Students with attention deficit: Everyday life in the classroom

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SANTOS, Betina Pinto [1], MIRANDA, Neire Oliveira Pinto [2]

SANTOS, Betina Pinto. MIRANDA, Neire Oliveira Pinto. Students with attention deficit: Everyday life in the classroom. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 11, Vol. 15, pp. 106-117. November 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/classroom

SUMMARY

The study sought to perform an approach related to the daily life in the classroom of students with attention deficit, through a literature review on how to deal with students who present ADHD, presenting the relevance of this theme in the current social context and in the relationship between memory and learning, aiming to contribute to the most diverse areas of knowledge, especially with the area of education. This article aims to present to the reader from a bibliographic study with solid theoretical bases, as some educators develop special work with children with attention deficit. For this, a bibliographical research was carried out considering the contributions of authors such as Ribeiro (2016), Russo (2015), Silva (2009), and Berger (2001), among others, seeking to raise reflections on learning difficulties that are quite frequent in schools. It is concluded that although there are several procedures for the diagnosis decision-making of ADHD, the evaluation of the pathology is essentially clinical. The child diagnosed with ADHD is a student who needs a specific care, support to develop their learning, an organized environment, short activities, playful, attention and understanding on the part of teachers and should feel wanted and useful. The class should be lively and dynamic, with a simple and concrete language, in which the student really understands the content by its ease.

Keywords: Attention deficit, diagnosis, classroom, educator.

1. INTRODUCTION

The present work has as its theme students with attention deficit: daily life in the classroom, presenting the relevance of this theme in the current social context and in the relationship between memory and learning, with the objective of contributing to the most diverse areas of knowledge, especially with the area of education.

In this conception, the research relevant to the theme led to the study on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the classroom.

Learning difficulties are quite frequent in schools. The low cognitive level does not result from the teaching, or the methodology of the teacher who has used all the appropriate resources and there are no advances and it is in the school where the first signs end up being perceived, from this discovery, an investigation is necessary. At this point interventions must be taken. The child needs to be evaluated by a specialist, because these professionals alone can help them overcome difficulties, taking special care with these children who are often taxed with devoid of intelligence.

According to Russo (2015) learning difficulties can derive from emotional causes, the level of thought, functional differences or changes in the development of functions, thus, it is necessary to observe for a pedagogical action.

According to Moojen; Dorneles and Costa (2003) learning problems can be divided into two categories: specific learning difficulties (due to neurological problems) and school difficulties, which may be secondary to other clinical pathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, mood disorders) and environmental problem teaching method.

When the student presents difficulties in concentrating, not for sitting, has difficulties in dealing with schedules, restlessness, pessimism, always diverts the look where there are movements, is always knowing everything that happens in the room, it is understood that it has cognitive and linguistic abilities, but needs something more to be situated in the school environment has difficulty keeping things organized , with these symptoms he may be diagnosed with attention deficit, as it is notorious for his behavior.

The main objective of the theme is to present to the reader from a bibliographic study with solid theoretical bases, as some educators develop special work with children with attention deficit. In the concrete of the proposed objectives, methodological works and bibliographic research were consulted through materials already published in social networks.

The text was based on the ideas and conceptions of authors such as: Ribeiro (2016); Russo (2015); Silva (2009) and Berger (2001).

2. LEARNING

For Vygotsky; Luria and Leontiev (2010) learning takes place from interaction with man and the environment and school is the intentional field of learning, so the theory is called the theory of the constructivism partner, because knowledge does not sprout, it is built. The teacher seeks to interact the child and the environment and it internalizes producing knowledge. For Pain (1985, p. 23) “Learning is a dynamic process that determines a change…” It is through Education that the subject is built.

According to Pain (1985) education needs changes so it makes it necessary to know the student and develop a work in a way that meets the neurological and psychological need within the classroom and also resource room / school reinforcement.

