Importance of physical education to school children insert with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

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LIMA, Heleno Rodrigues de [1], VIANA, Fabiana Cury [2]

LIMA, Heleno Rodrigues de; VIANA, Fabiana Cury. Importance of physical education to school children insert with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 01, Issue 11, vol. 10, pp. 261-280. November 2016. ISSN: 2448-0959

SUMMARY

Autism is characterized by abnormalities in the development, occurring before the age of three years old, traveling throughout the life of an individual. Among these abnormalities include three areas of development: social interaction, language and communication, presence or repertoire of stereotyped behaviours and restricted interests and repetitive. Physical education aims to stimulate the psychomotor development and, as a fundamental principle, arouse the creativity of educators, as well as contributing to the integral formation of the learner. Aims to assist in the physical, mental and emotional development. With the regularity of the practice of physical activity, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enhance simple commands, providing an improvement in coordination and communication. This study aims to analyze the development of autism and the importance of physical activity for the same. After the bibliographical research, one can realize that physical activity directed to the autistic, along with the appropriate intervention method, leads to improvement of quality of life of these children.

Keywords: physical education, autism intervention.

1. INTRODUCTION

Autism is characterized by abnormalities in the development. Beginning earlier than three years and will for the life of the individual. Within these abnormalities include three areas of development: social interaction, language and communication and the presence or behavior repertoire and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped interests.

Physical activity is a behavior to disease prevention and health maintenance and should emphasize participation, decision, autonomy and independence. Therefore, the physical education offered by schools must include the body, movement and playfulness as educational aspects inseparable and offer educational opportunities suited to integral development and the pursuit of an objective participation and social integration (WINNICK, 2004)

The physical education classes work through the playful banter and contemplate a large number of manifestations of the spectrum, seeking to meet each child in their particularities, through collective and individual games. We know that not only the playful manifestations present your paper enabling further development of links between the physical education teacher and faculty who received educational guidelines.

Another important aspect of this study is to provide the correlations of the play and the processes of motor development of children with their results in a favorable environment for the stimulus, very expressive for the future life of the child.

Eat practice of physical activities, in addition to get a great benefit to health, there is also a significant improvement of psychomotor, social and cardiovascular areas, besides decrease behaviors such as inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity of children who have a clinical picture of autism.

Physical activity for children with autism, must have focus for physical conditioning, balance and basic movements, developing fundamental movements and locomotores. Idleness and sedentariness, are extremely damaging to autistic child. It is up to the physical education teacher contribute to this kid play, and productively, all proposed activities (WINNICK, 2004)

The present study aims to cause reflections and approach the play in physical education classes as playful intervention and provide improvements for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), through inclusive education in order to establish parameters for better alignment in physical education classes.

2. METHODOLOGY

The literature review was used as a methodology, with articles and research works of conclusion of course published in online scientific data bases. The literary exploitation held in those fields was of utmost importance for the completion of work.

The sources considered for this research were:

2015 "> scientific articles on Google Scholar database published between 2000 and 2015.

Were used as a keyword: physical education; Autistic; Intervention.

For selection of the sources were considered as criteria the bibliographies that approached physical education as a method of integration for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

The materials will be collected between February and October 2016.

It was subsequently performed analytical reading to sort information sources, in order to obtain response to the survey. The collected data were compared and discussed, to find conclusions about the methods of insertion for children physical education with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

3. AUTISM AND EDUCATION-PHYSICAL APPROACH AND INTERVENTION FORMS

Autism is a disorder that arises early in the first years of life and that involves significant loss in communication, socialization and imaginative capacity. For Calegaro, Stolaruk and Zeni (s/d).  In addition, second Assumpção Jr et al. (1999, s/p) "your emergence occurs before 3 years of age, with prevalence estimated at 4 to 5/10000 and predominance in males (3 to 4 to 1), being related to pre, peri and post-natal factors."

According to statistics in Brazil must be 65,000 to 195,000 autistic, based on studies carried out in international proportions, since no survey of this kind was held in the country.

