MOURA, Anaisa Alves de. Et al. Training of hearing teachers in the teaching-learning process of deaf students. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 05, Vol. 02, pp. 117-130. May 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/deaf-students
The main objective of this article is to discuss the importance of teacher training in the use of the Brazilian Sign Language – Libras, from the perspective of inclusive education, which is based on decree no. 5,626/05 and which provides for the mandatory discipline of Libras in the curriculum of undergraduate courses, as well as understanding the teaching in the teaching-learning process and highlighting the importance of this language in the context of bilingual education. Law No. 10,436/02 shows us that Libras belongs to the deaf community, but there are some difficulties, such as the lack of training of hearing teachers, the unpreparedness of these professionals in meeting the needs of deaf students and the lack of adequate methodologies in the teaching-learning process. The methodology was used exclusively for bibliographic research, through research in scientific journals, articles, dissertations, theses and books, considering the theoretical analysis of authors such as Menezes (2006), Pereira (2000), Quadros (2000), Sánchez (1989), Gallagher (1996), Antunes (2012) , Libâneo (1998), among others. At the end of this study, it is concluded that the training of hearing teachers is fundamental in the learning process of deaf students so that there is in fact an inclusive and egalitarian education for this community.
Keywords: Libras, teaching-learning, deaf, training, hearing teachers.
In the current scope of Brazilian education, the school should be the place of development promotion if its students, without distinction, as well as respect for the diversity and particularities of its students in their pedagogical practice. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance a study that discusses the teaching-learning process of the Brazilian Sign Language, focusing on the preparation of educators for the performance of pedagogical practices with deaf students so that these professionals understand their role and can thus offer quality teaching to their students.
Based on this perspective, this article aims to analyze aspects related to the importance of the qualification of hearing teachers in the teaching-learning process of deaf students, through the Brazilian Sign Language – Libras from the perspective of bilingualism. Another aspect highlighted is the mandatory language in undergraduate courses, a fact that meant a great achievement for the deaf community.
When referring to the pedagogical practice of teachers in the teaching and learning process, it is important to highlight the importance of using Libras in the educational environment as L1, so that the Portuguese language as L2 is later included for deaf students, a presupposition that is present in law 10,436 and provides for the performance and training of teachers in the teaching of Libras. But we know that in practice, there are many factors that hinder the development of a quality education for deaf students. One of them is the use of the same methodology of hearing students for the deaf: explanatory and explanatory classes on the board, what is the result of the unpreparedness of teachers to deal with this public and that instead of including leads to the growth of the inclusion of said students, which leads the study to raise the following problem: what damage can the absence of the use of Libras cause in the learning of deaf students?
Thus, including deaf students in regular school requires great care and involves challenges to educators, especially in interaction and communication with this audience. In addition to providing the necessary subsidies for learning, it is necessary to know the deaf identity, its specificities in so that teaching methodologies that promote full development in social and cultural aspects are achieved. In this regard, Saviani states that
To discuss and present the information, this study consists of a Bibliographic Review through sources such as: books, articles, academic papers, scientific journals, websites and others that discuss the theme, in which the theoretical considerations of the author cited above stand out, as well as authors such as Menezes (2006), Pereira (2000); Tables (2000), Sánchez (1989); Gallagher (1996); Antunes (2012), Libâneo (1998), among others.
The motivation for this work is due to the author’s professional desire to act in the teaching of deaf students using Libras as the mediation language in order to offer a significant learning to the target audience, based on bilingual education.
Therefore, the article was divided as well: initially the abstract, soon after the introduction, giving continuity, was addressed about the Brazilian Sign Language; then the importance of this language for the learning of the deaf in regular school and the role of the teacher in the teaching-learning process. Soon after, he discussed bilingualism in the education of the deaf to later comment on the teaching of the Portuguese language to deaf students and the importance of Libras in teacher training. Finally, libras was required to be required in undergraduate courses, followed by final considerations and bibliographic references.
