Dyslexia in education: Psychopedagogical Intervention

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PINTO, Ana Cristina Cruz [1]

MATOS, Maria Almerinda Lopes de [2]

PINTO, Ana Cristina Cruz; MATOS, Maria Almerinda Lopes de. Dyslexia in education: Psychopedagogical Intervention. – Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1. Vol. 9. pp 631-649. October/November 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959

SUMMARY

This article has as its focus to demonstrate the role of professional psychology in school and how this can contribute to education with dyslexic students. It is necessary to have a differentiated service in the classroom to recognize the needs of dyslexic students, this service determines the teacher a character of mediator, researcher and agent of equality in the classroom. This study aims to highlight the General learning disorders presented by a student with dyslexia, accompanied by psychopedagogical intervention to overcome these difficulties. The problems of this research was how to make the diagnosis of dyslexia and what are their characteristics and strategies used with dyslexic students? We cover the issues related to dyslexia, using some authors we clarified on what are such disturbances. Also about dyslexia and his signs and characteristics. And then how to assist students with dyslexia, and has been reviewed a study about child dyslexia. Finally it was discussed the forms of psychopedagogical intervention to children with dyslexia, and also the role of the school and the family about children affected by dyslexia. Was analyzed the performance of the pedagogy and professional contributions through interventions, as well as, the psicopedagógicas strategies in a child with dyslexia.

Keywords: Dyslexia. Psychopedagogical intervention. Education.

1. INTRODUCTION

This paper aims to highlight the learning disorders presented by a student with dyslexia, accompanied by psychopedagogical intervention to overcome these difficulties. The theme was chosen, because it is a learning disorder "Dyslexia", which caused us a hiccup in highlighting the problems between the school and the family, considering that this difficulty can occur in any school environment, age group and with respect to different fields of knowledge. Given this, it is considered an important topic to be researched in the graduate, which under the light of literature and concepts about dyslexia, it was possible to explore the learning difficulties.

It is intended to analyse some of these strands within a psychopedagogical approach, and demonstrate the role of professional psychology in school and how this can contribute to education, according to Gonçalves (2005), "much of the psychopedagogical intervention will be to seek the talents of Dyslexic, after all the failures, no doubt, he already knows them well," within this context which will investigate , describe and learn about the causes and consequences, from a psychopedagogical intervention, performed in the child's home, for this investigation was used a case study with a student literacy.

So this study get expected result, made necessary the use of qualitative research, which described the analysis of the data collected, clarifying in a broad view the whole context of the case study in the child's home. Specifically in the classroom. It used the bibliographical research or secondary sources, which covered spare information which had the purpose of putting the browser in direct contact with all that was written, said or spoken. Is phenomenological slant, with descriptive basis about all of the features presented by various authors about dyslexia, containing a range of theoretical foundations, this was developed to provide greater familiarity with the theme showing dyslexia in education: Psychopedagogical Intervention, and this issue is fundamental to education.

In the theoretical framework was approached about the point of view of some authors on learning disorders, and about the definition of Dyslexia, obtained through research in books, digital library and on the internet. Through studies it was found that dyslexia is a disorder that affects most school-age children, and that with a diagnosis and the help of professionals and family the child may develop without major problems.

The reason for this study is the interest in learning difficulties, particularly dyslexia and the need for a diagnosis of children with problems of reading and writing in school everyday to check if you are dyslexic and find ways to work with them to have success in their learning through a psychopedagogical intervention. Became relevant because it helps this student to initiate the use of organization of contents schemes, in particular on matters with a lot of information concepts as well as a narrative or descriptive text. Serving as the basis for future academic work in the field of educational psychology.

2. DYSLEXIA

Dyslexia is a problem detected in children with reading difficulties. Is difficulty learning language feature in spelling, reading, numeracy, social and language written in expressive language.

According to American Psychiatric Associations (2000):

Dyslexia is a specific learning reading disorder, whose main characteristic is the school performance below the expected to the chronological age, intellectual potential and education of the individual. (AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATIONS, 2000).

Dyslexic students, beyond the low academic achievement suffer from social and emotional problems. Has difficulty remembering the name of letters, numbers and colors, swap the phonemes, overlap in time to perform calculations among other factors contributing to the poor performance in the classroom.

