Literature as a form of affective, cognitive and social development in early childhood education: the teacher’s perspective

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SILVA, Haile Dalla Cunha Saugo [1], DESIDÉRIO, Taís Regina [2]

SILVA, Haile Dalla Cunha Saugo. DESIDÉRIO, Taís Regina. Literature as a form of affective, cognitive and social development in early childhood education: the teacher’s perspective. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 06, Ed. 10, Vol. 04, pp. 178-197. October 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link:


The present work is the result of a field research conducted that had as main objective to analyze how the teacher uses children’s literature for the affective, cognitive and social development of children. In view of this scenario, the present article has as a fundamental question: can the pedagogue, making use of literature, perceive the affective, cognitive and social development of children? For this, a literature review and case study with qualitative research approach were performed, and participant observation and interview were used for data production. The context of the research was a school of Early Childhood Education in the municipality of Matupá, State of Mato Grosso. Data analysis allowed us to infer that early childhood education teachers have the perception of how the use of literature in daily school life helps in the development of the individual, favoring their oral communication, enriching the vocabulary and showing the importance of the family as a helper in this reading process, making it a unique moment of attention and affection. The pedagogues demonstrated, through their statements, that they seek to make literature somewhat pleasurable and productive, because the children exchange experiences with each other, socializing and enjoying reading. Thus, it can be concluded that literature becomes an essential complement to learning, through methodologies and resources that arouse the interest of young children to the habit of reading, directly contributing to the formation of the future reader and to affective, cognitive and social development.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Children’s literature, child development, teacher look.


Much is said about the importance of reading to children, that they love to hear stories and invent them, however, one must ask if those who read to the child know the real importance of this act.

The child who is presented to the world of reading from an early age stands out among the others in many aspects, because reading is able to transform the individual into an active subject and change the context in which he is inserted.

Ouvir histórias é muito importante na formação de qualquer criança, é o início da aprendizagem para ser um leitor e, tornar-se um leitor é começar a compreender e interpretar o mundo. Por isso precisamos ler histórias para as crianças, sempre, sempre… (ABRAMOVICH, 1993, p.17)

Despite being integrated in the school routine since early childhood education, the literature needs instruments that awaken the attention of children so that they are interested in listening and reading, thus stimulating the taste for reading, thus favoring a consistent and lasting learning, because the child who learns playing has a more significant learning.

The authors Cramer and Castle (2011) believe that it is the role of the teacher to create in the classroom a pleasant environment, a way to motivate the student to go against reading through affection with her. “Inside the classroom, there is no more effective model than a teacher who really love books and reading.” (CRAMER and CASTLE, 2011, p.111).

The person who reads to the children, also needs to have a taste for reading, make that moment instigating, arouse curiosity, make the child interact with what he hears, lead him to be part of what is spoken, encouraging him to get involved in that magical moment, without forgetting to be careful to show all listeners the illustrations, for this is undoubtedly an important part in children’s literature, giving even more richness and charm to books aimed at this audience.

From the ideas mentioned, one perceives the importance of pleasurable activities with the introduction of Children’s Literature, from the nursery, where the first contact with books is of paramount importance, even if in this contact, the book is only seen as a toy.

This research aims to focus on how the teacher uses children’s literature for the affective, cognitive and social development of children bringing all the importance that Children’s Literature occupies in the school environment, fundamental in the construction of knowledge, information and world reading.

In view of this scenario, the present article has as a fundamental question: can the pedagogue, making use of literature, perceive the affective, cognitive and social development of children?

Based on this problem, this research aims, through a case study, and the collection of data was done through interviews, to analyze whether the pedagogue making use of the literature can perceive these developments, how the teacher sees the importance of children’s literature for the affective, cognitive and social development of children.

Having as specific objectives: to identify the conceptions of Children’s Literature present in Brazil from the twentieth century, and the main names of that time. How did children’s literature, how is its history, origin. What is the reason for reading for babies and how the teacher can be a literary helper and how this occurs.


In Brazil, there were no books intended for children until 1808, according to Costa (2009, p. 123) only with the implementation of the Imprensa Régia are the publications of books aimed at Brazilian children.

