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Anexos / Arquivos

Constructivist Playful learning during literacy and literacy

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SALES, Gutemberg Martins de [1]

SALES, Gutemberg Martins de. Constructivist Playful learning during literacy and literacy. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 07, vol. 01, pp. 80-92, July 2018. ISSN:2448-0959


It was with this article present some paths traversed by literacy in the course of time involving the reader, bringing about sharing and how literacy, because although there is a large amount of teachers, a demand for literacy teachers, who know the real principles of literacy, fears and conflicts that surround the literate, and as clearly and objectively, be remedying this problem. It began with a presentation on the interpretations of writing before reading, emphasizing literacy and learning with constructivism. In the same profile, commented on the importance of children's games and the games rules and constructions. Through the story of a child's development can comment on the games, games and toys, sustained by ideas of Piaget, Vygotsky and Kishimoto among others to conceptualize the playfulness.

Keywords: literacy, reading, writing, games rules.


The evolution of playful activity is related to the whole development of the child, learning with the world playing enjoyable way and with joy; through play a child experience everyday situations, try roles and rules, incorporating the information and transforming the real situations of life, play contributes to the child relate to personal issues with the reality of the environment and to your society.

The Curriculum Frame for the early childhood education (1998) points out that through the playful activity, the fun and games favor the expansion of the children's knowledge, so the playful aspect is not present only in games, but in the form of the child thinking and acting, establishing relations with who lives learning about the world with people and objects that surround it.

Through play a child can experience new situations, helping to understand and assimilate more easily the world. The child beyond imagining, creating affective ties with toys and invent, also learns to respect rules and norms. Thus were the importance of playfulness in early childhood education as stimulating in cognitive development, and child's creative engine.

Therefore, by means of rules, children gain self-confidence and are encouraged to question and correct their actions, analyze and compare points of view, and take care of the materials used.

The goal is in this article, lay down rules so playful, and can work on literacy and literacy, mathematics and other disciplines, making contributions to the development of psychomotor skills, self-esteem, cooperation, among others.

Through the literature review on sources that subsidize our interest in the subject developed was observed the toy as symbolic object in which the child uses to your fantasies and representations, increasing their linguistic skills.

The game begins by the second year, develops and begins to lose your importance around seven years of age, rising gradually to the exact imitation of reality. Through the use of games is believed to be possible not only letrar, but alphabetize a child.

1. Pedagogical concepts about literacy

In Brazil illiteracy is still one of the biggest obstacles to the exercise of citizenship and social exclusion of the layers more devoid of the population.

It is believed to be essential to be an awareness of the importance of literacy for this new millennium, because in a world in rapid and growing evolution as which we live in, the adult who couldn't be literate at the time appropriate, incorporate it's never too late to start and how it is part of the world, must be subject of this world and not simply spectator.

Therefore, he distinguishes these two worlds: the nature and culture; the role of the man in reality and with it; the relationships between nature and men communication; culture as a result of your work, of your Creator and recriador effort.

The illiterate learn critically the need to learn to read and write. "It's understanding what it says write what is meant." (FREIRE, 2012, p. 72). So, literacy cannot be as a donation, from the outside in, but from the inside out, by the illiterate, adjusted by the professor.

Reading is a set of skills and behaviors that extend from simply decode syllables or words to read Grande Sertão Veredas of Guimarães Rosa. […] So reading is a set of skills, behaviors, knowledge, that make up a long and complex continuum (SOARES, 2012, p. 48).

Solé (2014, p. 18), argues that read, this is to understand and interpret written texts of various types with different intentions and goals contributes decisively to the autonomy of the people, to the extent that the reading is a necessary instrument for We play with certain guarantees in a literate society.

As well as other things, reading is a matter of sharing. Share objects, share tasks share the meanings constructed around them. However, in this shared responsibility activity is different for the teacher and for the students, because the first can be put in terms of seconds, to help them to get closer to their objects persecuted (SOLE, 2014, p. 173),

It is believed that the development of competence reader doesn't end when the student mastered the system of writing and reading; the process is continuous and has the participation of the learner in practices that involve the written language and that translates in the competence to read and produce texts of various genres.

The more access to written culture, more possibilities of construction of knowledge about the language, the more it establishes communication with the printed texts, through the pursuit of understanding; constituting a permanent task which enriches with new abilities as you properly manage increasingly complex texts, reading is a process that develops throughout schooling and life.

