Case study on the approach of the curricular component of History: An interdisciplinary view

DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/an-interdisciplinary-view
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CONTEÚDO

INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

VIANA, Maria Betânia Rossi [1]

VIANA, Maria Betânia Rossi. Case study on the approach of the curricular component of History: An interdisciplinary view. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 10, Vol. 04, pp. 98-108. October 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/an-interdisciplinary-view, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/an-interdisciplinary-view

SUMMARY

This article was born from the restlessness regarding the fragmentation of history taught at the State School Professor Maria Curtareli Lira, in high school, which describes the arduous path taken by the curricular component of History, from the colonization of Brazil to the present day and how interdisciplinarity is important, being little addressed or simply nonexistent in the classes of the curricular component of history. Whose objectives are to describe a brief history of the curricular component of history, to conceptualize interdisciplinarity as well as to specify how it is inserted in the Brazilian educational panorama. The methodology used was a bibliographic survey of the authors pertinent to the theme, concluding with the clashes on interdisciplinarity and the integrative form that is portrayed in the Common National Curriculum Base.

Keywords: History, interdisciplinarity, Common National Curriculum Base.

1. INTRODUCTION

This scientific article discusses a much debated theme, interdisciplinarity, which began in universities after World War II, with the emergence of a reality that brings in its dungeon drastic changes, caused by the atomic bomb and all the atrocities experienced in concentration camps.

Both situations are the result of the distorted use of modern sciences, bringing to the fore the need to rebuild the way in which society uses all this new technology, the commitment to the consequences that the misuse of them brings to humanity.

With the various questions, it was observed that scientific knowledge, as a producer of knowledge, would not support continuing to be approached in isolation, brought to light the need for rupture with the fragmented organization of school knowledge.

Despite all the studies and debates on this new vision, it is still little applied in the school routine, when one wishes to teach and at the same time learn in an integrated and non-shaded way in areas of knowledge. This literature review is focused on interdisciplinarity applied in the curricular component of history.

The approach of the theme that gave rise to this work was history in an Interdisciplinary focus, in the State School Professor Maria Curtarelli Lira, in which students from 6th grade to 9th grade of elementary school and 1st year to 3rd year of high school are attended, in the morning, evening and night periods. It is located in the municipality of Apuí, south of the State of Amazonas, in the middle of the Amazon forest.

The clientele served, escapes the standard of the traditional Amazonian population, because most of it is formed by immigrants from various regions of the country, where southern immigrants prevail, who came to the Amazon region in search of better living conditions.

The predominant typical culture is barbecue, chimarrão, Juninas parties and Rodeo. Most of the students assisted by the institution live in the urban area and thirty percent live in the Rural area, thus depending on school transport to get to school.

The community in which it operates is very participatory, collaborates whenever possible with the school institution in the development of educational projects, in the care of the school infrastructure and in the development of lectures and orientations to students.

When observing the work developed by the teachers, in the daily routine of the educational institution, it detected that curricular components were approached in a totally fragmented way, without a link between them, remaining the loose and meaningless subjects.

From this restlessness we seek more theoretical information about interdisciplinarity and the feasibility in its application when one wishes to achieve success in teaching-learning, since it is part of educational norms.

It discusses the path taken by the Curricular Component of History from the beginning of teaching learning in Brazil through the Jesuits to its current configuration in the BNCC, seeking a basis in theorists of how to work it interdisciplinary with the other sciences, as well as the stage where vision and its contributions to an effective learning of students emerged.

2. INTERDISCIPLINARITY AND THE CURRICULAR COMPONENT OF HISTORY IN BRAZILIAN EDUCATION

History in Brazil portrays the use of the Curricular Component of History as a source of reading by the Jesuits to teach reading and writing in elementary school. The constitution of the Empire and the History of Brazil were used as material for this teaching of learning.

The proposals in force in formal education, at the time, did not differentiate moral ideas, state political histories or popular cultures.

Elementary school teachers should, according to the study plans proposed in 1827, use for reading teaching, among other texts, “the Constitution of the Empire and History of Brazil”. The teaching of history was associated with reading lessons, so that one could learn to read using themes that incited the imagination of children and fortified moral sense through duties to Pátria and its rulers (BITTENCOURT, 2018, p. 48).

In the Imperial period, to legitimize the alliance between the Church and the State, religious teaching prevailed in the curricula of the First Letters Schools, also at secondary level. Despite all the context and legislative intentions, the Curriculum Component of History was a non-compulsory discipline in the curricula of elementary schools at the time, was inserted in secondary school after the year 1885. Later, history programs were created for elementary schools.