Previously, only a small economic elite had the privilege of enjoying printed literature, even if it was not intended for children; for this reason, oral literature has dominated for many years.

From the 19th century on, some works began to circulate, translated by Carlos Jansen, a pioneer in the translation and adaptation of texts such as Contos Seletos das Mil e uma Noites (1882), Robinson Crusoé (1885), As aventuras do Celebérrimo Barão de Münchausen (1891) among others. Contos Pátrios (1904) by Olavo Bilac and Coelho Neto are edited, and Histórias da Nossa Terra, Contos Infantis, by Júlia Lopes de Almeida are released. Os Livros do Povo (1861) by Antônio Marques Rodrigues, was the first book of great school repercussion and Contos da Carochinha (1896) by Figueiredo Pimentel, bringing together narratives of fairies, fables and exemplary tales, was the first Brazilian collection of Children’s Literature organized with express intention of Brazilian translation according to Coelho (1991 apud COSTA, 2009, p.124).

Costa (2009, p. 124), reports that with the novel Saudade (1919) Thales de Andrade closes this period of origin of Brazilian Children’s Literature, with very Brazilian characteristics of childhood time in the interior of the state of São Paulo and with intense affection in the text reporting the time of child, remembering a little the way that Italy treated the education of boys at the end of the nineteenth century in Coração de Edmundo de Amicis.

In 1921, Monteiro Lobato published A menina do Narizinho Arrebitado, where imagination, plot, visual language, grace and humor in linguistic expression, changed the concept of Children’s Literature in Brazil. This work was considered the greatest classic of Brazilian Children’s Literature, Monteiro Lobato managed to create typically Brazilian characters in his works, from the relationship with nature, affectivity, behaviors, language and enriched by Brazilian folklore. Already in 1931 Reinações de Narizinho, with characters representing human beings, and representing with the same texture of the invented characters, “exist with the same truth within the universe of make-believe that Lobato created” (COELHO, 1991 apud COSTA, 2009, p. 126).

According to Costa (2009), “Brazilian literature is marked by the record of local peculiarities. But the main mark of Children’s Literature is the work of Monteiro Lobato, dividing it into before and after the author” (COSTA, 2009, p.127).

We noticed through the quote from Costa (2009), that Monteiro Lobato changed the way of writing children’s literature, because in addition to bringing the knowledge of traditions to children, he wanted to question the truths, making room for new ideas.


According to Coelho (1991) apud Costa (2009, p. 147) the emergence of Literature occurred through oral tradition, in the tale and retelling of legends, myths, folklore and narratives that served as examples, since the intention of narratives was to convey ideas, cultural heritage and especially moralization, since children were considered as “adult project”, they should be educated from an early age, according to the objectives defined by adults, however, there was no distinction between adult and children’s literature, since it aimed to moralize society as a whole.

Costa (2009, p. 113), clarifies us that “in this remote period the first fables with animals arise, which represent human virtues and defects”. The fables of Aesop, with animals, playing the role of humans and for moral purpose, go through the centuries and continue to be part of the culture, such as: The fox and the grapes, The cicada and the Ant and The hare the turtle.

Also according to the author, “fairy tales facilitated the use of play along with the cognitive aimed at children”. This way, focused on the development of the child psyche:

[…] estimula, nas crianças, interesses adormecidos que esperam que essa espécie de varinha mágica os desperte para aspectos do mundo que as rodeia; age sobre as forças do intelecto, como a imaginação ou o senso estético, que precisam do impulso de correntes exteriores para adquirir pleno desenvolvimento na evolução psíquica da criança. (JESUALDO apud COSTA, 2009, p. 116).

Costa’s (2009) citation allows us to infer that through literature, the child instructs himself, has fun, identifies with the world to form his intellectual and social capacities, because they are still in the process of training on his experiences of reality.

Knowing that it is in childhood that creativity, and imagination are more developed, it is necessary that parents and teachers resume a literature inherited from secular peoples, which has gone through the years, the one in which there is no appeal to consumption, because nowadays, society expresses itself utilitarian and capitalist.