3. DYSLEXIA AND HIS SIGNS AND CHARACTERISTICS

There is a lack of resources in most schools, the classrooms are overcrowded and teachers most often do not give account to meet the difficulties of the students individually, making it harder to detect dyslexia in a student.

Children with dyslexia confuse letters and often demonstrate difficulties of words and in the recognition of phonemes and letters.

According to Salgado, Lima and Ciasca:

The main characteristics observed in Dyslexia are: changes in naming speed of verbal material and phonological memory of work, difficulties in phonological awareness (rhyming, phonemic segmentation and transposition), read below the level expected for age and education level, written with phonological and orthographic changes, good performance in arithmetic reasoning, intellectual level in average or above average , neuropsychological deficits in memory, attention, perceptual functions supported visual (problems in the selection and recruitment of cognitive resources needed for the processing of visual information) and executive functions (planning, operating memory, ability to change of cognitive strategies, self perception of errors). (LIMA, R. F.; Salty. C. THE; CIASCA, S. M).

4. HELPING STUDENTS WITH DYSLEXIA

Every effort is valid to teach a Dyslexic student to read and process information much more efficiently. You must use appropriate methods much more efficiently. You must use appropriate methods for dyslexia can be put down.

The role of parents and teachers, is to identify this disorder and seek to understand the way they learn, dyslexia, needs a proper treatment.

In every treatment it is important to emphasize the identification of sounds, reading aloud with the help of an adult to fix them again and again.

According to Tavares (2008):

The teacher should read the child's activities in such a way that he doesn't underestimate his ability. Oral responses are the best of their ability than the written work. The evaluation should be made according to your knowledge and not with its difficulties and its misspellings. (Tavares, 2008, p 22).

The action of the teacher shall be required for the construction of student learning Dyslexic, because that way, understand the specificities of each students, evaluate according to his advances, finally, recognizes these step-by-step progress.

It is important to note that students receive stimuli for all his achievements in learning, so, they're going to creating tactics to make progress in their learning, they can become a lot more confident.

We must also develop other strategies to improve student achievement as: respect the pace of learning, always say that the child is smart and never say she is slow or not smart, work with activities to develop phonological awareness in the classroom, regardless of subject, encourage self-confidence and stop read out loud in front of colleagues so that they are not embarrassed in front of everyone.

5. THE CHILD AND DYSLEXIA

"Thanks to piagetianas theories or haven't seen Dyslexic constructivists as a patient or patient, but as someone that presents difficulty in learning written language at the time of the writing system (fairly complex) and with the speakers of your native language (marked by regional diversity, for example).

Most of the diagnoses of dyslexia cases usually occurs in children at school age. According to surveys, 20 percent of the children suffer from dyslexia, what do they have great difficulty in learning to read, write and spell. But that doesn't mean they are less intelligent, unlike many of them present a degree of normal intelligence or even superior to the majority of the population.

EStill (2005) stresses that it is necessary to have a special attention to children who like to chat, are curious, understand and speak well, but appear to lack of interest in reading and writing. According to her, it would be interesting, in the case of children readers, offer the same mathematical problem, written and oral, and compare the answers, often found different answers, correct in oral question on the same question written and incorrect.

It is important and necessary that parents and educators are aware that a high number of children suffers from dyslexia, and must learn to identify the signs that indicate that a child is Dyslexic, and no lazy, unintelligent or malcomportada. For this we will look at some forms of intervention, what is the role of the school of the parents and teachers regarding child Dyslexic.

6. PSYCHOPEDAGOGICAL INTERVENTION

According to the Portuguese Association of Dyslexia, founded in 2000, which aims to promote research in the area of dyslexia, train professionals better able and intervene in children, young people and adult dyslexics, intervention in children with dyslexia can start with the formation specifies educators with respect to knowledge of the field of pedagogy, didactics and special pedagogy. Can also be made a case assessment steps, analysis of data on school history, do the follow up of the child, through work aimed at better self-esteem and academic achievement of the child, also monitoring of parents in order to explain and advise on the problem, with the help of parents propose activities of reeducation and preventive intervention , and also the early assessment.