Autistic children, in most cases the absence or delay of oral language, the repetitive use of the language, difficulties in visual contact with each other, lack of interest in relationships between couples, absence of spontaneity and the definition in certain objects.

For Ellis, are of course the deficits of social interaction, communication and social imagination and rigid, repetitive behaviors are the central core of the autistic spectrum, even presenting other characteristics variables. In relation to socio-emotional characteristics autistic individuals point generally, isolated, aggressive, uninterested; evade major physical and affective contacts; have inappropriate movements; Don't show fear of real dangers; grumble; laugh inappropriately; strange food habits present; have bouts of weeping and grief without apparent reasons.

Law No. 12,764, establishing the National Policy of protection of the rights of the person with autism spectrum disorder, sanctioned in December 2012, brings to follow that autistics are considered officially disabled, being entitled to all inclusion policies in the country, among them, those of education, so autism came to be regarded as a disability, and all public school, being ready or not, is obliged to include students with such disabilities.

According to the 10th International Classification of diseases (ICD-10) of 1991, autism receives the F84-0 classification, being regarded as a pervasive developmental disorder abnormal and committed, before three years of age.

Children and young people with special educational Needs (SEN) must have access to regular schools and they must adapt, through a child-centred pedagogy capable of meeting these needs. Mainstream schools, following this inclusive orientation are the most able to combat discriminatory attitudes, creating open and cohesive communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all.

We need greater reflection on the current reality and the propositions of the legislation, which leads us to think about, so that in this way we can build strategies that will tone up the professional to be safer on the changes and the adjustments of the nowadays. Therefore, we will seek to achieve effectively the inclusion that is very difficult to be carried out and that has generated plenty of controversy. (10)

What is presented by Gómez and Terán, which underscore the importance of the teacher in the preparation and construction of student's learning activities for he taught will be of great value, as it will help in the maturation of the central nervous system and in structuring the child's cognitive, to work according to the requirements of the environment in which the child lives. Emphasized the importance of the teacher know pass for the student not only how he should do and what to do, but also passing why is doing and how it will in the near future. For this, the teacher should have the necessary training to be able to work not only in student's deficits, but in identifying their potential and in the preparation of the educator for the mediation process, as advocated Vygotsky.

The teacher often can't deal with the challenges that arise when a student with special educational needs, do you feel unprepared and unable to create conditions for effective your inclusion.

The educator's training involves a continuous process, in which the professor needs to go beyond feedback and your presence in courses and Yes actions aimed at changes in the teaching-learning process.

So there is a connection between those involved, to improve the teacher-student interaction, you will need to develop some skills for the learning process. First, the teacher must distinguish the importance of your role and can achieve significant process. And to achieve this goal it is necessary to propose activities that will make a difference and at the same time put yourself in the place of the student, with that your reading of the world develop anger, make simple, objective guidelines and fragmented to your better understanding. Use all valid resources, since to provide development of their skills and abilities. First is advised that the teacher take the knowledge of reality to the coordination of the school, in the background have a meeting with faculty, coordination and pupils ' parents and, later, to establish parameters so they can meet this Student pedagogically.

In order to accommodate the child correctly, we need to understand that some of the aspects that make the process of inclusion of students with special needs in schools are the lack of adequate professional training, lack of resources and suitable materials, architectural and physical barriers, human attitudinal barriers which pervade the pedagogical practices in relation to the inclusion, among others.

The family can collaborate very special way for the development of children with autism in school, mainly providing the professionals information on the forms of communication from the child. Going on at least one form of communication used by the child, others can be developed. "The family is, therefore, the determining factor to detonation and maintenance-or, rather, to the offside of the integration process".

To identify what a student has special educational needs, the school (principals, counselors and teachers) should organize an efficient support network, including the family. This includes get technical advice from experts from different areas where necessary, and, in some cases, such assistance needs to be continuous.