2. THE BRAZILIAN SIGN-LIBRAS LANGUAGE
Law No. 10,436 of April 24, 2002 provides for the Brazilian Sign Language – Libras, recognizing it as a means of communication and expression for the deaf community, in which it states:
The Brazilian Sign Language is understood as Libras the form of communication and expression in which the linguistic system of visual-motor nature, with its own grammatical structure, constitutes a linguistic system of transmission of ideas and facts, coming from communities of deaf people in Brazil. […]
Art. 2º – It should be guaranteed, by the public authorities in general and concessionaires of public services, institutionalized ways of supporting the use and dissemination of the Brazilian Sign Language – Libras as a means of objective communication and current use of deaf communities in Brazil. (BRASIL, 2002)
It is important to know the historical trajectory of Libras and its emergence. In this regard Menezes (2006) mentions that Brazil was still a Portuguese colony ruled by Emperor Pedro II when the Sign Language for the deaf landed in the country, more precisely in Rio de Janeiro.
In 1856, the French Count Ernest Huet landed in the capital of Rio de Janeiro with the French alphabet and some signs. The material brought by the count, who was deaf, gave rise to the Brazilian Sign Language (Libras). The first organ in Brazil to develop works with deaf and dumb appeared in 1857. It was the then Institute of the Deaf-Mute so, now the National Institute of Deaf Education (INES), that the main disseminators of Libras came out. The iconography of the signs, that is, the creation of symbols, was only presented in 1873 by the deaf student Flausino José da Gama. It is the result of the mixture of French Sign Language with ancient Brazilian Sign Language, already used by the deaf of the various regions of Brazil.
Libras plays an important cognitive and structural function for its speakers, therefore, in Pereira’s view (2000), sign language fulfills the same functions that spoken language has for listeners. As with hearing children, it is expected that sign language will be acquired in the interaction with fluent users of the same, who, involving deaf children in discursive practices and interpreting the utterances produced by them, are inserted in the functioning of this language.
The Brazilian sign language also plays a role in the acquisition of reading and writing, since it will enable deaf people to know the world and make them understand what they read, making them more than mere decoding of signs. Skliar (1997) argues that it is necessary a model in which the hearing deficit does not fulfill any relevant role, a model that originates and is justified in the normal and usual interactions of the deaf among themselves, in which sign language is the fundamental trait of sociocultural identification and in which the pedagogical model is not an obsession to correct the deficit , but the continuation of a compensation mechanism that the deaf themselves have historically shown to use.
2.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING LIBRAS IN THE LEARNING OF THE DEAF IN REGULAR SCHOOL
There are many discussions about the teaching of the Brazilian Sign Language in the regular school and the role of the school and all those involved in the teaching-learning process in this context. Regarding this aspect Ferrão and Lobato (2016) mention that schools need to organize themselves to have an environment with an appropriate linguistic context for the Deaf, seeking a success in their education, for this schools must realize that sign language, being the official language of the deaf community, is a guarantee of the right of the deaf to use their natural language.
Also according to these authors, the lack of professional qualification of educators makes them feel unprepared to act in the teaching process for deaf students, a fact that hinders the learning of these students. For them among the educational proposals for the improvement of deaf schooling is teacher education, however, it is not simple to qualify teachers, especially in the current socio-political context. The teacher questions the lack of space and appropriate material resources; the need for sufficient technical staff and adequate remuneration so that it can keep up to date and qualified
Therefore, it is essential to insert Libras in the educational process of the deaf, which implies, according to Domingos (2014, p. 77) “in its development and linguistic and cognitive progress, in the ease of learning oral languages; in better reading and understanding of written texts and in significant favoritism for their written production.”
2.2 THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER
The teacher has an extremely important role in the teaching-learning process of the deaf student. In this regard, it is important to emphasize that the teacher should be able to conceive himself as an agent of changes in the social context, since his role goes beyond the mere transfer of knowledge, being, above all, that of forming citizens. “His performance is committed to the conditions of the school and the quality of its academic training. It is he, the teacher, the authority responsible for the teaching process – learning of his students” (MEC 1993, apud PIRES, 2005, p. 15).
With regard to the teacher’s training for the teaching of Libras to deaf students, it is important that this, by appropriating this context, according to Motta and Gediel (2016, p. 59-60) “has the ability to build appropriate methodologies to achieve the purpose of teaching and learning considering the cultural difference between listeners and deaf people in the educational space”.
Therefore, it is essential that teachers know and stimulate the use of Libras in the teaching-learning process of the deaf.