The religious bond that the country experienced in Brazilian education during the first centuries was difficult to break, despite the insertion of National History as a constitutive matter of the elementary schools curriculum, at its side also saw sacred history as the content of Moral and Religious Education.

The contents, in turn, were not clearly defined, although there were proposals for the teaching of profane general history, sacred history and the history of the Empire of Brazil. The consolidation of study plans only occurred from the moment the Pedro II College, created in 1837, instituted its curricular programs, introducing, from 1838, the teaching of History throughout its eight grades. (FONSECA, 2006, p. 43)

In the year 1870, there was the transformation of the curricular programs of elementary schools that are influenced by scientific perceptions that fought confrontations with the conservative sectors that were consequently linked to a moralizing education coordinated by the Catholic Church.

The curricula of elementary schools were expanded and innovative school subjects at the time were incorporated into it as: the physical sciences, natural history school subjects. It includes topics on Brazilian History, Regional History and Universal Geography. Considering that this Curricular Component traveled a long cumin until becoming a specific area discipline according to the PCNs:

In the course of the 1970s, the struggles of professionals from the classroom to the university gained expression with the growth of historians’  associations […] and their engagement in the battle for the return of history and geography to school curricula and the extinction of undergraduate courses in Social Studies (PCNs, 1991, p.27).

Brazilian thinkers increasingly outraged by the position that history occupied in the school curriculum, incessantly sought a renewal of it and the beginning of this change was guaranteed, according to Penteado:

According to the law and opinion 853/71, “Social Studies is an area of study that aims at the space-time integration of the student, using for both the knowledge and concepts of History and Geography and other human sciences – Anthropology, Sociology, Politics, Economics – as an instrument necessary for the understanding of history and for the adjustment to the social environment to which the educator intends (PENTEADO, 2005, p.20).

New reorganizations were thought and put into practice in the curriculum of Primary Schools aiming to conceive a proposal of Profane History with greater scope and eliminate sacred history.

For, in the Imperial period the curriculum already proposed this separation, but in practice, at the time of teaching learning, it could not be affirmed about the history that was taught.

Despite the reformulation, the same model adopted by Sacred History was experienced in the History of Brazil programs, in which they only replaced the moral narratives that described the lives of the saints and heroic actions of certain characters of that period, who believed they were builders of the nation, such as government authorities and clerics.

The disposition of the episodes was organized according to the succession of kings, battles against foreign peoples who tried to invade the territories, all the events that were somehow linked to independence, also the formation of the National State, all the facts that would lead the country to become a great nation.

The methodology used at the time, in the classroom, at the time of the development of the knowledge to be acquired with the Curricular Component of History was the traditional one, based entirely on the memorization of historical events in the way they were presented and on the repetition of texts.

New political and educational challenges are experienced by Brazil at the end of the 19th century, the most relevant to be cited are: liberation of slaves through the Aurea Law Signed by Princess Isabel; Proclamation of the Republic; changes in the labor field and migration; among other factors.

History is incorporated from humanistic and pacifist contents, focused on the analysis of the processes of economic development of the societies of the period, the advances of technologies, sciences and culture.

Since 1930, proposals began to emerge to replace the curricular components of History and Geography with the curricular component of Social Studies, inspired by North American schools. Perfecting only in 1950, through pedagogical studies.

In the military period, the intention was for history to go on only what was of interest to the military, and for a long time remained a way to teach civility and obedience to them. Never transgressing to norms and suffering coertions in various ways, being for a period to some extent without much value in the school curriculum. In this period of the Brazilian educational context, the Curriculum component of History was not seen as a discipline.

During most of the period of the military dictatorship (1964-1985), the disciplines of History and Geography were eliminated from elementary school and replaced by the contents of Moral and Civic Education and Social and Political Organization of Brazil (OSPB) (ZUCCHI, 2012, p. 20).

However, we saw the increase and expansion of the opportunities for access to educational institutions of the time, for the majority of the population that until that time were the margin of education. On the other hand, there was a degradation of the quality of Public Education, due to several political, educational and economic factors.

In 1980, there was the democratization of educational knowledge, which began to be examined and reorganized through curricular reforms. There was a drastic change in the school clientele, which was formed by several social groups, which experienced an intense process of rural exodus. With this marked difference in social class they forced a change in the educational context.

With the end of the military regime, in the mid-1980s, entities formed by teachers, researchers and other professionals related to the areas of History and Geography […] began a process of debate, with the aim of making these disciplines present and independent again in the curricula of Brazilian schools (ZUCCHI, 2012, p. 21).