The partnership between family and school is emphasized by the Declaration of Salamanca and involvement between the two parties would ensure an active participation of parents in decision making and in the educational planning of their children, with the adoption of clear communication and Open.

"The activities of individuals with mental disabilities boil down to home-school-house (…) This restriction is due to various difficulties, such as lack of time to devote themselves to leisure activities with their children, lack of appropriate leisure option and financial difficulty ".

The schools are not prepared to receive these students with special educational needs, because missing a recast of criteria for evaluation and a well-trained team, so that it can be played an adequate work with these students.

There are several advantages in children living in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) with others of the same age group, since respect for the uniqueness of each child. This contact provides models of interaction, stimulating positively interactive capabilities, preventing the continuous insulation and exercising social skills during this Exchange in the process of social learning. In contrast, children with typical development are also favored, insofar as they live together and learn from the differences, reducing prejudice and discrimination.

One recommendation is that the teacher is aware that include in physical education classes is not simply adapt the discipline, but is adopting an educational perspective that values diversity and is committed to building an inclusive society.

Another point to be considered by the Physical education teacher refers to the way to present content, with attention to the selection and modification of teaching styles that provide the greatest educational benefits to all students.

Is in the interplay with the child taking into account the following factors: it is suggested that the teacher feels the student's side or behind him, preferably sit in front, since the latter position can become threatening. It is necessary to emphasize activities that are of interest to the student with autism: music, excursions, etc.

With the inclusive education appear greater demands and challenges for schools and for teachers. It is necessary that the educational actors to schedule a curriculum that responds to the characteristics of the students.

"Empower teachers and schools working with a curriculum that responds to these requirements is the great challenge for the school and support services". Plan the learning and participation of all students without resorting to stereotypical answers and pre-rolled, look for the best ways to adapt or modify the curriculum to the diversity of needs of students, working in conjunction with other professionals or services, promote collaboration and sharing of information and experiences among teachers, boost the production of curriculum materials, mutual observation of lessons, the emergence of educational partnerships, encourage experimentation and pedagogical innovation, are some of the key tasks in the teachers, regardless of their specific functions, must be actively involved and cooperate you.

4. INCLUSION-AUTISM AND ITS MANY SPECTRA

To that inclusive education is a reality, in addition to a change of mentalities, with regard to the access and to the success of the education for all, it is necessary to create the conditions and resources appropriate to each situation. One of the features that Porter recommends is the creation of "teachers of methods and resources", nominated for the schools according to the number of students (1/150 to 200) to act as "support consultant with the regular class teacher is responsible for helping him develop strategies and activities that support the inclusion of students with special needs in regular class ".

National curriculum parameters, defined curricular adaptations as "teaching strategies and performance criteria, allowing decisions that create opportunities to adapt the action to the peculiar ways of school educational learning of students, whereas the teaching learning process presupposes meet the diversifying needs of students at school. "I think for the establishment of an effective inclusion for students suffering from Invasive Developmental Disorders, it would be necessary to discuss about that" necessary support to educational action "If you're talking about, as well as what would be the" adaptations "required curriculum. A truly inclusive school would be willing to handle the heterogeneity and diversity.

The inclusive education implies schools open to all, where all study together, regardless of the type of problem, because the educational Act focuses on inclusive curriculum differentiation, built according to the contexts of students, allocation of different school methods for respond to cultural diversity, seeking different methodologies that have contemplation on attention to the rhythms and the learning styles of the students.

Support means,

"A diversity of resources – teaching materials, special equipment, additional human resources, teaching methodologies or other organizers of learning that can help in the Act of learning. The support refers to all these resources, but particularly those who are beyond the teacher alone can provide.

The picture is confusing and inciter to educators who identify themselves with the topic, and despite the educational methodologies do not supply adequate results when occur individually, without them it is very difficult to achieve progress in child carrier Autism. Even eat the presence of so much difficulty, there are many reasons to encourage the inclusion of these children. Reasons that pass through the evolution of our concepts about the disability, support them in various legal documents and the importance of pedagogical conduct.