3. BILINGUALISM IN THE EDUCATION OF DEAF STUDENTS
Bilingualism is the main presupposition of the need for the deaf to become bilingual, that is, to appropriate sign language as a mother tongue (L1) and the oral language used in their country of origin as a second language (L2). In this perspective, Damázio (2007) states: “The educational approach through Bilingualism aims to empower the deaf person to use two languages in everyday school and social life […]”.
Still with regard to the insertion of bilingualism in regular school adds Moura (1996 apud Gonçalves; Festa, 2013, p. 98) that “the specific ways of seeing, perceiving, establishing relationships and values of the Deaf should be used in their education, which together with the cultural group of listeners result in their own society”.
There are, however, divergences regarding the insertion of deaf students in regular school, because for many this community is the margin of the learning process, a fact that contributes to social exclusion. Others believe that when the student comes to have contact with the regular school environment and lives with other students he develops cognitively.
On the divergence mentioned above, Quadros (2000, p.54) states that “When I refer to bilingualism, I am not establishing a dichotomy, but rather recognizing the languages involved in the daily lives of the deaf, that is, the Brazilian Sign Language and Portuguese in the most common context of Brazil.”
When it comes to bilingual education for deaf students, it is evident that all members of the school community are aware of their roles in the teaching-learning process. However, for this to happen, it is necessary to qualify educators, because as Albres (2010 apud Martins, 2012, p. 99) states: “there is a need for the training of the Libras […] teacher, teachers specialized in teaching the Portuguese language, as a second language for deaf people […]”
In this sense, Lerner (2002, p. 65) adds that “the challenge facing the school today is to get all its students to be full members of the community of readers and writers”
4. THE TEACHING OF PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE FOR DEAF STUDENTS
Most of the time, the teaching of Libras to deaf students in regular school takes place using the same methodology applied to listeners, with the same materials, thus restricting the knowledge of the Portuguese language to the study of reduced vocabulary and phrases made. Regarding this assumption Terzi (1995, p. 51) comments that: “(…) the emphasis on the decoding of words regardless of their meaning creates, in school, a pseudo language to speak of writing, producing a rupture both in the development of the student’s oral language and in written language.”
For deaf students to write and read properly, it is necessary for them to have knowledge of the world, so that they can reestablish a contextualization with the writing and thus derive meaning. Regarding the reading of deaf students Friães and Pereira (2000) argue that deaf students have great difficulty reading makes teachers avoid the activity and, thus, reading becomes increasingly difficult, limiting themselves to small texts, facilitated, both semantically and synthetically, impoverished and often not adapted to the interest of students.
Many education professionals believe that the deaf learn through simpler lexical structures, so they can gradually progress to a more advanced level of structures. However, as Sánchez (1989, p. 125) (…) “the deaf, differently than the listeners, cannot learn the sound of the letters because they do not hear and cannot make use of the alphabetic mechanism to extract meaning from the writing.”
When analyzing this citation, it is evident that the teaching of the Portuguese language is inserted in the literacy process of deaf children, because in this way they will have contact with the language in a functional way, from objects known by them they will make the association between image and word. About this association Moreira (2017, p. 133) “the recognition of the existence of a second language is strengthened in the associations made by children through visual situations (images or signs, signs in Libras).”
In this context, the teacher gains a new role, as Pereira (2014) points out, arguing that the teacher ceases to occupy the main role in the teaching-learning process, from knowledge holder, to assume the role of partner, helping each student to progress in learning. Therefore, from the previous knowledge regarding L1 of deaf students (The Brazilian Sign Language) the teacher will support their pedagogical practice.
Still on the role of the teacher in the acquisition of the Portuguese language for the deaf, in the view of Gatti (2014) the teacher certainly has a decisive role to play in this scenario the possibility of helping in the construction of a human civilization of well-being for all”.
4.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF LIBRAS IN TEACHER TRAINING
In view of inclusive education, which seeks the promotion of an egalitarian school, where everyone has access to teaching, it becomes evident the need for the inclusion of the Brazilian Sign Language in the education of educators, so that these professionals direct their pedagogical practice in human and cultural diversity.
This statement is present in the CNE/CEB Resolution in Article 2:
The education systems must enroll all students, and it is up to the schools to organize themselves to serve students with special needs, ensuring the necessary conditions for a quality education for all (BRASIL, 2001, p. 15).