However, the history of the present day in the initial grades/years of elementary school is still passed on to the students in a somewhat romanticized way and outside the contextualization of the daily life experienced by him, however that the teachers have their training in pedagogy, and need to teach all the curricular components that the grid requires.

It is very difficult to abandon the traditional education in which the majority graduated. In this context of teaching history does not bring significance, the students do not feel like learning it, seeing it as a simple decorative matter that becomes irrelevant to their daily life and their occupational life.

I believe that history, in all its dimensions, is essentially formative. Thus, its teaching, subjects, learning, knowledge, practices, didactic experiences have an enormous importance for social life, for the construction of democracy and citizenship (GUIMARÃES, 2013, p. 21).

Interdisciplinarity began to be addressed in Brazil from Law No. 5,692/71. From this moment on, its presence in the field of Brazilian education has made a remarkable presence, mainly with the new Law of Guidelines and Bases No. 9,394/96, with the national Curriculum Parameters and currently also, is an integral component of the National Common Curriculum Base, which was approved on December 20, 2017[2].

More or less since 1994, even before the appearance of the National Curriculum Parameters for elementary school, proposals for teaching history had already emerged that sought to incorporate these trends, regardless of their existence in official curricula (FONSECA, 2006, p. 62)

Interdisciplinarity strongly influenced educational legislation and curricular proposals, becoming a primordial piece, present in the speech and educational work of teachers, who seek to teach curricular components in an integrated and undivided way.

The use of interdisciplinarity as a teaching methodology for the progress of the integration of the objects of knowledge of a curricular component with other curricular components. Proposal inserted in the National Common Curriculum Base that contributes to a greater scope of the student’s teaching-learning. Through the analysis of studies, it can be observed that interdisciplinarity is still unknown in its entirety, as well as its importance and feasibility in the academic education of our students.

In Brazil, we conceptualize Interdisciplinarity by a new attitude towards the issue of knowledge, from openness to understanding hidden aspects of the act of learning and the apparently expressed, putting them into question (FAZENDA, 2011, p. 21).

There is the possibility of interaction between the distinct Curricular Components, one can consider this interaction as a form of complementation or supplementation, which leads to the perspective of a elaboration of a critical-reflective knowledge, which should be prestigious gradually in teaching-learning in class.

Training in education by and for interdisciplinarity is imposed and needs to be conceived on specific bases, supported by works developed in the area, referred to in different sciences that intend to contribute from the particular purposes of professional training to the performance of the teacher (FAZENDA, 2011, p. 23).

Emerging from this perspective, a way to overcome the shading between the Curricular Components. Thus enabling a conversation between them, relating them to each other for a greater understanding of the reality in which it is inserted. Interdisciplinarity seeks to correlate the Curricular Components when confronting the themes of the subjects under study.

Interdisciplinarity requires disciplinary actions that share common interests. But it will only be effective if the educational goals outlined are met. If these goals are established in advance and all professionals of the educational institution share them and collaborate in achieving them.

Interdisciplinarity offers a new attitude towards knowledge, a change of attitude in search of the context of knowledge, in search of being as an integral person. Interdisciplinarity aims to ensure the construction of a globalizing knowledge, breaking with the limits of disciplines. The objective of the construction of an interdisciplinary didactics and research is the explanation of the ambiguous contour of pedagogical movements and actions − only the exercise of ambiguity can suggest the multiface of the movement and, consequently, of the phenomenon researched (FAZENDA, 2011, p. 27).

The use of interdisciplinarity should be used in teaching, stimulating in teachers an innovative behavior, transcends what is portrayed in the Common National Curriculum Base, because it becomes a need for him to take an intrinsic posture, using methodologies and didactics appropriate for this perspective.

Therefore, through an interdisciplinary instruction, with positioning focused on the historical-critical aspect, in which teachers will provide their students with an efficient learning for the life of each one, in its complexity, so that the current world does not want fragmentations, the whole is required, something complete.

History is a school discipline that has (or should have) a deep relationship with its own sociopolitical and cultural practice, but which often becomes an esoteric and enigmatic knowledge for students, phenomena that we believe are somehow related to the action of teachers (MONTEIRO, 2010, p. 27).

In the curricular component of history, interdisciplinarity is rooted in the development of its teaching-learning, because all curricular components have their connection with it. We can list various methodologies and related disciplines, from a simple photograph, a letter, an account of everything, we can approach in an interdisciplinary way.

In view, that both objects, curricular components, as well as people, bring in their framework a story. In which they are part of the story and are producers of their own stories.