Cooperation and the sharing of experiences and knowledge are a way of encouraging the no to isolation and the creation of spaces for training, research, action and reflection. (30). For the answers to the problems encountered are relevant, timely and adapted, must be built in contexts in which develop problems and with those interested in your resolution, which requires methodological and organizational changes.

Especially in families that have children with autism, the mutual emotional and communication is lacking becomes the biggest impasse. The autistics have problems characteristic to understand several of human affections. There appears to be no feelings, but in truth, this behavior seems to be a result of cognitive disability

(…) include is not simply insert a person in your community and in environments intended for your education, health, leisure, work, include applies host the all members of a given group, regardless of its peculiarities; is to consider that people are unique beings, different from each other and therefore unable to be categorized.

The Physical education teacher can also assist by giving suggestions to the family how they can behave at home, so get involved in the process of inclusion of their children. Often the educational mechanisms that are developed in the classroom have no thread inside. (19)

The motor intervention environment is a place where individuals receive specialized care for physical activities planned and targeted, aiming at an improvement in their motor skills. An inclusive space that uses the playfulness in order to facilitate the development of autistic child, so within this process is physical activities, to work the motor development in global scopes.

Studies on the movement of persons with motor deficiencies have assembled multidisciplinary teams in an attempt to understand the functioning of the Central nervous system (CNS) the adaptive processes created by these individuals for movement and interaction with the environment, having as purpose to develop methodological procedures that facilitate learning and motor control in the presence of movement disorders.

5. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR AUTISTIC CHILDREN

In search of better teaching methods for children with autism first should start by "identify what we need to teach a child with autism, which is a complicated and delicate task, since they do not fit the usual forms of evaluation".

Once diagnosed the criteria adopted were to present a simpler model, is a very useful when we can't find another more effective. According to Jordan, the teacher should systematize and organize the teaching methods in order to teach effectively.

All forms of assessment will give us enough information to define the objectives, if they are chosen on the basis of the following criteria: suitability to the evolution of the child; presentation of normal evolution; functionality, as far as possible and adaptation of the child with autism to natural environments.

This area which is a priority area of intervention being required initially to "unlock" process, that is, create an affinity between the educator and the own child, managing to get there is to her. The educator/teacher competes have with the child in a relationship that is easily understood by this, because everything is neatly established and not to chance; bounds to their conduct not adapted; strengthen, itemizing their adapted and functional behaviors; planning stable and structured situations; help the child to curb the autogratificações and understand which of their behaviors and attitudes are whims not allowed; to be sure, the orders and instructions which gives the child; have an attitude in the planning of activities and policy duration. (

The selection of goals and tasks in this area will provide learning strategies for future goals and more complex natural situations, in addition to providing specific objectives of development.

Teachers generally present difficulties in the way of conflict when dealing with the "different". Professor tends to adopt strategies that inhibit the expression of "autistic Symptoms" (Ex: "keep students busy"), more as an attempt to "take over" such feelings than as a pedagogical practice, focused on the needs of the student. Preconceived ideas, especially from the media, influence teacher expectations about the performance of their students, affecting the effectiveness of their actions with regard to the promotion of skills.

"The school inclusive practices are emancipatory and adapted different students, including those with a disability, to the place of knowledge, that have been deleted, in school or out of it."

[…] a type of intervention with children with development problems-psychosis, children with autistic traits, pós-autistas and children with organic problems associated with failures in subjective Constitution, is a set of interdisciplinary practices treatment, with particular emphasis on educational practices, aimed at the resumption of the global development of the child or the resumption of psychic structure interrupted by the outbreak of infantile psychosis or the minimum support of subject a child can be built.