According to Gonçalves (2005), a large part of the psychopedagogical intervention will be to seek the talents of Dyslexic, after all the failures, no doubt, he knows them well. Another task of the psychopedagogical clinic is to help this person find compensatory modes of learning. Games, shared readings, specific activities to develop writing and memory and attention skills are part of the process of intervention. As the Dyslexic know capable of producing process can advance learning and start the rescue their self-esteem.

In children dyslexia reading needs to be taught, through appropriate methods and treatment with attention and affection dyslexia can be defeated. The sooner you start treatment less difficulties they will have to learn to read. Dyslexia cannot go unnoticed because it is not healed without a proper treatment, when treated early, children outweigh the problems and resemble those that never had any learning disorder.

Various programmes have been developed to cure dyslexia, most treatments emphasizes assimilation of phonemes, Word development, to improve understanding and fluency in reading. These treatments help the Dyslexic to recognize sounds, syllables, words and phrases. You can make the child Dyslexic read aloud with an adult so you can correct it, to do so, it is important to remember that this process is laborious and requires a lot of attention and repetition, but that certainly will yield good results.

According to Snowhing et al. (2007, p. 251), the various forms of existing intervention, the combination of training in phonological awareness with the systematic reading instruction is apparently the most efficient, but it will depend in a large part of the difference of each individual variations such as age, levels of phonological processing, if the child has difficulty speaking and currents of language, Visual and semantic skills , among others.

With respect to who should carry out the intervention in children with dyslexia, a lot will depend on the age of the child and of the symptoms presented, because the management team changes over time, depending on how to develop the child's difficulties, but traditionally, educators have been more involved in the management of children with specific learning difficulties. (Snowhing et al., 2007, p. 252). Therefore it is necessary to the knowledge of the education professionals regarding dyslexia and how to act when the child is Dyslexic.

7. THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL

The school is seen as the first time the child is concretely, inserted in society, after being a member of the nuclear family. But unfortunately we realized that the traditional school has not been able to meet even the students who are in normal conditions, is even more difficult to deal with those who have a learning disorder such as dyslexia.

For Piaget (1990), the student is a guy who compares, delete, ordering, categorizes. Recasts, formulates hypotheses, rearranges, rebuilds and constructs, in action (thinking), or internalized in effective action, according to their level of development. For Vygotsky (1987), is the guy who builds everyday relations world readings necessary for the response of his time.

For the school, the student is not the starting point for learning. However, the level of the subject's cognitive development is variable important in determining their assimilationist, one of the major problems in the teaching of the schools is to treat different people equally. Although the construction of rigid curricula and contents previously established easier, this is not the ideal proposal, since not all children can follow the same curriculum. It is necessary to work to create educational projects incorporating diversity in decision-making. A way to meet the diversity among children would make a survey among the students, as psychomotor tests, easiness, learning level evaluation and others, in order to meet the characteristics of individual students and prevent the development or intensification of possible learning disorders.

For students who have specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia, the school needs to provide for extra time to support them, this support needs to be understood by them as a gift and not as a punishment, it is necessary for the student to understand that the construction of knowledge is done in stages, and to skip these steps or do them inappropriately not enable them to reach new stages.

The school can perform some actions in order to promote the development of every child considering the peculiarities of each of them as, for example: carry out adjustments in the classroom including the assignment of special places, alternative or modified school tasks and evaluation procedures also modified; purchase of special equipment; creation of special education strategies with different schedules and methods geared to the child's difficulties specifies; Special attention to children with learning disorders; teaching materials and playful jokes, work with the respect of the students for children facing disturbances are not discriminated against or labelled by others; greater availability of didactic material; professional preparation of teachers; support psychology, among other actions that will contribute to the better development of children.

The joke to Vygotsky, "your child learns a lot when playing. Which apparently she does just to distract or waste energy is actually an important tool to develop cognitive, emotional, social, psychological "(1979, p. 45).

One can see that through the words of the author to the importance in the life of the child and the need that the child must be respected while play, because your world is mutant and is in permanent oscillation between fantasy and reality.