Moran (2013, p. 33) adds that “quality education is an innovative, open, dynamic, participatory education that integrates well-prepared teachers, and aims at differentiated care for the student, in which skills and limitations are observed and analyzed”
Libras plays a fundamental role, because together with deaf culture it is a leading element in the construction of the pedagogical practice of educators. Therefore, in order to provide the necessary subsidies for the learning of students, teachers must have mastery of the lexical and structural structures of that language, as well as diversified methodologies to meet the specificities of each student, as Vitaliano, Maria Canazza, Dall’Acqua, Sonia Dechandt (2010) “The process of inclusion of deaf students in the common classes of regular education impresses the need for teachers to master the least of Libras”
Many people have an erroneous view of Libras because they believe that this language is composed only of gestures or mimes: For Ray Jackendoff (1994 apud PIZZIO; QUADROS; REZENDE, 2009, p.9)
The most important thing I want to highlight is that ASL is a language. Of course, it seems to be completely different from other languages already known as English, Russian and Japanese. This means that transmission is not through the vocal tract creating acoustic signals that are detected by the interlocutor through hearing. Instead, flag gestures create signals that are detected by the interlocutor through the visual system. […] The peripheral system is different, but the inherent activity is the same (JACKENDOFF 1994 apud PIZZIO; QUADROS; REZENDE, 2009, p.9)
From this statement we realize that Libras is more than a mere language of gestures is a language with its own lexical and structural structure, of visual and gestural nature.
5. THE OBLIGATION OF LIBRAS IN UNDERGRADUATE COURSES
Teachers need to be prepared to deal with deaf students, but many still use traditional methodologies through explanatory and explanatory classes on the board. According to Antunes (2012, p. 79) “The teacher needs to think about strategies that contemplate the visual perception of deaf students; understand the culture in which this subject is inserted; understand how it assimilates content.”
James Gallagher (1996) draws our attention to the fact that the teaching-learning process of deaf children is compromised and they have difficulties in producing the language that is imposed on him, therefore, children with hearing impairment present some of the most difficult and challenging problems for special education. Hearing loss interferes both in the reception of language and in its production. Because language interferes in virtually all dimensions of development, the inability to listen and speak is a critical deficiency, which can hinder social and academic adjustment.
Presidential Decree No. 5626/2005 regulated, in addition to other actions, the issue of teaching Libras as a compulsory course in teacher training courses.Regarding this inclusion Cunha (2007) mentions that in order to eliminate this deficiency of linguistically trained teachers, public policies come into force in order to ensure that the Brazilian Sign Language effectively functions “as a means of objective communication and the current use of deaf communities in Brazil”, as expressed in Law No. 10,436, 2002.
Based on the above statement, it becomes evident that in addition to the inclusion of Libras in undergraduate courses, it is necessary to prepare teachers in the teaching of deaf students, especially for hearing teachers, as Deonísio Schmitt (2008, p. 39) points out, “[…] it is necessary to expand the Course of Sign Language in schools […] so that listeners understand deaf culture, identity and deaf movements. ”
Through Decree No. 5,626/2005, we became aware of the institutions in which the Brazilian Sign Language should be a mandatory curricular component:
Art. 3º Libras should be inserted as a compulsory curricular discipline in teacher training courses for the exercise of teaching, at secondary and higher level, and in speech therapy courses, public and private educational institutions, the federal education system and the education systems of the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities (BRASIL, 2005, 34).
For other courses, Libras should be offered in an elective manner, as provided by the legislation:
Art. 2º Libras will be an optional curricular discipline in other higher education courses and professional education, one year after the publication of this Decree (BRASIL, 2005, p. 33).
From the perspective of the school inclusion of students with Special Educational Needs (NEE), Almeida and Vitaliano (2012) mentions the great importance of teacher training in LIbras and one can no longer ignore the different learning conditions of students who integrate the education system, in order to provide them with quality education.
According to the authors mentioned above, emphasis is placed only on the inclusion of deaf students in school, but not on the quality of the teaching that is given to them. Therefore Ferreira (2003) adds that the deaf subject is not only of biological order, as is usually thought. It is linguistic and therefore cultural. It can’t be denied that the deaf have a hearing impairment. However, when he is heeded by the proper equipment, he can hear street noises, music, etc. However, he does not hear with due clarity the sounds of the “oral” language and does not have the linguistic feedback, so important in the process of acquiring a language. And the delay in linguistic development causes delay in cognitive development.