3. CONCLUSION

In the field of research, the historiographic studies and interdisciplinarity under discussion in Brazil are noted, a broad advance since its emergence, focusing not only on theorization.

The effective search for possibilities in the research field. At the time of teaching learning in the classroom, one notices the need to have an effective integration between the different levels of learning of the Curricular Components.

In the groups of historians who researched the theme, there are those who defend the theory of philosophy of the subject, in which the subject and the object become autonomous. On the other hand, there is a historical perspective, in which the subject and the object are inseparable, taking into account their historical contexts – social.

The Brazilian Educational Legislation, brings in its dungeon a need for adequacy of Brazilian education in all its spheres and levels of integration of the various aspects, built by the scientific knowledge of each area of knowledge.

Universities form the Professor in the Theoretical part, but only in the exercise of the profession, in daily practice and in the experience of daily school life the teacher acquires experience, also learns and relearns from his students. No one is born a teacher, but he becomes a teacher. Thus, his professional training is marked by social and historical development in the school grounds with his students.

A deeper concern is noted in the National Common Curriculum Base than other educational documents with interdisciplinarity and contextualization. It is up to each teacher to prepare, organize their classes and develop projects, aiming to transpose this fragmentation that has between the curricular components in Brazilian schools.

Being of paramount importance, to highlight that in interdisciplinary work it does not intend to annihilate the curricular components, it aims for the opposite, because it estimates the existence of disciplinarization.

The interdisciplinarity that this article portrays, the curricular components do not have their specificities unrelated or the importance. But, a connection between them, where all the curricular components interconnect, creating bonds, where students will learn the contents in an integrated and non-shaded way.

The constant changes experienced by educational institutions and the stages of constant debates signal a rethinking of history in general, because there are no absolute truths. The construction process must always be questioned, so that we are always in reconstruction and restructuring.

Mainly, in the educational field, in search of an excellent learning, in which we can always have a line of link between the Curricular Component of History with the other curricular components.

4. REFERENCES

ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASLIEIRA DE NORMAS TECNICAS. 6023: Informação e Técnicas, Rio de Janeiro, 2002.

BITTENCOURT, C. M. F. Ensino de História: Fundamentos e Métodos. 5. ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2018.

BORGES, V. P. O que é História. Tatuapé, SP: Brasiliense, 2017.

BRANCO, E. P. et al. A implantação da base nacional comum curricular no contexto ds politicas neoliberais. Curitiba: Appris, 2018.

BRASIL, B. N. C. C. Educação é a Base. Brasilia, MEC/CONSED/UNDIME, 2017. Disponivel em: <http:// basenacionalcomum.mec.gov.br/imagens_publicacao.pdf>. Acesso em: 21 Abril 2019.

BRODBECK, M. D. S. L. Vivenciando a História – Metodologia de Ensino da História. Curitiba: Base Editorial, 2012.

FAZENDA, I. C. A. Integração e Interdisciplinaridade no Ensino Brasileiro: Efetividade ou ideologia. 6. ed. São Paulo: Loyola, 2011.

FONSECA, T. N. D. L. E. História & Ensino de História. São Paulo: Autentica, 2006.

GUIMARÃES, S. Didática e Pratica de Ensino de História. 13. ed. Campinas: PAPIRUS, 2013.

______. Interdisciplinaridade: História,Teoria e Pesquisa. 14. ed. São Paulo: Papirus, 2007.

______. Ministério da Educação e Cultura. LDB- Lei nº939/96, de 20 de dezembro de 1996. Estabelece diretirzes e bases da Educação Nacional Brasilia:MEC, 1996.

MONTEIRO, A. M. Professores de Historia: Entre Saberes e Práticas. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Mauad X, 2010.

PACHECO, R. A. Ensino de História e Patrimonio Cultura: Um Percurso Docente. Jundaí, SP: Paco, 2017.

PENTEADO, H. D. Metodologia do Ensino de História e Geografia. São Paulo: cortez, 2005.

______. Secretaria de Educação Fundamental. Parametros Curriculare Nacionais: História/Geografia, Brasília: MEC/SEF, 1998.

ZUCCHI, B. B. O Ensino de História nos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental: teoria, conceitos e uso de fontes. São Paulo: SM Ltda, 2012.

APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE REFERENCE

2. Taking as reference the date December 20, 2017, the day that the BNCC of Elementary School was approved by the Ministry of Education, the BNCC should be implemented from December 2019. Taking into account, that the school year begins in February, at the latest at the beginning of the 2020 school year.

[1] Master in Educational Sciences.

Submitted: February, 2020.

Approved: October, 2020.

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