Assertive relations: a strategy of the school production of Argumentative Writing

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MAJEWSKI, Cesaria [1]

MAJEWSKI, Cristiano Mendes. Assertive relations: a strategy School Argumentative writing production. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1. Vol. 9. Pp 604-612, October/November 2016. ISSN: 2448-0959

Summary: this article provides a discussion on argumentative writing production. Is a theoretical reflection about the argumentative relationship (assertion of departure, arrival and assertion assertion of passing) and on the possibility of didactic transposition of this theory. The text brings signs for the elaboration of methodology of writing production. The main goal is to socialize a possibility of argumentative writing production support in middle school and, therefore, contribute to broaden the student's skills in written work. The theoretical foundation of the NCPS and proceeds of discursive theory of Charaudeau, which treats of discourse organization.

Keywords: assertive, production Relations argumentative writing, methodology.

1. ARGUING IN THE CLASSROOM

This article aims to promote a discussion on development alternatives of argumentative writing production of elementary school. It is known that the argument is present, in varying degrees (cf. CHARAUDEAU, 2010; Guedes, 2009) both to demonstrate, how to persuade, depending on the instance of use, becoming thus relevant to organize these measures in development of language competence (BRONCKART, 2006, p. 255).

Thinking about the development of some argumentative skills becomes necessary, mainly written in elementary school. As the NCPS, the teaching of Portuguese language provides the narrative and descriptive, as well as the argumentative mode.

Charaudeau (2010) points to the importance of the relationship assertions as constituent elements and fundamental to the operation of logical argumentation. Therefore, the transposition of this theory, namely, the three assertions (departure, transit, arrival) becomes an important tool for the Portuguese language teacher you want, even apart from the parameters, deepen the Organization modes and discussion of ideas, thus contributing, to the development through the speech.

2. ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING: THINKING A METHODOLOGY

It is known that written in the classroom is a challenge for teachers of Portuguese language, because this professional is responsible for developing, in relation to written argumentative, the intrinsic elements of argumentation: thematic unit, objectivity, concreteness and questioning (cf. Guedes, 2009, p. 295).

The quality of the written arguments are specifically geared to the production of knowledge and the Organization of this knowledge by the criteria of rationality (cf. Guedes, 2009, p. 295). As to the rationality, Meyer (2011, p. 44), highlights the first step of this organization, as being essential to the analysis of four elements: fact, idea, opinion and belief. Now, so that this instrument of interaction, i.e. written production (cf. Guedes, 2009; BRONCKART, 2009; CHARAUDEAU, 2010) answer your scope, it is necessary that the student-author develop the skills of organization and classification of these elements even before producing a text capable of sustaining views (cf. FIORIN, 1999).

In this sense, it is necessary to make a reflection on discursive qualities of an argument. Note that the national high school Exam (ENEM) points to a problem of textual organization structure. This organization is impaired, especially: (a) practical data organization); b) interpretative difficulties; c) unawareness of the staging and organization of views. It is worth remembering that there is solid research on reading and interpretation, however, there is a grace period in the process of transposition of reader interaction/discussion, i.e. There is no difficulty on the part of students, to organize its positioning and explain about the correspondence between he (reader) and the text (materialization of a worldview).

For Patrick Charaudeau (2010), the technical knowledge need not be dominated by the apprentice, but this knowledge has to be didaticzado through the practice of the teacher in the classroom, that is, the argument does not need to be taught with all details available, however, in the sight of the teacher for this theory and the sociodiscursivo context of both, including teaching materials , this competence can be applied in a sociodiscursiva interaction in the form of writing.

3. AS FOR THE ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING PRODUCTION, THE NCPS?

The NCPS of Portuguese language of third and fourth cycles have been designed to meet the requirements of the teaching and learning of the mother tongue. However, when one reads the text on the proposals for the development of language skills, note-mostly the narration and description with proposals for written production present in textbooks. The argument is, generally, well the part in teaching writing production. However, any textbook of primary and secondary features texts that, in one way or another, they argue.

Starting from this principle, supported the idea of working with a text as a starting point for the purpose of producing certain effects of sense, are statements or persuasive, primarily, through a study of transposition of a part of the theory of Charaudeau. This implementation is intended to orient the student to become aware of the significant presence of the argumentative mode as a means of organizing ideas and points of view in certain instances of language use.

