that the examples placed converge strongly, in line, for the scenario of the workshops of the "more education Program" developed in rural schools. Especially with regard to the format of the program, which allowed, within the possibilities, the free choice of the workshops to be deployed in schools by the local community, but mainly by the fact that all the acquis of previous knowledge of the students is taken into consideration, retroalimentando their own workshops with content and information in a format of traditional education and schools would never static as a range of knowledge from local cultures and having your basement in empiricism and in practice. These characteristics that portray the activities developed by the small rural communities in Brazil, whether as a means of livelihood or even a set of involuntary actions towards the perpetuation of their cultures and habits.

2. CURRICULUM AND CONTEXT FIELD SCHOOLS

To reflect on the changes that has taken place in forms of communication among students, the plethora of information that get transmitted at the same time in different media, and the ease of access to this information, that sometimes arrive in distorted or are doubtful we can be led to the thought that it is necessary a change in conduct of educational processes. Need pass to contemplate the needs of basic education in context, you can go to find and highlight the information that has relevance in the context of the learner. Incorporating their values, their beliefs and habits as important elements of meaning within the school activities.

By creating a system where the school takes ownership of the cultural elements of their community so that they complement and enrich the range of knowledge disseminated in classrooms, these knowledge that makes up a basis for the understanding of reality where they are inserted.

Knowledge of information or isolated elements is insufficient. It is necessary to locate the information and elements in his context for which acquire sense. To have felt the word needs the text that is its own context and the text needs the context where it announces. For example, the word love changes of direction in a religious context and in a profane; and a declaration of love has no real direction is set out by a player or by a seduced (MORIN, 1999).

In this context the holding of local cultures as facilitators of learning and teaching processes appear as a supportive mechanism and strengthening of students ' identification with school, with still the same feeling in relation to other members of school communities. In this line of thought is evidenced the importance of primary valuation of more natural human cultures in order to provide a practical meaning in educational processes, where the subject of this process is always the learner, and this can glimpse the applicability of that is transmitted in schools.

The strengthening of ties between school and community demonstrates its importance again when we channel our attention to the serious problem of truancy in the Brazilian educational system. Such a problem is characterized not only by the abandonment of school activities on the part of students, but also, and as a result happens to generate disorder also distortions of age/grade. Where the student drops out of school, featuring a dropout situation and ends up being forced to go back through the action of the Government in the following year, with an age incompatible with the series/year that is. Or returning in the same school year which escaped, but without the necessary conditions to accompany others, contributing to increased levels of repetition and lack of interest.

It is understood that the most viable alternative to resolve or mitigate the consequences from these issues would be the current curriculum approach the local realities, particularly in rural communities, through the contextualization of education in its various procedures. Making real the whole extent of the set of elements of local cultures as important factors in educational activities. So that the local cultural elements do a reverse path traditionally used in educational processes, which is usually guided by information provided by teachers and assimilated to the students, but where the empirical knowledge of daily domain of educating pass also guided classes, giving time and voice to a model that moves from outside to inside of schools.

Culture is the set of knowledge, know-how, rules, norms, interdictions, strategies, beliefs, ideas, values, myths that spreads from generation to generation are reproduced on each individual, control the existence of society and holds the psychological and social complexity. There is no ancient or modern human society that does not have culture, but each culture is unique. So, there's always the culture in cultures, but culture does not exist otherwise across cultures.

The techniques may migrate from one culture to another, as was the case of the wheel, the yoke, the compass, press; or of certain religious beliefs, secular ideas soon having born a singular culture were able to universalize. But there are in every culture a specific capital of beliefs, ideas, values, myths, and particularly the bind a unique community to their ancestors, their traditions, their dead (MORIN, 1999).

So, following the trail of the contextualization of basic education in schools located in Brazilian rural communities it is possible to establish a close relationship between the recovery of relevant knowledge local cultures, as field of planting and harvesting cycles, creating small herds, beliefs, leisure activities and habits, and the formation of the young as fully. To be able to exercise their citizenship in the wider sense of this aforementioned concept. Understanding that even though we're dealing with young, the contextualization of education aims to search for the ability to real interaction between man and community/world, aware of the importance of knowing the variants of their culture as a way to become active and participative in a community where it is inserted. As well, use this knowledge from their local reality as a starting point, so that you may as well throw in new challenges, be they through the exploration and understanding of different cultural contexts, or even the ability to act and interpretativamente of the most varied situations. Always based on valorisation of knowledge from its original context and in the ability of understanding of world as a place of multiple cultures and different needs. These concepts must be developed and internalized from the early years of basic education through the context of the curriculum as a fundamental way to the transformation of the student in citizen able, participatory and independent.

