LEME FILHO, Miguel Arcanjo; GARCIA, Clarice Aparecida Alencar. The Deaf in society listener: A case of inclusion or exclusion?. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 06, vol. 07, pp. 97-107, June 2018. ISSN:2448-0959
This research aims to verify the registration of the deaf student in regular public education network is really providing the inclusion of this in society listener, through the Portuguese language literacy, allowing can create life projects with expectations to occupy posts in the labour market and acquire socio-economic emancipation, becoming the protagonist of your own life, exercising full citizenship. We examine first the views of some authors on inclusive policies in Brazil, through literature review, together with the report of the practice as an interlocutor of Pounds experienced in the year 2015 and first half of 2017, working with deaf students in high school in the public school.
Keywords: Deafness, education, Inclusion.
Often we encounter in our daily lives with a not too common situation: two deaf people talking, making use of sign language. In a first moment, looked with curiosity that evolution of manual movements and the way in which communication happens between them. We analyze the difficulties of this conversation in accordance with our common sense. However, in nothing differs or let us bring curiosity too, for example, the conversation between two Italians in your mother tongue.
In the case of the deaf people we must recognise that, like us, take advantage of every moment, from work to leisure, life in common with friends and family to social conviviality full, able to be so like us listeners. What sets us apart is just the language. Once developed the specific language for the deaf, they do not find more problems to express their thoughts, aspirations, knowledge, etc.
Second Lacerda (1998, p. 71), emphasizes that "For De L ' Epée, sign language is designed as the natural language of deaf and as a suitable vehicle to develop your thinking and communication. And according to Bouvet (1990), the deaf have ac[…]cess to "a language that allows a complete and efficient communication as that developed by subject." (BOUVET, 1990 apud L., 1998, p. 76).
That way, they can live fully in deaf society, whether in listener, since the translation of your language, your understanding by everyone, as usual at other languages and dialects, corroborates with this thought Moura (1996), when he says: "The deaf belong to a minority group that suffers a constraint that must be understood in your fullness "(MC, 1996, p. 238-239 apud BUENO, 2006, p. 52)
Historically the deaf were marginalized from society, considered different, as stresses Sassaki (1997, p. 16), when he says that the company "began practicing the social exclusion of people who – because of the atypical conditions – don't you seemed belong to the majority of the population ". However, once recognized the hearing, sought to provide deaf your social inclusion.
From the Salamanca Declaration (UNESCO, 1994), Brazilian social policies, developed in recent years, a process of inclusion of deaf people in the community, with regard to the right to education, while respecting articles 205, 206 and 208 of the Constitution Federal de 1988, with the expectation that they would come to occupy posts in the labour market and acquire the financial and social emancipation, becoming protagonists of your own life, exercising full citizenship, in this context, public policy Brazil sought the inclusion of the deaf through special education.
Special education, came to the regular educational network, as a variety of education, through the law of Guidelines and Bases for national education-LDB (Law No. 9,394/96), reaching out and aiming at learners with disabilities, including students with deafness. The public school system has an obligation to accommodate those students, managing the coexistence with the other learners, promote socialization, presenting and allowing equal opportunities for teaching and learning and development.
In our research we found that some authors put in doubt the proposal of education for the deaf in public schools, showing that a portion of the deaf students after completing their studies in the public schools, not always succeeded in the field of Portuguese language, either in skill or reader writer.
Axe (2006, p. 48), exposes a deaf student's statement, the target of research, where he said: "in my opinion the regular school, where he wore only oralism, was terrible, just learned how to copy".
Miller Junior (2013, p. 85-86), also reports the comment of one student, also search target: "I did not understand what the teachers said. In class, there was only the oralização and writing. ' Wasn't there ', he complained the young ".
Second Lacerda (1998, p. 68), public policies aimed at the deaf student, aim to provide the full development of their abilities, however, are several "limitations", showing that "these guys, at the end of basic education, are not able to read and to write satisfactorily "; also as regards the development of capacities of these students, since they can't "a suitable domain of academic content.