Costa (2009, p. 118), tells us that:

As histórias infantis favorecem a formação moral, social e literária dos leitores mirins, estabelecendo uma íntima relação entre o “segundo mundo”, o da fantasia, no qual todas as crianças vivem em seus momentos de introspecção e a realidade, preparando esses pequenos leitores para operar a transposição do literário ao real. (COSTA, 2009, p. 118, grifo do autor).

For the author, through literature values are given to children, such as how to act in everyday situations, such as living in society, instructing them at the same time that they form their intellectual and social capacities.


What is the real importance of reading to babies? Do they understand what we are reading, manage to assimilate what the story read wants to represent? Ortiz (2012) reminds us that not only the vocabulary of the language expands, but the entire symbolic repertoire so that the baby can interact and understand the world.

Thus, according to the author, the baby who from an early age has contact with the world of reading, can express himself more clearly, has a broader vocabulary and communicates more easily. In this sense, Faria (2010) apud

Ortiz (2012, p. 167, the author’s griffin) explains that “Reading to non-speaking babies is a practice that has been consolidating more and more, there is […] no more doubt about the importance of narrative in the psychic constitution of the baby, nor about the value of stories in learning as a whole”.

The child begins to represent the world from an early age, the sooner the reading begins in the life of the little ones, the better. It is not only the vocabulary that expands, the symbolic repertoire too, because in this way the small child, interacts and understands the world in a broader way, manages to elaborate solutions for the most diverse situations that will arise throughout his life.

Children’s Literature has two main functions: aesthetics and sensitivity, because it brings together the beauty of images and the richness of words. Possari (2009) states that

A literatura contribui para a formação da criança em todos os aspectos: desde a formação de sua personalidade, o desenvolvimento estético e a capacidade crítica, garantindo-lhe a reflexão sobre seus próprios valores e crenças, e os da sociedade. (POSSARI, 2009, p. 56).

Thus, we perceive the importance of literature for the child’s development, making it sensitive and at the same time critical, reflecting in the face of many situations he experiences.

We know that each age group has its specificities, one should pay close attention to the type of story to be told to children, because the younger the age, the easier it is dispersed, in this way, small children will be introduced to the world of reading through songs, because they like the rhythms, between cuddles and rhythms, the more the literary literacy of the child begins, the more rhythm, movement and repeated sounds, the more the child likes and interacts with the announcer.

For Ortiz (2012, p. 169) the richness of illustrations and the material for making books for the nursery, should be in order to make this presentation not only pleasurable, but also safe, so that they can handle them with freedom and in all the ways they want, including crumpling and biting the material, common practices in this age group. The various textures contribute to the interest in contact with the book occur so intensely, since they are soft touch, such as plush, fabric, or even more playful, as inflatable plastics, which make noise, with lights and sounds.


The teacher should encourage children to build an affective relationship with Children’s Literature, learning the intellectual value that each work has. Favoring the taste for stories, texts, poetry, among other literary works, implies the determination of the teacher to promote appropriate moments to the act of telling and reading stories.

In Children’s Literature, we should be concerned, mainly, that the child understands, likes and has fun. In the teacher’s pedagogical practice, it is important that he moves around telling stories and recites poetry with enthusiasm, which gives different intonations to the voice. The whole body needs to participate in this moment, through gesture. The teacher, when telling stories to the children, can contribute, effectively to awaken the motivation and understanding of the work. For Possari (2009),

Quando o professor lê a criança escuta e acompanha as reações que serão transmitidas, mediante a emoção, a alegria, o medo, etc, então, nesse momento, a criança será muitas vezes, além de ouvinte, um coautor. Na arte de interpretar e no caso da criança que já lê, ela será o leitor ou intérprete. (POSSARI, 2009, p.56).

Possari (2009) indicates that the teacher, as a transmitter of the ideas of the book, should let the children participate in this act so important that it is reading, both as a listener and as a reader, in this way, will contribute to this child not only listening, but participating in this moment and interpreting what has been read and/or heard.