2. Interpretation of writing before reading

Exclusively the figurative aspects of the productions were written by Hildreth (apud OLIVEIRA, 1995), as motor coordination, writing instruments, winds, tending to horizontal or vertical movements, trends to produce symbolic units, construction on the correct track of space letters, correct writing of the name, investments etc.

Long before being able to read, the children try to interpret the various texts that are around your books, commercial packaging, posters, titles, tv commercials, comic stories, etc.

The study of these activities of interpretation of texts is pertinent to our understanding of the processes of reading for two reasons:

the) accept the reality of assimilation processes also means accepting that some learning starts from scratch; the detailed study of the child brings your luggage interpretative schemes before beginning the enrollment process is essential in this perspective to know on what basis will be possible to estimate how about or what information is easy difficult or impossible to be assimilated by the child.

(b)) it is the characterization of the process of reading as a process in which, for meaning, the reader uses the sources of Visual and nonvisual information. The visual information was characterized mainly as the graphic information available (the own lyrics, their groups, the special provision of graphic material, the punctuation marks, etc.). Non-visual information was characterized, especially as the knowledge of the language that the reader has, as well as the knowledge of the subjects involved.

However, both the visual information about not visual have been characterized from the perspective of the adult reader; detailed investigations are necessary in order to know what is the visual information that a child can process before being a reader (in the conventional sense of the term) and what is non-visual information that this same child is able to use.

Within the non-visual information, include the ideas that children have about what can be written and that are part of the children's conceitualizações about writing. On the other hand, the visual information cannot be equated to the perceptual data, in order to be used, the visual information must be interpreted and this interpretation depends on the interpretative schemes available.

Finally, the Act of reading cannot be designed with an addition of information. The Act of reading must be conceived as a process of coordination of diverse provenance information with all aspects inferences that assumes and whose ultimate goal is to obtain meaning expressed linguistically.

From the functional point of view, the school writing we use is based on an alphabet of 26 letters in some diacritics like accents and the tilde, and brands such as punctuation marks. Each letter represents an abstract value, which can have many shapes. This value is given by the expectation of occurrence in words, according to the spelling rules. For example, "and" represents the same value as "and", and, although graphically these two characters are so different, it is possible to write the same word, varying these characters: "seal" and "seal". Writing represents speech sound (CAGLIARI, 2009, p. 134).

Justifies even Cagliari (2009) that the name of the letters bring itself one of the sounds that the letter represents. Reading is not the same as writing. When you read, what counts is the decipherment which leads to the recognition of the word, ranging from analysis of letter-by-letter and letter combinations until the final result. Made the decipherment, the context in which appears the word writing in General is enough to show the student that he's on the right track.

The student should know that the letters are arranged in horizontal General and more rarely from top to bottom, and that a letter succeeds another, from left to right, row by row. The letters have shapes and sizes defined in alphabets. Uppercase and lowercase letters denote different alphabets and letters not in size large or small. Every letter has a basic form that serves to distinguish one character from another, but can vary and be trimmed without interfering in their distinctive features, such as the serifs of the letters with uppercase. (CAGLIARI, 2009, p. 135).

In the view of Cagliari (2009) there must be a pretty big poster with the letters of the alphabet in the classroom, so that students can consult whenever they wish. When the professor is teaching the relationships between letters and sounds, will begin with the name of the letters. In General, the class as a whole knows all the letters of the alphabet, because children usually go learning, even before entering the school, at least the initial letters of its name.

A word separates itself from other writing by a blank space. To learn how to segment a Word, noting the oral language, there are two important strategies: the first is to separate for meaning, where each corresponds to a word meaning possible; the second is to try to get another word in if local who wants to target if it is feasible, the targeting is possible (CAGLIARI, 2009, p. 136).

Memorize the names of the letters is important, but the teacher will not require that, through memory exercises, in which the students recite the alphabet. It is learned and decorating her own study of the letters.

3. Literacy and learning constructivism

Emilia Ferreiro caused a revolution in terms of teaching methodology to the extent that the constructivism (theoretical conception on the human being comes to knowledge of the reality outside) was understood by many teachers as a teaching method because an intense production of speeches from different sources, and still wrong.

In this way, teachers had their pedagogical practices, destroyed, Yes, just about everything you do in the classroom was considered outdated.

Piaget's research formed the basis for Emilia Ferreiro develop their studies in an area that had not yet been the object of scientific research: the acquisition of writing. Their research showed that children come to school with a lot of knowledge about the language, and not empty, as was thought until then.