What we perceive is often that many deaf students do not get the full domain of the Portuguese language, requiring of them sacrifice, patience and effort to monitor, understand and internalize the content, even with the presence of the other party. Since, according to Marchesi (1995) […]"the deaf is participant of educational programs geared to listeners and elaborated by listeners[…]". (MARCHESI, 1995b apud AX, 2006, p. 49).
The persistence of these situations could characterize the exclusion of deaf student in the learning process and development of their skills, as informs us Machado (2006, p. 40): "e[…]ven in the face of requirement generated by the current educational policy, many deaf learners are on the fringes of school ".
On these observations we can question the presence of the deaf student in regular education network in order to develop the skills the reader and writer in order to provide the necessary foundation for the deaf student thinking about a life project, focused on your training as fellow deaf, building your identity, respecting your culture and your language.
As noted in the reports of Machado, Miller Junior and Lacerda, was no different to my impression when I came to school in a city in the State of São Paulo as an interlocutor of Pounds in the year 2015 and later in the first half of 2017.
Found deaf students in the second and third year of high school, without the mastery of skills reader and writer, copyists and disenchanted with the acquisition of curricular content. They felt forced to learn through diverse oral language to which had domain – sign language. According to Silva (2006, p. 15), deaf people are forced to a submission to the listener hegemony […]"that attempts to annul your form of communication (sign language), looking for assemelhá them culturally and linguistically listener[…]s".
We can notice that in regular educational network, the Portuguese language maintains hegemony over the sign language as a tool for learning, while authors such as Albres and Santiago (2012, p. 288) State: "Already the bilingual model of maintenance, consists Basically, in the case of Brazil, in teaching the pounds and the Portuguese, giving greater importance to the first language, i.e. Pounds. " (ALBRES, SANTIAGO, 2012, p. 288 apud MILLER JUNIOR, 2013, p. 54).
The experience as an interlocutor of Pounds allowed me to experience this antagonism, in which on the one hand the process of inclusion of the deaf student expects your education is a stepping stone for him to get out of condition and achieve a better on the other hand, the student deaf can't internalize the curricular content and "learn Portuguese", items needed for this jump.
The deaf student is usually discouraged, disinterested school, only serving the time of shift. Has the caller a friend to talk to and develops with some students in the class, limited conversations, considering this interaction as normal. Lacerda (2006, p 173) also noted this interaction reporting that the deaf student "see your relationship restricted to interpreters and to the few exchanges dialogical with students listeners as natural."
Be present inside the classroom, daily contact with the deaf students, sharing moments of banter, informal conversations, joys, doubts, uncertainties, questions and also deal with learning difficulties, provided to me, create a value judgment about the conditions under which these deaf students are being prepared for life and what are your expectations.
Were four students who I kept in touch in the classroom, with ages between 16 and 19 years, two male and two female. For the presentation of the report of the coexistence with each, were represented by the letter A, followed by a number, thus designated: A1, A2, A3 and A4.
A1 and A2 students were not literate, were not interested by the copyists, or lessons for learning of curricular content. Both were regular students of the sixth grade of elementary school to the third year of high school without having repeated a grade. His notes were written by points given for good behavior, schoolwork, seen in the notebook and often by evaluations carried out in pairs.
The A1 student, male, had 19 years ago when I was in the third and final year of high school in 2015. Featured report diagnosing severe deafness, did not wear braces, have good command of the language of signs. His apprenticeship in pounds was through charity work in an Evangelical Church. Our first contact was very natural and quickly mingle, received special retirement through the organic law of Social Welfare-LOAS (8,742 Law/93) in the amount of one minimum wage. Had contact with several students listeners of your room and other series communicating in a mixture of Pounds and mimes. Worked in rural areas, eventually as diarist and still practice this working mode, since "you're afraid of losing the benefit of pay if you work with officially registered" according to your own account.