Notes that the presence of these textual organization modes is often thus is coherent thought to promote a discussion on a specific methodology focused on the development of the production of argumentative texts in the classroom, teaching students the constituent mechanisms (cf. CHARAUDEAU, 2010; MEYER, 2011; Guedes, 2009).

Still in the chapter which deals with principle organizers, NCPs include aspects of argumentation as fundamental in the triad "USE-REFLECTION-USE" and show the importance of teaching this practice of "acting" as cultural interaction and necessary for awareness (NCPS, 1998, p. 35). Therefore, if the student must have a learning that aims at development of different degrees of deepening both textual reading, as for writing, it is plausible that has access to educational material covering this other way of writing organization: the argument (NCPS, 1998, p. 39).

The following will appear as if you can see the argumentative structure present in a text and, from this awareness, develop and promote the understanding and mastery of this form of organization of knowledge.

4 the mechanics of PROBES

To exemplify, illustrative manner the process assertive, will be used as support material a opinion piece in the newspaper Zero Hora-Jango, twice deposed. One can see that this material is Rico on assumptions, facts, opinions like "went through the policy which the country redemocratizou, constitucionalizou, pacified", and works perfectly in support of reading to a classroom, including interdisciplinarity. To start this process of systematization is necessary in the case of some basic definitions. The first of these is to clarify what are the assertions. As Dubois (2006, p. 74), "assertion is the mode or type of communication set up between you and your speaker interlocutor, and that is to make your prayers depen[2]d on an implicit phrase[…]." For Charaudeau (2010), the Organization of an argument depends, mainly, two elements the I and the you. This dialogical relationship of seeking influence, knowledge of self (research) as much as the knowledge that I have of you (receiver) are important in the process of staging. The mechanics of the argumentative discourse has components and procedures of a discursive organization whose combinations can be seen in operation within any particular text (cf. CHARAUDEAU, 2010, p. 203). In this text, the reader activates a world knowledge to understand it and, from that understanding, cultural action, because:

The point of view of this discipline is not – or is not enough – the language; He studies more what comes before or after the discursive production, namely the constraints of communication situations and reception (understanding – interpretation – reaction) persuasive speech (CHARAUDEAU, 2010, p. 203).

In the search for an ideal of persuasion, it should be noted that the activity of reasoning includes significant numbers of logical procedures and complex operations. However distinguishes these procedures from those of other modes of speech. This distinction is given exactly by the fact that the argument falls on a purpose, a mean rationalizing and makes the game of reasoning that is marked by a logical and a principle of non-contradiction. Although some facts have in its core a controversial source, one can call them premises. As for the other modes (descriptive and narrative), these are a descriptive purpose is the world's perceptions and Mimetic of human actions (cf. CHARAUDEAU, 2010, p. 203).

As it is a barter situation monologal, i.e., the guy who writes to highlight the proposal, proposition that questions the Proposal and develops the Act of Persuasion-it becomes necessary to most appropriate explanation highlight some nominal series that set the tone of the arguments value and contribute to the understanding of the mechanism (cf. CHARAUDEAU, 2010, p. 226). As for the article cited communication contract, this is totally clear, because there is no concealment:

"Absolutely fair to provide funeral honors to former President (proposed). He died in exile and not received. And it will be interesting to observe the emotional expressions of former militants of the armed struggle in front of the remains of the President who so despised (PRP). Despised, Yes. They were Communists and Jango (Act of Persuasion). "(PUGGINA, 2013-ANNEX).

Note-If, in the above snippet, the Act of Persuasion work as argumentative device based on a domain of knowing, since it's known fact about the former President of the Republic.

Leaving these reflections, one might ask, about the basic elements of the argumentative relationship that:

[…] all the argumentative relationship consists of at least three elements: an assertion of match (given premise), an assertion of arrival (completion, result), and one (or several) assertion of passage that allows you to pass from one to the other (inference, proof, argument) (CHARAUDEAU, 2010, p. 209).