To Blacksmith (2008) the successive chances in the conquest of writing reveals, first and foremost, the essentially creative character of the construction of knowledge. Behind every incorrect production and seemingly random, there is a plethora of ideas already formed, smart criteria and attempts so fruitful that somehow promote evolution.

What's at stake is the maturation of consciousness metalinguística, from which the subject can not only deal with the formal properties of writing and their criteria for quantitative and qualitative variation, but understand, in practice, a number of distinctions fundamental to that proposed to read and write (SMITH, 2008).

The writing can be considered as a representation of language or code graphic transcription of sound units. The child is not enough empty school, totally ignoring the written language, says that children do not learn because they don't see or hear or have pencil and see or hear to have pencil and paper handy, and because work cognitively with what the environment offers them EC (BLACKSMITH, 2008, p. 10).

Blacksmith (2008) visited the reflections on literacy "how we teach" to "what you can learn".

The process of children's literacy learning for Blacksmith (2008) nothing, from the point of view of the author, the child constructs his reflections on interpretative system literacy, think, reason and invents seeking to understand this object complex social which is writing.

This conceptual change about literacy just leading Blacksmith the profound changes in the structure itself.

One of the tasks of the professor of early childhood education is put to the disposition of children a stimulating environment, and give you the freedom to choose, being a mediator in their difficulties.

The game also fosters identity attributes and autonomy, prepares the child to develop skills, challenges, preparing to face new situations.

The game with your individual character causes the element to himself, recognizing in his actions. "The games are not only a form of entertainment to spend energies of children, but means that contribute and enrich the intellectual development" (PIAGET, 1996, p. 160).

For Chateau (1987, p. 128), "who says game, says at the same time effort and freedom, and an education for the game should be a source of trouble physics in the same way that joy morals".

4. The kid and the games, toys and games

Some people use everyday words game, toy and play with the same sense, others, however, can tell them apart, giving interpretations between those terms. This fact can occur according to Santa Roza (1993, p. 23) due to a same word has different meanings for each culture, considering the regionalism, the chronological, historical and temporal varieties.

In common sense, use the toy to designate objects such as ball, spinning tops, kites, dolls, prams, etc.; When we talk about games, we have the idea of action and movement, involving traditional cirandas, hopscotch, tag, House and other, already the game, brings the memory of competition, with rules and procedures, such as football games, basketball, Lady and chess.

Researching what is game, toy and joke in the dictionary (2000) met these terms defined like this:

-Game: game, fun, hobby in which risk money/bet;

-Toy: object made for fun of children;

-Game: play action.

In relation to the searched words, Friedmann (2008, p. 12), features on your theory meanings equivalent to those found in the dictionary. The joke as the action of the play, the spontaneous behavior resulting from unstructured activities.

The game is a game where we found the presence of certain rules. The word toy names the object of sense and playful activity is broad, encompassing all the previous concepts.

The author believes that sometimes the game is an end in itself, when children play for pure fun, establishing trade with the environment and with their partners, already at other times can be used as a means to achieve educational goals pre-set.

In addition, stresses that the time to play is special and valuable to the child and that the traditional games, transmitted from generation to generation are part of the recreational and cultural heritage and reflect values, customs, ways of thought and teachings.

Already Kishimoto (2010), believes that set the game is not an easy task and can be understood as: political games, play in the sand, mother and daughter, storytelling, dominoes, chess, building a little boat and others. Stating that the understanding of game varies according to each social context and expressed through language.

Emphasizes that the toy stimulates the children's imagination through the representation and expression of pictures about scenes of everyday life, of nature and of human customs and while object is always the joke. This for your time, it's the action that the child plays to fulfill the rules of the game, you can tell it's the playful action.

Comparing the concepts presented by the two authors, you know-if disagreements concerning the meanings of fun and games, to Friedmann (2008), the main difference between these two words is that the game always have rules, while the jokes are more spontaneous and free.

Kishimoto (2010) highlights that games may or may not have rules, involving imaginary situations, satisfaction and manual skills. The game is already considered the action of the child in the implementation of the rules of the game. Both agree on the meaning of toy, as object of the joke.

In relation to the concepts of game concepts Piaget (1896-1980) and Vygotsky (1896-1934), constructivist, because both are believe that intelligence is constructed from individuals ' relations with the environment, but have some different approaches . Piaget sought to understand how the individual constructs knowledge about reality, he referred to the active role of the subject, it's the relationship with the environment that the child develops, building and rebuilding their hypotheses about the world. Already Vygotsky, stresses that the subject is interactive and the cultural milieu and social role in the development and training of the psychological functions of humans.