The student A2, female, had 18 years when I was in the third and final year of high school in 2015. Featured report diagnosing severe deafness, hearing aid had however used eventually, because he said that bothered him and felt shame in using it, had good command of the language of signs. His apprenticeship in pounds was also through community work of an Evangelical Church. The family attended services frequently taught in that Church. Our first contact was troubled, because there was no religious bias, since I didn't belong to the same religion as her. It was a conquered month by month. Received special retirement through LOAS in the amount of one minimum salary for a while I didn't know need, but gave up the benefit by finding the value received very little and attempted to join the labour market.
This experience she reported as frustrating. Searched job in a supermarket network in your city that meet the requirements of the LOAS, offered places for the disabled in the quota system. Because of your deafness, A2 was placed fulfill its functions in places that labour would not have contact with the public, worked for a year in this company and was fired. He felt during that time very embarrassed and left out in the workplace, according to your own account.
Unlike student A1, A2 student talked much in pounds with two friends in the classroom as sisters in religion. A2 and her friends had fluency in sign language, because they associated the mornings from Monday to Friday at school and weekends in the activities carried out by the Evangelical Church to which they belonged. Although facing constraints due to religion, still keep contact with A2, who currently holds the position of hairdresser and manicure in Salon own, assembled with the help of family. A2 opted for personal entrepreneurship.
The student A3, female, had 16 years when in the first semester of the second year of high school in 2017. Featured report diagnosing severe deafness, owned appliance for deafness and used with certain frequency, had good command of the language of signs. His apprenticeship in pounds was through charity work in an Evangelical Church, though not to attend and the participation in the Conference room features in against round of classes. Your family doesn't know Pounds.
Our first contact was not very natural and found difficulties in relationship, since the previous interlocutor was a teacher who accompanied the dialogue four years ago. It was a slow and difficult process that replacement. Was not literate, although knew several expressions in Portuguese language which used to communicate by whatsapp with his colleagues, was a copyist, he did not care for classes or for learning curricular content, however accepted with patience my interventions as an interlocutor to explain the messages from teachers.
Don't have expectations regarding the continuity of studies by completing high school. I was thinking of also work as a Hairdresser. Unaware of the retirement through LOAS and showed no interest in knowing about it.
The student A4, male, had 19 years when I was in the first semester of the second year of high school in 2017. Featured report diagnosing severe deafness, owned appliance for deafness and used it frequently, had good command of the language of signs. His apprenticeship in pounds until he was 7 years of age took place in specific school teaching of sign language in São Paulo, Capital, later, through community work of an Evangelical Church that he and his family attended regularly and participation in the resource room against round of classes. His mother and grandmother didn't know Pounds, however had started the course of Pounds offered by the Evangelical Church, beginning in 2017. His sister and his brothers talked with him via sign language.
Recognize some words in Portuguese language, had easily in logical reasoning, was a copyist, had much interest in school mainly for math, which I liked and had ease in learning, not care for other disciplines. I couldn't find it very difficult to communicate with classmates, always asking for my intervention in conversation and using charades or phrases ready, he wrote, to aid communication. On the musical group of the Church playing the violin, which according to your report, I felt the vibration of the notes that facilitated the learning of hymns. Received special retirement through LOAS in the amount of one minimum wage.
Had the expectation of becoming a civil engineer to build houses. I didn't know how to do College, thought counting with the help of £ interlocutor to accomplish this achievement. Always questioned that possibility and I've always encouraged to fight for your dreams.
Students A3 and A4 had his notes formed by the behavior assessment, points awarded at the article copied the notebook, the research works, objective evidence and tasks performed with the aid of the interlocutor. Are on regular network since the sixth grade of elementary school.
In front of these accounts collected in the classroom and the authors studied, we can recognize that the goal of a meaningful education for the deaf students is not being fully achieved, as regards the issue of communication and the construction of the knowledge, in a bilingual proposal: Pounds and Portuguese Language, since the educational policies are based only on culture listener. Second Axe (2006, p. 41) the education of the deaf is guided "by a ' regulatory ' attitude in which the various forms of education of the deaf have the intention of ' ouvintizar ', that is, to make them look as listeners".