Vygotsky; Luria and Leontiev (2010, p. 106) also point out that learning can be defined as being a line of approach according to which:

The child’s mental development is characterized by two processes, which, although connected, are of a different nature and are mutually conditioned. On the one hand, is maturation, which depends directly on the development of the nervous system, and on the other hand the learning that according to Koffka, is in itself learning.

It is understood that the child has several ways of reaching learning using the whole field of memory, but each child has certain time of maturation to get there.

Russo, (2015, p. 83) says that “learning difficulties can derive from emotional causes, from the level of thought of functional differences or from changes in the development of functions.”

It is understood that the child is already born with some compromised psychological-neurological functions. According to the World Health Organization (1993 apud RUSSO, 2015, p. 84-85), in its description it says that:

Specific disorders in the development of school skills comprise specific groups of disorders manifested by impairments and significant in learning. […] They are not simply a lack of opportunity to learn, but rather difficulties arising from neurological development.

Given the above, it is noticeable the need for accompaniment, because the child does not cease to learn through a simple disinterest, there is always something that prevents him in this semantic field.

Kandel (2009, p. 149) transcribes that:

All knowledge that we have coming from formal education or not needs to remain in our memory so that it is considered learning, because if we do not remember, it is a sign that we do not learn. In this way, learning has an intimate relationship with memory and if it were not for this mechanism, we would spend every minute of our lives having to learn.

It is understood that memory is the important field of the brain, where we are, stored our emotions, our memories, our learning, without memory we are not able to learn. Russo (2015, p.17) describes how the brain presents itself and its particularities of functioning:

The brain has a series of characteristic folds in the cortex region. These folds serve to increase the surface area of this structure, which relies only on the restricted space of the cranial cavity. The cerebral hemispheres are divided into four lobes, which are named after the skull bone situated above it: 1. Frontal Lobe: it is responsible for the simplest physical movements, as well as for the functions of learning, thinking, memory and speech, when it does not correspond to perfection there is attention deficit. 2. Parietal lobe: it is responsible for spatial perception and sensory information of pain, heat and cold. 3. Temporal lobe: it is responsible for auditory stimuli. 4. Occipital lobe: is located at the back of the storm, receives and processes the visual images.

It is understood that through the author’s citation the brain stores and processes information so learning occurs, because it is in it that the cognitive part is stored. According to Russo (2015) cognitive neurosciences provide health and education professionals with the theoretical basis on neurological functioning, and brain plasticity, brain development and maturation, contributing significantly to the development of learning teaching. Researchers have focused on the study of the brain and its human behavior, the factors that interfere with learning and cognitive rehabilitation techniques. Therefore, Neuropsychopedagogy and psychopedagogy have the function of assisting children with learning difficulties in addition to other pathologies, working in partnership with other specialists, such as speech therapists, psychologists, among others that are necessary.

According to Ferreiro and Teberosk (1985) children go through several phases and in these are maturing and discovering themselves, this happens when it is a child called “normal”. We want the children to be the same, but we will have situations that hold us awaiting and awaken us to something very common in the room; to the child with attention deficit. These children can take longer the learning teaching process, they need special care by trained professionals in the area and support so that they can develop their reading and writing skills.

Ferreira and Teberosk (1985) also highlight that the childish hypotheses in the reading process are divided into phases: Phase of garatujas: They are the scribbles performed by the child, she has no notion of writing; Phase of the Pre-Silabic Hypothesis: At this stage the child still cannot associate the letter with his sound, writes with few letters and believes that he wrote correctly. Phase of the Sylabic hypothesis: At this stage the child can already reproduce a few words and associates the syllable with sound. Phase of alphabetical sylabic hypothesis: At this stage the child can read and write words and phrases.

In this context, the child goes through several things until they reach learning some learn easily and others take more time; in no way should the teacher label this child as an incapable or leave it aside, they need an exclusive dedication of a special look on a whole; develop your language and your ways to find out what really matters to your cognitive development.