For the assertion, the text brings several enunciativas settings for the player to admit these data as given be assignments, in the case of journalistic text, former Jango. Note the use of subjective adjetivação feature in "broad perspective", or the adjective "more convenient" in the quest for acceptance by the you (partner). As classic examples of an assertive proposal has the following prayer: "is this the most convenient version control that has been imposed on Brazil in recent years. To the exhumation of the corpse of John George serves ". Realize that the assumptions, facts and actions serve as a premise and, at the same time, this journalistic text of opinion, serve as a modalizador. This prayer modalizadora constructs a talks about the world that consists of do exist, beings in assigning properties to them, describe them in your actions or accomplishments. This assertion (A1), which is configured in the form of a statement, represents a match meant to do admit other assertions in relation to which it is justified. Can therefore be called given or premise.

The way that the Act is not argumentative is arbitrary. Between the data and assumptions presented in the assertion of arrival, there is a causality relationship during the transition – modalizada or not – to the assertion of passage. This contention is more complex, because, as Meyer (2011), can work with opinion, fact, belief, ideology and they can all be dismissed according to the validity the they assigned according to persuasive force, Furthermore, the importance of knowing ranks them very carefully.

This assertive universe (opinion, fact, belief, ideology) is to submit, through the experience and knowledge of the world, the caller or recipient. During the process, he will accept the proposal, qualifying the properties (CHARAUDEAU, 2012, p. 41; Guedes, 2009, p. 292) and justifying this regulation. Example of passing prayer assertion "absolutely fair to provide funeral honors to former President. He died in exile and not received "– here, you have an opinion and a fact. Another example of "a lot of that these days the celebrate in Brasilia took up arms to play, here, the lessons of apendidas revolutionary uprising in Cube and Russia" — in this case, there is fact, opinion and idea[3].

Finally, but no less complex, the arrival is the assertion that represents what should be accepted as a result of the data and assumptions (and their constituents) the assertion of departure and possible occurrences during the enunciation of the assertions of passage. There is a strong causal relationship in this assertion, since this step argumentative is the conclusion of one or more relationships of legitimacy of proposals, during the acting mechanism, have logical joints of conjunction, disjunction, opposition, etc.

A clear example is in "Fortunately we get rid of this greater evil and politics won" or shows the legitimacy in "his affection to the dictatorship of Castro (Cuban) and his devotion to Che Guevara (Argentina) are well represented in the exams that will be submitted the former President George".  Causality, in this specific text, by processing and assimilation of facts presented on arrival and assertion, therefore, represents the cause of the premise and (or) their (s) result (s).

5. THE ARGUMENT AS A WAY OF "ACTING"  

It is intended with this item, generate a reflection among language professionals about a possible methodology contributes to the Organization of individual and social experiences of individuals. Taking into account that people communicate through an inscription, a spatial and temporal framework (cf. CHARAUDEAU, 2010, p. 206), and perform operations of thought that build a discursive explanation universe, which depend on collective schematics to streamline certain casts and language interventions (cf. BRONCKART, 2006, p. 255) the argument, in the context here, is an object of study is indispensable in order to enable the citizen to criticism, enriching its potential, mainly for the textual activity, developing complex mechanisms, by means of which, are confronted at all times the collective and individual expertise (BRONCKART, 2006, p. 255).

You can even find it difficult to this approach, but what if aims to show is the possibility to insert these in a methodology that the transposition of a discursive theory about argumentative organization modes. By analyzing the structure of the text Jango, twice deposed, showed up as the persuasion process, which in turn relies on shared knowledge.

The extent and which holds that language is not only a means of expression that would be strictly psychological processes (perception, cognition, feelings, emotions), but which is, in reality, founder and organizer of these processes in its specifically human. (BRONCKART, 2006, p. 122)

Finally, it is understood that promoting a textual activity to develop rational and complex mechanisms, by means of which, are confronted the collective and individual expertise, is to provide a proposal for which there is possibility to teach argumentation in Portuguese language classes.

REFERENCES

Brazil. Department of elementary education. National curriculum parameters: third and fourth cycles of elementary school-Portuguese language. Brasilia: MEC/SEF, 1998, 106 pp.

BRONKCART. Jean-Paul. Activity of language, discourse and human development. Campinas: letters, 2006, 259 pp.

CHARAUDEAU, Patrick. Language and speech: modes of organization. São Paulo: context, 2010, 256 pp.