We must also identify the speech of the inclusive school, paying attention to diversity, in order to allow the deaf socio-economic emancipation, as well as promote the intercultural relationship of the deaf community with the listener, not always reaches its goals, given that the labour market does not absorb part of this labour, based on a lack of communication between listeners and deaf, precisely because the listeners do not know sign language, necessarily the use of interpreters or interlocutors.
In the case of the labour market it is necessary the use of force of law to ensure the inclusion of the disabled person in a job vacancy, as referred to in article 93 of Law 8,213/91-Law Social Security benefits – LBPS, forcing to fill quotas (job openings) with persons with disabilities.
Sassaki (1997, p. 59), compares the labour market to a field of battle, in one extreme people with disabilities and allies fighting for a spot and the other resistant employers in filling job openings with disabled candidates.
We have to register as a challenge, an inclusive proposal fair, aimed at the emancipation of the deaf, the deaf identity construction and the respect and appreciation of your cultural identity. You have to think of an inclusive school with a curriculum focused on the bilingual education-Pounds and Portuguese language-in which is included the means of literacy and literacy focused on the subject the deaf in your natural language-Pounds.
Second Axe (2006, p. 53) "r[…]esource rooms, special classes are not recognized spaces for the acquisition of education levels, because they are not organized by the regular education series". Not prove schooling or completion of steps. This focus on the restructuring of the school curriculum must be thought of in a bilingual proposal-Pounds and Portuguese language.
Therefore, the exposure of concerns of the deaf community through its manifestations, for the understanding of social relations between deaf and listeners, in the society we live in, as well: the Perlin point[…]s out the identity of the deaf in oral curriculum is fails and contains the representation of the listener identity as unique. A deaf identity segregation, denial of same. " (PERLIN, 200:24 apud AX, 2006, p. 64).
Through bibliographical research and experience as an interlocutor able to observe that the Government does not see the deaf community vision, sees them occasionally as subjects with hearing disability need to be integrated/included in the listener community. They forget that they have their own language, the language of signs-POUNDS, which differs totally from the Portuguese language as the language of signs is in visual mode iconic space while the Portuguese language is oral hearing.
Deaf people want to possess/develop your own culture, identity, because whether or not welcome at meetings organized to talk in your language and your culture live, change experience/experiences. Still having people with deafness in reduced numbers in some cities, many religious institutions and events created by the deaf promote these get togethers with great regularity, gathering large agglomerations of the deaf for coexistence, both in cultural activities, either in different cities of the country religious.
There is a lack of recognition of the culture and the deaf identity, do not see just how integration/inclusion, but as a situation of coexistence, in which the Government apparatus to education must fit the needs of the deaf and not the other way around to really be able to talk about inclusion. So think of adapting some hours of teaching of POUNDS on public school curriculum, with enabled and empowered teachers would be Yes, think of integration/inclusion, because we realize that most students "included" learned POUNDS through your religion, being rare Government-held institutions that offer from an early age the sign language the deaf child and your family.
Propose activities in the curriculum to introduce yourself to the deaf in your language, you have representation to him and that through exercises and suitable material he can have the written record of the classes, giving the condition he could study in against school shift. We believe that the way it is, even with the help of the interpreter, the student deaf will have contact with the material to be studied only once for the translation of the interlocutor, in your first language and if he doesn't have field of Portuguese language to study , ain't no use textbooks, student's notebook, exercises and notes in the notebook.
Looking for don't give up on this issue, we can't look for the deaf in their skills and competencies, only differing from listeners on the issue of speech, of orality. New rulers through public policies should rethink the curriculum construction looking for meet of way really inclusive deaf students, respecting your identity and culture. Also check that doesn't fit to the elementary school of the final years (6th to 9th), much less to high school, literacy. In a new proposal, we could consider the inclusion of learning pounds in the initial years of elementary school (1st to 5th), breeding ground and crucial moment for the bilingual learning.