3. HOW TO WORK IN THE CLASSROOM

The teacher after realizing that his student has some kind of disorder, should have a focused attention to him, always praise him for everything he can do or at least try to do, always encouraging. The incentive is essential, given that for this it is extremely painful to perform the proposed tasks. For the student with learning difficulties it is necessary that the teacher initiates a reflection on teaching methods, reflecting on the theoretical and psychological aspects.

To help teaching methods in the classroom, professionals Hallowell and Ratey (1999, p. 31) propose some suggestions:

Knowing for sure that it is a child with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) who is dealing; seek support for work; constantly interact with it; establish boundaries in a simple and consistent manner and not in a punitive manner; seek quality and not quantity, students with ADD need a reduced workload; divide the long tasks into short ones; value them, during and after their tasks; illustrative teaching, activities with drawings and colors, children learn better what is written; simplify what is said; develop their responsibilities; bring to the knowledge of colleagues in the room about the disorder that the other presents; interact with the child’s parents.

In addition to the methods the teacher should work with games, because they facilitate the development of their logical reasoning, develops the concentration. One of the devices to be used very successfully are online activities/games, they like it and the concentration time is longer (fun).

4. VIEW ON ATTENTION DEFICIT

For more than a century the literature has studied this disorder as a neurobiological disorder of environmental and hereditary genetic causes causing inability to modulate responses to the stimulus, with impulsivity and, inattention, low self-esteem, causing a great impact on the child’s life.

Education has in fact undergone transformations in the advent of the industrial, urban bourgeoisie and the consequent bids to expand the offer of education, teaching that limited to so-called normal people Families with children with some disability bear the full burden of trying to make their children students participating and active in the pedagogical and social process of the school, because the disabled physically , mental or any other disorder was abolished from society (SILVA, 2009).

As a result of the World Conference on Special Educational Needs, held between June 7 and 10, 1994, in the Spanish city of Salamanca, in its context the Salamanca Declaration deals with principles, policies and practices in the area of special educational needs and addresses that:

Human Rights and the World Declaration on Education for All and points out the principles of special education and child-centered pedagogy. It then presents proposals, directions and recommendations of the Special Education Framework of Action, a new thinking in special education, with guidelines for actions at the national level and at regional and international levels (PAPADOPOULOS, 2018, p. 110).

According to the text it is evident that every child with special needs has the same rights as “normal” children by the standards of society.

The inclusion of children, young people and adults with special educational needs within the regular education system is the central issue on which the Salamanca Declaration is addressed. Faced with this began to think muna education as a whole reflecting its importance to the child in his individuality, everyone has equal rights regardless of race, color, social conditions. It was in the Federal Constitution of 1988 that rights were consecrated to all and from law 8.069/90 of the statute of children and adolescents became in fact charged, according to the Statute of the Child and Adolescent (ECA) (PACIEVITCH, 2009).

Art. 53. The child and adolescents have the right to education, aiming at the full development of their person, preparation for the exercise of citizenship and qualification for work, ensuring them: I – equality of conditions for access and permanence in school; II – right to be respected by their educators; III – specialized educational care for people with disabilities, preferably in the regular school system (BRASIL, 1990).

However, there was something more to be done, children with disabilities, which were accepted only in institutions such as APAE, ADATA should have access to normal school, together with the other children to convene and learn to socialize, then Law No 13.146 appeared, of July 6, 2015 (PACIEVITCH, 2009).

Law No. 13,146, of July 6, 2015, contains:

Art. 1º. The Brazilian Law for the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities (Statute of persons with disabilities) is instituted, aimed at ensuring and promoting, on an equal basis, the exercise of fundamental rights and freedoms by persons with disabilities, aiming at their social inclusion and citizenship. Art. 2º. A disabled person is considered to be the person with a long-term impediment of a physical, mental, intellectual or sensory nature, which, in interaction with one or more barriers, can obstruct their full and effective participation in society on equal terms with other people (BRASIL, 2015).