3. FAMILY AND SCHOOL IN THE PROMOTION OF CONTEXTUALIZED TEACHING

The relationship between the school and family scope go far beyond simple ideas of rapprochement between community and school, because they are focused on the processes of formation of the individual, understanding your preparation for the conviviality in society in General, their responsibilities and contributions in the social environment from a range of formal content combined with contribution and active participation of the family in this context. (PERSON and oak, 2004).

When we talk about combining family and school in favor of significant construction of knowledge we consider initially how strategic point to the involvement of parents in the midst of willingness on both sides, so that only in this way we can succeed in school. On the other hand, it is considered as a factor of invaluable importance in this process openness and acceptance of school knowledge from the local cultures, passed from generation to generation and empirical character

Carvalho (2000), States in the first moment that education can work in different ways within a society, namely, formal, informal or non-formal. Education, therefore, must be inserted not only in school, but also in all contexts where the student, as the family, the school itself, sometimes at work and in all media where transitions and establishes communication. In a second moment, highlights the need for rapprochement between the educational curriculum and activities experienced by the student in their daily practices as leisure, culture and habits that invariably will reflect also on your profile in the development of school activities.

In this sense it is understood that the intellectual and student dialogue, understood as a human being in training, will depend on the relationships that the same sets at different levels and segments where it is inserted. This dependence that potentiates in rural areas, where the routines of life are permeated by doing and knowledge common to certain group of people, community or locality. Under this perspective, the search for the formation of a "rural man" able to interact critically in different contexts, emancipated and autonomous way passes, invariably, the appreciation of their culture. So that way the student can see a school that understands and respects their way of life, integrates its culture to school procedures. This two-way relationship is established, the student will be identified with the school, interested in their practices and, consequently, reduced the problem of truancy or even lack of interest before knowledge that, until then, seemed to have an end in themselves.

The relationship between the school and families today still has a traditional character, where, in most cases, the participation of this segment is restricted to his presence at meetings in the circle of parents and teachers, notes or checking in called to receive notifications from a bad student behavior. Depicting two clear ways to observe this relationship: voluntary or involuntary, being the first characterized by encouraging active participation through the policy adopted by the school and the second featuring only a purely figurative participation, which only receives information pre-established by the educational institution. (Oak, 2000).

When considering the voluntary relationship between family and school we found more effective results in terms of interaction and participation of parents and family in formal educational processes. However, this form of participation presents results even more relevant when we returned the focus to the contextualization of teaching, because those are the families of the students who are the main link between the formal education and cultures of each location where you insert the field schools. Taking into account that the participation of families in the school environment contributes substantially to the formation of the learner through the solidification of its values, concepts and purposes of life.

For Coleman and Churchill (1997), this involvement can be driven and led by the schools, through the systematization of information on the trend of students regarding their school life, the contents worked and their performance in the classroom. Recommends that the regular meetings and activities prepared by the school in conjunction with families, so that way I can have a more in-depth and thorough control on the evolution of the child and/or teenager during their school activities.

In another analysis, but not least, you can still report the difference between family and school environments and in search of an interpretation on these different contexts where the student is entered parses that learning is not linear, but rather diverse and multiple segments. This thinking is based on literature of Dessen and Polonia (2007), which claims to be at school appear, spaces, resources, expectations, experiences, language and oblivious to the values of the family. However, these differences do not involve and do not prevent the relationship between family and school, the relationship that exists between these two contexts appears as crucial to the establishment of new teaching practices and the implementation of alternative educational programs that have the focus back to the student as subject of the teaching and learning processes.

In this way, the participation of the family in the educational process supports the contextualization of education, especially the education of the country, is characterized as one of the main factors contributing to the perpetuation of local cultures, within its specificities and singularities. One performance in a positive way is of unquestionable importance to the development of the learner, because when parents and children live together harmonically with a relationship of friendship and trust, it becomes easier for the child to interpret different points of view, whether in school or in different contexts where they can use. Dessen and Polonia (2007), cite studies show differentiated perceptions about the influence of the families at the school during the educational process, regarding the understanding of the parents. Claim for an evolution in the quality of the teaching and learning process there must be a joining of forces between families and educators in order to achieve the objectives in the Middle significantly.

Therefore, it is understood that the family alone are unlikely to be able to do as the child has the opportunity to broaden their social development and evolve intellectually, while in the school, in turn, will also not be able to perform such tasks, but certainly these will be the joint action largely responsible for the formation of personality and solidification of values and principles that guide the paths and will guide future decisions of the students in his adult life.

Is made explicit so that family and school are the two main human development environments, being of fundamental importance the rapprochement from both sides in order to relate these contexts within their similarities and peculiarities in order to build a development process aimed at qualifying educational system as a whole, not only in relation to student but also to all the people involved, as stated by Dessen and Polonia (2007).