According to Ribeiro (2008, p. 49) when the teacher receives a Dyslexic student in the classroom, should above all be aware that he is a smart student and able to learn. The teacher must first focus on multi-sensorial teaching/learning methods, given that students with this disorder learn best through different sensory modalities. Secondly, the teacher must promote a positive view of reading, since this is the most frustrating for Dyslexics. Third, the teacher should seek to minimize the effect that the diagnosis of dyslexia can cause the child and others, which may affect the self-esteem of the child. Fourth, there must be a correct reading standards, to serve as a model for the child with dyslexia, and there should also be a reinforcement by teachers, of the fundamental reading skills, since this is the basis of the problem of children with dyslexia.

According to Ribeiro (2008), through the use of reading, a child will have the potential to develop a bigger motivation for reading. It is important to remember that what is transmitted to the child should have a meaningful context, since the child Dyslexic has trouble retaining information, but if it is taught in a significant context for it, will be more likely to remember the content. Rhymes and songs are excellent resources for students with dyslexia learn lyrics, rhymes and songs using repeating patterns which makes reading is enjoyable and accessible to children with dyslexia.

With exercises to develop perceptual domains, language and motor skills, will allow the child, can improve their performance in reading and writing, and improve school performance. The AND (National Association of Dyslexia), also shows some tips and helpful hints for teachers, it is important that the school and the teacher encourages the student to restore confidence in herself, appreciating what he likes and does well done, the teacher can also highlight the successes, to value the effort and interest, assigning him tasks that can make the student feel useful , talk about their difficulties, respect the student's pace, and show interest in him as a person, these tips can help Dyslexic child to develop.

The evaluation is another aspect that children with dyslexia have difficulties, since they can't read all the words of the questions of the test and are not certain about what is asking for the test, they have difficulties in writing the answers and can't finish before within the stipulated time. For both the teacher can read the questions along with the student so that he understands what was asked, give time to take the test with easy, to collect the evidence check the answers and confirm with the student what he meant with that wrote their answers, noting and enhance the student's production, because apparently meaningless phrases and incomplete words do not represent concepts or wrong information , and can also perform oral assessments, and in this way facilitate your learning. But it is important that there is also the concurrent tracking of parents and educators in the development of children with dyslexia.

8. THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY

The family is a fundamental structure for the development of any child. And plays a key role in the process of teaching a child with dyslexia, and provides you with various and alternative instruments in language acquisition.

If necessary a differentiated and multidisciplinary work, as well as the cooperation of family members, friends and teachers for this individual is included and you can perform all activities so full and not feel differentiated by having a particular difficulty as a result of such disorder, because this difficulty cannot imprison him to perform such actions

The AND (National Association of Dyslexia), provides some suggestions for how parents can help their children with dyslexia. One of the ways is to be positive and find out everything you can about the development of children, seeking professional help when necessary, develop a good relationship with teachers and seek ways to help. Help the child to do things for themselves, will help in its autonomy, teach him to better organize time, be patient with respect to the progress the child do can also be of help. It is also important that parents pay attention because the child Dyslexic can often be called stupid or lazy, be late for appointments, have frustrations in schoolwork, and parents can help them win most of these disappointments since they realize in time, since the child Dyslexic makes a great effort in school, may be more tired and parents can assist for her to have a lazy day , it's good to remember that although the child with dyslexia need much attention, it's not good to give more attention to her than to his other family members.

To help in practical way, parents can read to their children, regardless of age, since many Dyslexics don't understand what they're reading. Help him develop some interest I may have for art in General, such as theater, music, watch TV, videos with the child and then talk about what they saw, encourage the free activities and praise, motivate and encourage self-confidence and self-esteem of the child, that way the parents will be a great help and will help in education and development of these children.

9. THE ROLE OF THE STUDENT

It is known that the schools have difficulties in promoting the learning of children with difficulties and learning disorders and that the institutional finance is a professional prepared to support this type of institution in relation to the diversity of students, with it we will examine how the student can interfere in this reality, that the school failed to improve.

The role of the Counselor is to act, always focusing on student learning and not his problem, maybe this is the mistake of educational institutions to try to intervene in the problems of their students.