Second, George Still, an English pediatrician in London, used several terms to define attention deficit such as:

Defect of Moral Conduct ”. In the 1930s and 1940s, the term used was Brain Damage and Cerebral Dysfunction. From 1960 new terminologies in the literature began to emerge. In 1968, the DSM-II used the term Hyperkinetic Reaction and in 1978 the ICD-9 2 used Hyperkinetic Disorder. In 1980 DSM-III used Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity – inattention appeared for the first time as a characteristic. In 1987 the DSMIII-R used Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and in 1992 the ICD-10 used Hyperkinetic Disorders. The most used term nowadays, through DSM-IV3, became: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – divided into three subtypes: inattentive, hyperactive / impulsive and the combined type (BARBOSA; DIAS; GAIÃO, 1997, p. 119).

After several terms, today ADHD is known to all professionals in the area of Education and in the school environment, but it is common in schools children with symptoms and often without diagnosis, sometimes the family does not accept, hindering their academic performance.

For Silva (2009, p. 12) ADHD is characterized by three basic symptoms:

Inattention, impulsivity and physical and mental hyperactivity. It usually manifests itself in childhood and in about 70% of cases the disorder continues into adulthood. It affects both sexes, regardless of educational level, socioeconomic situation or cultural level, which can result in serious damage to the quality of life of the people they have, if they are not diagnosed and oriented early.

In this perspective it is understood that the symptoms are identified early in the classroom by the teacher who consequently seeks alternatives to solve the problem.

5. DIAGNOSIS

The diagnosis of ADHD is clinical and the best period for an evaluation is in childhood when the child begins to be literate at six years of age and begins to show the first symptoms, calls for an intercession by specialized professionals, seeking information gathered through parents, teachers, psychopedagogue, through anamnesis and several sessions of therapy to later move doctors, psychologist, speech therapist, neurologist and /or psychiatrist, until reaching the final diagnosis and subsequent follow-up.

To reach the diagnosis it is necessary to make ANAMNESE conducting interviews with parents in order to know the family and child’s history from the mother’s gestation period to the present day, to understand in fact what led the child to this disorder. Interview with the teacher to know the behavior of the child at school, their school performance, how it relates to colleagues in the classroom and outside the classroom, questionnaires with specific questions to be filled out by parents, later the child will be referred for neuropsychological evaluation; psychopedagogical evaluation; speech therapy evaluation if necessary.

Treatment in some cases requires controlled medications in order to calm (calm) the agitated child and improve concentration. A more indicated remedy is RITALINA (methylphenidate) which can be purchased only with prescription retention (who-controlled remedy). The same can cause some symptoms such as drowsiness and discouragement etc. One should have a follow-up per specialist, because the treatment well applied and accompanied by a specialist has excellent results. Therefore, recognition, support and encouragement from parents and teachers are essential for the child to have a good functioning, be creative, have positive and balanced self-esteem (RIBEIRO, 2016).

According to Berger (2001, p. 208):

Children diagnosed with ADHD need help to overcome some factors such as: a confusing perception about the social world; the contempt they feel about themselves; attention deficit and increase memory capacity. This is because such factors can be decisive as generators of unpleasant consequences to the school learning process.

Family, the basis of society, the basis of education, love, affection, affection, religious principle, the basis of moral and ethical principles, is of paramount importance in the education of children. The family and the school should go hand in hand, especially when it comes to a child with ADHD, they must participate together in the intellectual, psychological and cognitive development of the child, giving feedback on everything that happens (BERGER, 2001).

Russell et al. (2000, p. 30) talks about the importance of parents forming a support group to help them, through the exchange of experience with each other and discovering new ways to resolve existential conflicts where there will be the participation of professionals for lectures and workshops, a support center for them, based on programs based on social learning, social-cognitive psychology, the theory of family systems. “The school should be able to know and prepare its teachers with training and support other professionals, maintaining communication between family and school and carrying out it” (RUSSELL et al., 2000).

6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

School difficulties are frequent complaints, being a reason for referral to specialists. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) deserves to be investigated and adequately treated. ADHD affects the life of children and adolescents leading to losses in multiple areas, such as adaptation to the academic environment, interpersonal relationships and school performance.