The acquisition of language is submissive to symbolic function, which both stated in the development of imitation and the game as the verbal mechanisms. Identifies the beginnings of child representation in imitation, symbolic thinking and unconscious. During this period the individual mental life processes predominate over the collective factors, leading to the formation of interindividual relations, but without deriving them unambiguously. So, in the game and in imitation can follow continuously the passage of sensory-motor for representative thinking. This begins when there is differentiation and coordination between signifiers and meanings, being the first significant distinguished would be provided by imitation and your derivative, the mental picture, while the meanings would be provided by the predominant assimilation in the game. "Is this conjunction between imitation, or mental, of a missing model, and the meanings provided by various forms of assimilation that allows the creation of symbolic function."

Implies that teaching and learning, as a unit on the professor, is considered inseparable, making relations more complex. So if the student does not learn, it is also a problem for the teacher. The relationship with knowledge must be different from the traditional form practiced by the school. (37). Relates to make teaching and learning more investigative, in that the teacher must be guided by the confrontation of problem situations for which the answers are insufficient.

In the case of autism there is difficulty of working with games because they have difficulty in understanding rules, in addition to presenting in your most motor skills deficit. It is also known that motor dysfunction may contribute to a delay of language and communication.

Evaluation instruments should inform the current development of the child, the way she faces certain learning situations, the resources and the process which uses in a given activity. Know what she is able to do, even though with the mediation of others, allows the development of teaching strategies and appropriate for each student in particular.

The language/communication is key for social and cultural interaction. However, it is one of the biggest obstacles the autistic. Although many develop verbal skills and much can develop only non-verbal communication skills.

The use of the toy promotes contact, becoming the child's expression object, which will express your fantasies, desires and experiences real, symbolic form. Therefore, the play is fundamental to the development of the child, as regards the aspects of the growth, health and socialization, as well as being a form of the subject and communicate with others. It is observed that the playful is important for child development, because it allows the approximation with the professionals that are part of your routine and your development process, the expression of feelings and emotions, as well as promote socialization by contact with other children at school, in the community, at home and other locations that the child attends. Socialization can be made in activities such as work in group dynamics, games, games and toys.

For Vygotsky, the game features a children's imprint for children's learning, not only systematic education that can develop the learning, but also the Act of play, i.e., also can and should be considered paramount in learning and child development-despite not being the predominant aspect of childhood, he exerts a huge influence on child development.

The development and learning of autistics need time and space to happen, because they are complex processes. (44). It is important that the teacher knows how to mediate and interact with the pupil and to meet his/her characteristics, to help you in the process of teaching and learning.

The game can be used as a methodological strategy in teaching student learning, by generating zone of proximal development, i.e. learning opportunities. In addition, when using educational games as didactic-pedagogic feature, the educator can promote the learning and development of all the potential and abilities of the students. To this end, the game must be practiced in a constructive manner and not as a series of meaningless activities, aiming the development of physical and intellectual capabilities, not forgetting the importance of socialization.

6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

This work sought to show the difficulties and irregularities that motor the child with autism has, as well as the vision he has of your own body.

Through understanding motor dysfunction that may contribute to a delay of language and communication, we analyze the process of acquisition of motor skills is developed in a way that is part and parcel of pedagogical support programs for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

For the implementation of the proposed objectives, it became necessary to make a reflection of the history and physical evolution from your origin to the present day, showing that it's a discipline essential to any type of teaching, which uses physical and natural resources to prevent disease and that this discipline can allow the autistic, overcoming in their everyday difficulties, giving you a better quality of life.

Physical education provides to autistic new forms of expression, in addition to getting a great benefit to health and improves psychomotor, social areas and cardiovascular, decreasing behaviors as: inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity.

The development of this study made it possible to evaluate the importance of professional physical education in the educational context and development of autistic, which, through the positive practice of physical activities acts so as to improve the quality of life and functionality of the carriers of this disorder.

Front of the foregoing it is necessary to conduct more research related to the topic for professionals who deal with these children have greater targeting during their classes, allowing better psychomotor development of his students.

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[1] Student of the graduate course in physical education Degree from the Faculty of Patos de Minas.

[2] Professor Public health specialist of the worker and physical therapy in trauma-Orthopedics and Neurology.

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