The objective that all educational pedagogy education professionals, whereas directors, teachers and pedagogical coordinators rethink the role of the school facing the difficulties of children and the various factors involved in a learning situation. (OSTI; JULIUS; TORREZIN; SILVEIRA, p. 1, 2005).

The work of a student is directly related to the teaching-learning process, in which are involved: the teacher and the student.

With respect to the role of Pedagogy Sanchez and Soares (2012, p. 1) define the best way:

The role of Pedagogy and education is to establish paths between opposites that links know and don't know and these actions should happen in the context of the individual, the group, the institution and the community, with a view to learning and, therefore, it is also the task of the educational psychology.

With this definition becomes clearer the role of computers in the school institution, and may in aid in making decisions in the course of his career. With this definition and with the help of big names of psychology and Pedagogy is that can build do psychology.

9.1 interventions and psicopedagógicas strategies in children with dyslexia

The term dyslexia comes from the Greek dys-, which means difficulty, and-lexia meaning: Word, therefore, dyslexia = difficulty with the word. According to Capretz (2012) it can be acquired or since birth and is neurological in origin. It is not a problem associated with the attention or memory, is neurological and genetic.

Dyslexia is one of the most learning disorders. To explain better what is dyslexia Birth, Birth, Santana and Barbosa (p. 2, 2011) complete:

[..]Dyslexia is a specific disorder, being characterized by difficulty in accurate and/or fluent word reading, writing and the skills of decoding, interfering in the expansion of vocabulary and general knowledge, when compare subjects with all preserved and other skills with reading and writing disorders with the same age, schooling and level of intelligence.

It is important to note that people with dyslexia have normal intellectual level, as well as Birth, Santana and Barbosa (p. 2, 2011)[..]: "present intellectual potential average or even higher, and does not have any kind of sensory deficit or neurological disabilities.

Being a condition, or disorder, reading and writing is usually noticed in children in literacy, or soon after this phase is over, when parents and teachers note that the child is not keeping up with the class and not alfabetizou.

Psychopedagogical intervention, before being applied should be planned, as well as all the work. Part of psychopedagogical intervention strategies and methodologies suitable for each case and for each person. In the case of Dyslexics is no different, the Counselor should plan the means by which he will promote student learning, and second Capretz (2012) the best way of working with a Dyslexic is exploring multi-sensory learning with the playful, IE using other channels other than the vision, for example, walking with the child on a letter Let her interact with the tactile box, make Jell-o in the form of the letters, make a soup of letters, blindfold the child to her trying to figure out with the finger in the shape of any letter or Word, paste or string beans on top of the letter etc. But it is highly recommended by the author "out of paper" and switch activities with noodles and orality, for example, the student focus is student learning, with that we should not focus all our work on the problem, but rather, as the words hit us complements:

It is common to pay more attention to the difficulties, as they leap to the eye with more evidence that the potential. We can start thinking about the difficulty of learning by students ' successes. Thus, experiencing some success, we can open a door to building a positive link with other areas of learning that our student needs to improve. Let's discover the talents of our students and focus on them. (SILVA, p. 2, 2013).

All these suggestions are playful shapes, because the work of the Counselor is and should be fun for the child to develop with other sensory means. Obviously you cannot also do only these options presented, ideally merge always, for which the child is introduced to the world of letters without notice.

METHODOLOGY

This study can be considered as qualitative, because there's no way interest measure variables, because its purpose is related to the understanding and interpretation of the process, being necessary the use of statistics, because, it allows to work with and feelings of those involved in the study, because, according to Minayo (1994, p. 21; p 22):

The qualitative research responds to very particular issues. She worries, in the social sciences, with a level of reality that cannot be quantified, that is, she works with the universe of meanings, motives, aspirations, beliefs, values and attitudes, which corresponds to a deeper space relations, processes and phenomena that cannot be reduced to the operationalization of variables.

In this work, we used the Foundation of phenomenological method. Second Prodanov and Cristiano (2013) p. 36 "is to show what is given and in illuminating this data". "It does not explain by laws or deducts from principles, believes what is present to consciousness: the object" (GIL, 2008. p. 14).