CHARAUDEAU, Patrick. Media discourse. São Paulo: context, 2012, 286 pp..

DUBOIS, Jean. Dictionary of Linguistics. São Paulo: Cultrix, 2006, 654 pp.

FIORIN, José Luiz. PLATO, Francisco Savioli. Text lessons: reading and writing. São Paulo: Ática, 1999, 416 pp.

Guedes, Paulo Coimbra. The essay textual production: the teaching of writing. São Paulo: Parable, 2009. 345 pp.

MEYER, Bernard. The art of arguing. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2011, 306 pp.

ANNEX

Percival, Puggina. Jango, twice deposed. Posted in Zero hour, 17 November 2013.

Jango, twice deposed[4]

Who establishes the historical narrative and the reading of the past, more easily write the future. 

Is this more convenient version control that has been imposed on Brazil in recent years. To the exhumation of the corpse of John George serves, whatever the result, to attract attention to the narrative that befits the powerless. There's a wide demographic perspective for that. Of the 200 million of Brazilians living, only 15 million had 18 years or more in 1964. The other 185 million know only a version of events that year, and in part of the following years. They were captured by a single report. The version that they are insistently repeated serves the power project of who conceived. Is the task of the Commissioners of the story, members of this Committee that insists on being known as the Truth Commission.
Absolutely fair to provide funeral honors to former President. He died in exile and not received. And it will be interesting to observe the emotional expressions of former militants of the armed struggle in front of the remains of the President who so despised. Despised, Yes. They were Communists and Jango doesn't. They saw it as a half-hearted farmer, insecure, unreliable While represented to the Communists of the ' 60 1 power project, Jango had his support. Outside the Government, has been ignored by his own comrades on your left. Nobody spent a cartridge or took a bodoque to restore it in the Presidential post.

Jango was deposed by the National Congress and the military. And again devoid of any importance for the majority of its partners. Brizola fought with him. The restless brother-in-law, who projected shadow on Jango President, eyes on the subsequent mandate, continued to design it in exile. Was around Brizola that articulated some of the fight.            In exile, Jango was visited by friends from little or no power to mobilize.
After his fall, many of those who in these days the celebrate in Brasilia took guns to play, here, the revolutionary insurgency lessons learned in Cuba and Russia. However, for the continuity of the power project now underway in Brazil it is important that these enemies of democracy the years 60 and 70 are hailed as carriers of highest libertarian ideals. Fake! They wanted to deploy a project in the Communist country, totalitarian and much more brutal. Delayed the redemocratization. In fact, as a matter of fact, democracy had enemies on both sides of the dispute. Some aferrados to power abusing their violence. Others, with no popular support, seeking power through violence, to impose a regime that, even then, had generated 100 million dead bodies in the world. Fortunately we get rid of this greater evil and politics won. It was through the country policy redemocratizou, constitucionalizou, pacified. And today lives with a concentration of power that, again, will corrupting democracy.

Is fraudulent commitment to mystify the history, to hide the fact that many of those who govern us today were Communist revolutionaries and sneered at democracy, which said to be bourgeois. His affection to the dictatorship of Castro (Cuban) and his devotion to Che Guevara (Argentina) are well represented in the exams that will be submitted the former President George. Them will be fetched from the experts in acting arrant Cuban dictatorship so many corpses and thinly disguised dictatorship in argentina.

[1] Master in arts-Centro Universitário Ritter dos Reis

[2] For Meyer (2011), this dependency has profound significance for the Wrangler, the probes consist of facts, ideas, opinions, and beliefs-and these give the directions of rebuttal or acceptance. Important for the teacher to clarify to the student the fundamental differences so that his arguments are well grounded in writing. This proposition (if built) is that it depends on the position: for or against. (Charaudeau, 2008, p. 224)

[3] As Meyer (2011, p. 45), idea is: "an abstract notion. Regarding the fact, that is precise and specific, it has general application. The ability to name an idea assumes, therefore, beyond the semantic knowledge of the word that conveys, qualities of abstraction and generalization. Perform the synthesis of various existing notions to regroup them in a single set and know find the commonality between the a priori different situations are essential skills (but difficult to obtain, because intellectually demanding) who want to dominate the reflection.

[4] The text was reproduced ipsis litteris.

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