DANIELL, C. A.; Teixeira, j. m. between "deaf culture" and the cure of deafness: comparative analysis of the practices of the Baptist Church and the International Church of the grace of God in Brazil. The magazine Cultura y Religión, v. 2, n. 3, 2008. Available at: http://nau.fflch.usp.br/sites/nau.fflch.usp.br/files/upload/paginas/vol2_n3_2008_6_cesar_assis_y_jacqueline_moraes_0.pdf accessed on 03 jun. 2017.
BECHARA, e. Dictionary of Brazilian Letters Academy school. 3. Ed. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 2011. 1312 p.
Brazil. The Federal Constitution of 1988. Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil. Brasilia, DF: Senate, 1988. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicao.htm accessed on 23 June. 2017.
_______. Guidelines and Bases for national education. Law number 9394, 20 December 1996. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L9394.htm accessed on 03 jun. 2017.
_______. Presidency of the Republic. Organic law of Social Assistance, n. 8,742, of 7 September 1993. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L8742compilado.htm accessed on 03 jun. 2017.
_______. Presidency of the Republic. Law of Social Security Benefits, n. 8,213 of 24 July 1991. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L8213cons.htm accessed on 03 jun. 2017.
BUENO, j. g. s. deafness, language and culture. Notebook Cedes, education and society, Campinas, v. 19, no. 46, p. 41-56, Sept. 1998.
FERREIRA, J. R. The new LDB and special educational needs. Notebook Cedes, education, Society, & v. 19, no. 46, p. 7-15, Sept. 1998.
L, C. B. F. The school inclusion of deaf students: what they say students, teachers and interpreters on this experience. Notebook Cedes, education, Society, & v. 26, n. 69, p. 163-184, may/Aug. 2006. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0101-32622006000200004&script=sci_abstract&tlng=pt accessed on 03 jun. 2017.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, C. B. F. A little of the history of different approaches in education of the deaf. Notebook Cedes, education and society, Campinas, v. 19, no. 46, p. 68-80, Sept. 1998.
LAKATOS, E.M.; MARCONI, m. a. Scientific Methodology. 4. Ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2006. 305 p.
MACHADO, p. c. Integration/inclusion in the regular school: a former student look deaf. Deaf Studies i. Organization of Shana Muller. Petrópolis: Blue Macaw, 2006. p. 38-75. 324 p.
MARQUES, r.r. adult and youth education: a dialogue on education and deaf students. Deaf Studies II. Organization of Shana Muller and Gladis Perlin. Petrópolis: Blue Macaw, 2007. 267 p.
MILLER JR,. The inclusion of the deaf student in high school. Holy Spirit, 2013. Dissertation (master's degree in inclusive education) – Federal University of Espírito Santo. Education Center.
FRAMES, R.M. the brazilian language translator and interpreter of signs and Portuguese language. Department of special education; National program to support the education of the deaf. Brasilia: MEC; SEESP, 2004. 94 p.
SASSAKI, R. C. Inclusion. Building a society for all. 2. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: WVA, 1997. 174 p.
Severino, a. j. methodology of scientific work. 23 ed. rev. and current. São Paulo: Cortez, 2007. 154p.
SILVA, v. education of the deaf: a retelling of the first public school for the deaf in Paris and Milan Conference in 1880. Deaf Studies i. Organization of Shana Muller. Petrópolis: Blue Macaw, 2006. p. 14-37. 324 p.
UNESCO. Salamanca Statement and framework for action. 1994. 48p. Available at: http://redeinclusao.pt/media/fl_9.pdf accessed on 03 jun. 2017.
 Graduated in literature/English the Instituto Municipal de Ensino Superior de São Manuel – IMESSM. Graduation in Psychology. Professor of the State schools of the State of São Paulo in Brazil. £ Interlocutor
 PhD in education and teaching of the course of educational psychology of the Municipal Institute of higher education of São Manuel – IMESSM.