The psychological evaluation and diagnosis of ADHD involve a delicate and difficult to understand process, which requires the help of a professional, clinical experience, good theoretical knowledge and, undoubtedly, a lot of reflection. It is important that the teacher knows what ADHD is and how to work with a child with this disorder.

It is concluded that although there are several procedures for the diagnosis decision-making of ADHD, the evaluation of the pathology is essentially clinical. The child diagnosed with ADHD is a student who needs a specific care, support to develop their learning, needs an organized environment, short, playful activities; needs attention and understanding on the part of teachers, need to feel dear and useful. The class should be lively and dynamic, with a simple and concrete language, in which the student really understands the content by its ease.

REFERENCES

BARBOSA, G. A.; DIAS, M. R.; GAIÃO, A. A. Validacíon factorial de los índices de hiperatividade del cuestionário de Conners en escolares de Jõao Pessoa ¾ Brasil. Infanto; v. 5, n. 1, p.118-125, 1997.

BERGER, K. S. O desenvolvimento da pessoa: da infância à terceira idade. Tradução de Dalton Conde de Alencar. 5. ed. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2001.

BRASIL. Previdência da República. Lei nº 13.146, de 6 de julho de 2015. Institui a Lei Brasileira de Inclusão da Pessoa com Deficiência (Estatuto da Pessoa com Deficiência). Disponível em: <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2015/lei/l13146.htm>. Acesso em: 30 nov. 2019.

_______. Previdência da República. Lei nº 8.069, de 13 de julho de 1990. Dispõe sobre o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente e dá outras providências. Disponível em: <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l8069.htm>. Acesso em: 30 nov. 2019.

FERREIRO, Emilia; TEBEROSK, Ana. A Psicogênese da Língua Escrita. Porto Alegre: Artes Medicas 1985.

HALLOWELL, Edward M.; RATEY, John J. Tendência à distração: identificação e gerência do distúrbio do déficit de atenção (DDA) da infância à vida adulta. Trad. André Carvalho. Rio de Janeiro: Rocco,1999.

MOOJEN, S. M.; DORNELES, B. V.; COSTA, A. Avaliação psicopedagógica no TDAH. In: Rohde LA e Mattos P (eds.) Princípios e Práticas em TDAH. Artmed, Porto Alegre, pp. 107-16, 2003.

PACIEVITCH, Thais. Declaração de Salamanca. 2009. Disponível em: <https://www.infoescola.com/educacao/declaracao-de-salamanca/>. Acesso em: 30 nov. 2019.

PAÍN, Sara. Diagnóstico e tratamento dos problemas de aprendizagem. Tradução Ana Maria Netto Machado. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 1985.

PAPADOPOULOS, Cátia Regina. A trajetória acadêmica de estudantes universitários diagnosticados com TDAH à luz da Teoria Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano. 2018. 184p. Tese (doutorado)–Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Educação, 2018.

RIBEIRO, Simone Pletz. TCC e as funções executivas em crianças com TDAH. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas; v. 12; n. 2; p.126-134, 2016.

RUSSELL, A. Barkley et al. Transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade: Manual para diagnóstico e tratamento. Editora Artmed Editora, 2000.

RUSSO Rita Margarida Toler. Neuropsicopedagogia Clinica, Introdução, Conceitos, Teoria e Prática. JURUÁ Psicologia, Curitiba, 2015.

SILVA, Ana Beatriz Barbosa. Mentes inquietas: TDAH: desatenção, hiperatividade e impulsividade. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2009.

VIGOSTKY, L.; LURIA, A.; LEONTIEV, A. N. Desenvolvimento e Aprendizagem. 11ª. Edição. São Paulo: Ícone, 2010.

[1] Postgraduate in Early Childhood Education and Neuropsychopedagogy – Pedagogy.

[2] Postgraduate in Psychopedagogy – Pedagogy.

Sent: March, 2020.

Approved: November, 2020.

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