Piaget brought important contributions on the game for the intellectual development of the child, emphasizing that the children's game has some criteria, such as: is a spontaneous activity that gives pleasure, involves internal motivation, find your purpose in itself and has a relative lack of organization, (FRIEDMANN, 2008, p. 26).

In this way, the game is an important activity characterized by pleasure and spontaneity, which provides players a climate of enthusiasm and motivation, who plays has intrinsic interest for the results of their activities, as a result the achieving your goal, satisfying a need. The author also States that according to Piaget, in the process of development of the child, organized three basic structures of children's games:

the exercise game): is one of the first children's activities and is characterized by the repetition of gestures and simple movements for the pleasure it affords;
b) symbolic Play: is related to imagination and imitation, the child may represent create and recreate real-life situations of pleasures or conflicts through fiction, assigning to objects different meanings than usual and playing different roles ;
c): rule game require players to comply with rules and regulations, the rules assume social relations or constituting the Foundation of interpersonal contact morale.

With that, according to Friedmann (2008), Piaget checked with your playful human trend study, since the first months of life with exercise games engines, until the emergence of language. Imitation goes through several steps and two to six years of age, the child can represent an object in the absence thereof, originating the symbolic game, in the years following, this exercise is becoming collective, with the trend for the emergence of rules.

Contrary to Piaget, Vygotsky (2007) believes that development occurs throughout life, and the toy creates a zone of Proximal Development, it would be the distance between what the child can do alone and what you can accomplish with the help of someone else experienced.

Soon, the games that are offered to children must be compatible with the level of development in which they find themselves. And it is important that the teacher and the interactions of children with parents and colleagues, because these exert the role of mediators in the process of development and maturation of the child, to build and expand concepts, which, she would not have condition alone in given time of your development.

Is huge toy influence in the development of a child. Is the toy that the child learns to act in a cognitive sphere, rather than a visual external sphere, depending on the motivations and internal trends, and not by incentives provided by external objects (VYGOTSKY, 2007, p. 109).

In this way, the toy is a very important factor to child development, the imaginary situation created by the child tends to meet their interests and needs unworkable, the play is a very enjoyable activity that stimulates not only the side physical and emotional, but also, the thought of the child.

Vygotsky (2007) also States that through imagination and make-believe, the child takes ownership of social roles, can solve problems, raise hypotheses and assign different meanings to objects.

For Vygotsky (2007) every joke has three characteristics: imagination, imitation and the rule, for him, there is no joke without rule, because the play is a socio-cultural activity that originates in the values and norms of a social group. Understanding the joke that way, Vygotsky calls make-believe what Piaget calls symbolic game.

The playful activity is considered essential to the formation of the child, the toy is a physical and mental stimulation, the games and the games are the result of social processes, encourage imagination, curiosity, creativity and socialization, promote changes significant psychic development and personality of the child.

Final Considerations

The games are very important and necessary for the full development of a child, your intellect and personality. It is important to highlight that the emergence of creative teaching practices depends on our inclusion in the school context. The imaginary situation, magic of the joke has a logical, even if it's not that formal, which helps investigate and build our knowledge about identity, about the objects and about the world.

It is believed that using fun activities and play in educational practice, gets a better result in terms of development and, with it, the child also provides the possibility to be expressing aspects of psychomotor, language , cognitive and social sciences.

The theoretical framework that published this article made clear the importance of education for the integral development of the human being and that it presents a tendency for the playful, since the games were present in humanity since ancient times.

It was evident that the play in early childhood education requires constant reflection and research, being a valuable means to promote and sustain learning within a curricular structure.

Anyway, you must re-means the play of the child, school and us educators appreciate the playfulness in the education of our students, because through these practices, you don't learn just content, learn about life.

It is concluded that the playfulness through games and play are necessary for the full development of the body of a child, have a special role and significance in the interaction, your intellect and personality. In addition, through your experience and every step of your development and your experiences, the child will be strengthened and become a balanced adult.

Thinking is essential, as is the intervention of the reasoning in favor of writing; It's the most original content featuring the real production of a text; is the unmistakable variant of your author translated into words expressing various meanings.


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[1] Degree in Mathematics from the University Guarulhos, post-graduated in education with school administration and supervision, graduate studies in mathematics, postgraduate degree in Teaching in higher education from the Universidade Iguaçu (ROBERT). Professional experience in public and private education in the disciplines of mathematics and physics – served as Educational Coordinator, Director and Deputy Director of School.

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