Still with regard to quality in the education of the deaf Brzezinski (2008) presents us with the concept of social quality. According to her words she
[…] based on the historical-social conception and whose educational paradigm is the relations between culture, society and education […] being the process marked by the complexity of knowledge, criticism, reflection-action, creativity, the recognition of the identity of those involved in the processes and the relationships established in the mediation between trainers and learners (BRZEZINSKI, 2008, p. 1141-1142).
According to the citation above, it is perceived the importance of changing the educational context in which the community is inserted, through reflection on the cultural and social identity of this population, however, it is known that there are documents that support the education of the deaf, which is composed of the set of laws called Public Policies and their implementation, there is a great gap.
With public education policies in the area of deaf education, it is no different. There is a law for accessibility that guarantees interpreter of Sign Language / Portuguese Language during classes, flexibility in the correction of written tests, information materials to teachers about the specificities of deaf student etc. But in practice, what is perceived is the deaf student more excluded than included in regular classrooms, facing difficulties, which often their family members try to minimize, seeking solutions that are not always efficient to help them. On the other hand, teachers, mostly without minimal knowledge of Libras and sometimes subsumed by an exhaustive workload, do not have time to seek continued training in the area.
There is a large gap between the legal documents that support the education of the deaf and the public policies necessary for their implementation. They also state that, most of the time, the inclusion of deaf people in the educational process ends up generating even more exclusion of these in society.
According to Libâneo (1998, p. 79), “continuing education contributes to a reflexive action of teachers”, because it is through it that educators will rethink their pedagogical practice, thus contributing to an improvement of the activities developed in the school context. In this regard, Behrens (1996, p. 91) adds that “In the search for continuing education it is necessary for professionals who believe that education is a path to social transformation”
6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
At the end of this research it can be concluded that the training of hearing teachers for the teaching-learning process of deaf students is of fundamental importance, since most of these professionals are not prepared to deal with this audience and often apply methodological activities equal to those of hearing students.
Another point to be highlighted is the relevance of the Brazilian Sign Language, which should be included in the educational process of the deaf as L1 so that later the Portuguese language is considered as L2.
It was evidenced, from the theoretical analysis of the authors studied, that the lack of use of Libras in the regular education system of deaf students causes losses in the teaching-learning process of these students. These damages could be avoided if there was a greater engagement of education professionals with this type of training, thus characterizing the relevance of the presence of trained teachers in school environments that welcome deaf students.
Therefore, in view of the analysis on the theme under study, it is stated that the objectives proposed by this work were achieved and that the intention of the author to acquire more information about the theme studied was completed. However, it is reiterated that the conclusion of this article does not contain in itself the observations referring to the teaching-learning process of the Brazilian Sign Language in regular education.
It is expected, therefore, that this study will cause hearing teachers who attend deaf students to be motivated to qualify in this language so that these students actually are included.
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 PhD in Education – ULHT – Lisbon/Portugal (2018). Master’s degree in Educational Sciences. Specialist in School Management, Special Education, Distance Education, Institutional Psychopedagogy, Clinical and Hospital and Licensed in Pedagogy. Professor researcher at CAPES since 2013. He is currently part of the group of Studies and Autobiographical Narrative Research of CNPq.
 Specialist in Pounds by the Evangelical College of Piauí – FAEPI. Graduated in Letters with qualification in English language from the State University Vale do Acaraú – UVA. Teacher and coordinator at José Martins de Sousa School – Alcântaras – CE.
 PhD in Education – ULHT – Lisbon/Portugal (2018). Master in Teacher Education and Training with a focus on Inclusive Education. Specialist in Tutoring and Distance Education and Teaching in Higher Education (UNINTA) and Graduated in Pedagogy from the State University Vale do Acaraú – UVA. She is currently professor and Pro-Rector of Institutional Development at the UNINTA University Center and responds as Institutional Prosecutor.
 Academic of the psychology course of the 8th semester at Faculdade Luciano Feijão (FLF) – Sobral-CE. Line of research focused on the theme Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the school environment.
 Academic of the Social Work course of the 8th semester at the Northern University of Paraná – UNOPAR – Polo Sobral-CE. Line of research focused on risk and vulnerability groups. He is currently a Personnel Assistant – IGS – Institute for Health Management.
Sent: April, 2020.
Approved: May, 2020.