As for the technical procedures used for the formation of this work, we will use the bibliographical study that will focus on theoretical contributions of several authors who performed articles and dissertations and theses on the child with dyslexia. As Malik (2000, p. 28): "it is therefore a study to learn about the scientific contributions on the topic, aiming to collect, select, analyze and interpret the existing theoretical contributions on the phenomenon researched".

The data from this study were analyzed by means of the "descriptive research that aims to describe the characteristics of a population or phenomenon or establishment of relations between variables Pro[…]danov and Cristiano (2013, p. 98) that describes the interpretation and classification of data collected during the literature search.

Was also performed a case study, which, as Gil (2008, p. 58), "is characterized by deep and thorough study of one or a few objects, in a way that allows large and detailed knowledge", at the child's home.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The learning disabilities and language changes can be diverse, although studies indicate that neurological factors are the main causes.

Need to get knowledge about dyslexia for dyslexic students to service, since that way your learning be guided by professionals in the area of education and health along with family support.

The teacher must develop pedagogical actions for dyslexic students to enhance their educational and personal development.

We must develop strategies so that these students can understand the content through games, materials that stimulate their interest. The staff of schools should be prepared to receive that child and learn to diagnose this disorder. Being necessary to monitor and intervene psychology professionals, aiming to meet the child with dyslexia.

And one of the main learning disorder dyslexia is characterized by learning disorder in the area of reading, writing and spelling, and as research conducted in this work it was found that dyslexia is also genetic and hereditary, so if the child present some symptoms are difficulty with language and writing, difficulties in copying of books and slate , exchange of letters in handwriting, confusion between left and right, good performance in oral evidence, etc., it is important to seek help through appropriate professionals, because the sooner you make the diagnosis and treatment of dyslexic children better their development and prevent disorders the school life of the child.

The acting educational institutions psychopedagogical is important especially in the prevention of problems and learning disorders, because since it prevents the need to treat, which greatly facilitates the process of teaching and learning at school. Every school should rely on educational psychologists on their staff.

When working with students with dyslexia there are a number of ways, methodologies and strategies for use with this specific disorder of reading and writing, but if the student does not have the ability to note that every case is different, he will not succeed in their profession and in their care.

It is vital that educators are aware of dyslexia and learning disorders so that they can make the correct diagnosis and intervene in the right way, thus making the student, a fellow independent and self-sufficient. It is important to remember that being Dyslexic is human condition and each has their way of being and to learn, and it is the responsibility of the educator help in the way of student learning.

So, know that dyslexia is not a disease, but a disorder, not contagious and capable of intervention, is the first step to understanding and demystification of this vast, complex and contradictory universe of Dyslexic.

It's a job that deserves lots of love and dedication on the part of the teacher, but you have to realize in the course of the way forward in the construction of their learning, under guidance, of course, the teacher's pedagogical practice to understand dyslexia.

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Read more at: http://www.webartigos.com/artigos/o-papel-do-psicopedagogo-suas-intervencoes-e-estrategias-em-alunos-com-dislexia/120569/#ixzz3iXNsdPnb

[1] He holds a Bachelor's degree in pedagogy from the Federal University of the Amazon (1997) and master's degree in education from the Universidade Federal do Amazonas (2008). He is currently Professor at the College of Manaus, a professor at the Federal University of Amazonas and coordinator of the Metropolitan College of Manaus, working mainly on the following theme: production, domain, rules

[2] He is currently a professor at the Faculty of education of the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM/FACED) in category 4 Level Deputy, linked to theories and Fundamentals (FTD). Is founding Coordinator of the Center for studies and research in educational psychology (NEPPD), a researcher of the study group and public policy Research and education (GPPE/UFAM). Part of the Brazilian Association of Autism (OPEN), Member of the Brazilian Society of Psychomotricity (ABP), Brazilian Association of researchers also in special education (ABPEE).

He holds a degree in Pedagogy from the Federal University of Amazonas (1997) and a Masters in Education from the Federal University of Amazonas (2008). She is currently a professor at the Metropolitan Faculty of Manaus, a professor at the Federal University of Amazonas and coordinator of the Metropolitan Faculty of Manaus, working mainly on the following subject: production, domain, rules

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