CONCLUSION

At the end of this study, we can say, that it is not enough only the attendance of parents within the school to verify progress of children by analyzing your grades and your performance, but rather go to the establishment to look for information that may help in the development of these school children and/or adolescents, adding values to build its intellectual and social growth therefore how mentions Arostegui, Darretxe and Beloki (2013), the family will be one of the main facilitators of learning agents, serving as a means of rapprochement between two different contexts, the family and the school, mainly by local realities meet, their peculiarities, quirks, preferences and needs of each locality or group of students.    In view of these places already mentioned above, there are many ways by which the student spends for its growth as the relationship with the contextualization of education in schools situated in rural communities in Brazil, where it is possible to notice the need for a close relationship between the recovery of relevant knowledge local cultures, as field of planting and harvesting cycles , creating small herds, beliefs, leisure activities and habits, and the formation of the young as fully.

So, in a second analysis, it is evident that inevitably will be this same school model that will influence and educational base, is both in urban as in rural areas, necessary for those students who wish to seek out new life experiences in the field of their future professions have the possibility to perform them. In this way it is possible to affirm that the quality of education depends on numerous factors, but regardless of the public policies adopted the quality of service always depends on, mainly, of the Organization and quality of management models of these establishments and persons transiting in their midst. And finally, add up all these values, turning them into a solid set for a quality education, we will achieve this goal only when cue our educative actions on respect for the culture of the people and in the context where any school is inserted.

However, in Brazil, was the experience with the addition of the contents of cultural relevance, or even the enhancement of local practices that boosted such evolution, which is countersigned by the taste that kids have to stay in school and the identification of those communities where they are located but, mainly, by the feeling that the school will give the necessary support to these , to stay at where they live will have a luggage of information will provide an improvement in quality of life and also a better performance in daily activities developed in their communities.                                                             Therefore, the need for the school to be able to unite these two threads that are complementary, performing in a practical manner, the integration between family and school through projects that get the appreciation of local cultures and the interaction of these with the construction processes of knowledge developed within educational establishments. So, it appears that resides in this rapprochement between curriculum and context one of the most viable solutions to issues that permeate the elementary school, as the disinterest and truancy which result in a large distortion of age/grade level of education.

Therefore it is believed that the appreciation and understanding of the different elements of the local cultures, as well as the insertion of these formal content of rural schools will be a big increase in the quality of all educational processes. Above all, establishing a strong relationship of identification of all the subjects involved in the construction of knowledge with the School Act. And in this way, leaving as legacy education format that offers a real meaning in all their practices, where students can see the applicability and importance of teaching and study methods, so that they can act independently, and especially with the ability of exercise in all its fullness the concept of citizen, whether in your own community or even the possibility of participation in different contexts and realities.

REFERENCES

AROSTEGUI, Igone; DARRETXE, Leire; BELOKI, Nekane. La participación de las familias y de otros miembros de la comunidad as success strategy en las escuelas. Revista Iberoamericana de Evaluación Educativa, Madrid, vol. 6, no. 2, Noviembre/2013. Available at:<http: www.rinace.net/riee/numeros/vol6-num2/riee_6,2.pdf=""> accessed: 13 March 2016.</http:>

Coleman, m. & Churchill, s. Challengers to family involvement. Childhood Education, 73, 262-266.1997.

DE CARVALHO, Marisa Person. Relations between family and school and its gender implications. Research notebooks, n. 110, p. 143-155, 2000.

FAMILY, RELATIONSHIPS. In search of an understanding of the relationships between family and school. School and educational psychology, v. 9, n. 2, p. 303-312, 2005.

H.S, Adhemar. Text: a roadmap for Scientific structure, citations and references of monographic projects. 5ED. revised and expanded. Curitiba: KAPOK, 2012.

MORIN, Edgar. Los siete knowledge necessary for education del futuro. Paris: UNESCO; 1999.

DESSEN, Maria Auxiliadora; POLONIA, a. of c. The family and the school as a human development contexts. Paideia, v. 17, n. 36, p. 21-32, 2007.

PERSON, MARISA; OF CARV, A. DE CARV. CARVALHO, d. e. Modes of education, gender and school-family relations. Research notebooks, v. 34, n. 121, p. 41-58, 2004.

[1] Physical educator from the University of the region of the campaign – URCAMP, post graduated SOGIPA of physical education and master's degree in education from the Universidad de la Empresa-UDE.

[2] Physical educator from the University of the region of the campaign – URCAMP, post graduated Ingá and master's degree in education from the Universidad de la Empresa-UDE.

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