The present investigation is qualitative, and the case study method is that according to Lüdke (1986)

Entre as várias formas que pode assumir uma pesquisa qualitativa, destacam-se a pesquisa do tipo etnográfico e o estudo de caso. Ambos vêm ganhando crescente aceitação na área de educação, devido principalmente ao seu potencial para estudar as questões relacionadas à escola. (LÜDKE, 1986, p.13).

When the researcher uses the qualitative approach, he studies the problems in the environment in which they happen, without any kind of intentional manipulation, maintaining direct contact with the context investigated, in this case, the school.

As data production procedures, participant observation and structured interviews with teachers were used to know how Children’s Literature is worked with young children and how the importance of this practice is seen by the teacher. On participant observation, Lüdke (1986) clarifies that this can be an essential part of the work in qualitative research, it is a process in which the researcher observes a situation and is in direct contact with the interlocutors, participating in the social life of the context in which it is inserted, modifying it and being modified.

According to Preti (2012), the interview is a conversation with a purpose, housing two or more people. Therefore its form of realization can be of an individual or collective nature. This is a technique widely used in the areas of Human and Social Sciences in the search for information directly with social actors as subjects-objects of research. For Preti (2012)

A entrevista estruturada, quando segue uma padronização de questões, cujos parâmetros são preestabelecidos, chegando quase a se confundir com um questionário oral. Em todos os entrevistados são feitas as mesmas perguntas e na mesma ordem (PRETI, 2012, p. 60).

In the structured interview, we can take the answers obtained by all interviewees and compare them, thus knowing if everyone has knowledge about the subjects addressed and how they put them into practice.

The research was conducted in April and May, and was conducted in person. To conduct the interviews, first, the participants were informed orally about the research theme and then the questions pertinent to the objective of the study were asked. The questions were easy to understand and identical to all interviewees.

In total, there were 05 teachers interviewed.

The context of the research that gave rise to this article was a municipal school of early childhood education in the municipality of Matupá-MT. The interview was conducted individually, in order to provide the teacher with all freedom to express their opinions. For ethical reasons, the teachers’ names were replaced by letters of the alphabet.

Figure 1 – Municipal School of Early Childhood Education Child Nursery Happy Child

Source: researcher’s file

In Figure 1, we can observe the context in which the research was conducted. The school has 11 classes in the morning and 11 classes in the first period, totaling 22 classes attended. It has 2 nursery classes 1, serving 10 children per class; 6 nursery classes 2, serving 12 children per class; 5 classes of maternal 1, serving 20 children per class; 4 classes of maternal 2, serving 23 children per class; 2 pre-1 rooms, serving 25 children per class and 2 pre-2 rooms, serving 25 children per class; totaling 384 children attended.

To meet this demand, the school has 22 pedagogues, 20 auxiliary teachers, 02 administrative technicians, 07 administrative support professionals, 01 pedagogical coordinator and 01 director.


When analyzing the data, we observed that most teachers use a way to organize students sitting in a circle, so that everyone can see the images and also why in this way, they can keep them focused on the story, since due to their young age, they disperse easily, this can be observed in the speech of teacher A.

Teacher A: First I place the children sitting in a circle on the mat and use books with short stories, with attractive and colorful engravings, showing the images according to the reading so that they can understand what has been read to them. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

The above excerpt corroborates Ortiz (2012), explaining that the story wheels are important moments for the development of oral language, to learn to listen, wait for the other to finish speaking and that, although the children are not all seated in a circle, due to the fact that some do not sit quietly for a long time, the way does not matter much, the essential thing is that these children are together and paying attention to the subject proposed by the teacher.

Children need to enjoy the moment of the story, because when the teacher reads enthusiastically, children, from the smallest, interact with the book.

Figure 2 – Teacher telling story to a nursery room

Source: researcher’s file

Most teachers allow children to have direct contact with books, leafing through them, letting them explore and interact with each other, we see this in the following statement:

Teacher B: I like to let them leaf through some books, looking at their pictures and interacting with each other, then I ask among the books they looked at, which one they want me to read. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

The above speech confirms Ortiz (2012, p.168), when he said that “In the nursery environment, it is necessary to prioritize reading spaces, so that adults read and show books to children, […] read and appreciate pictures, handle their pages, follow their history”.

Children need to have contact with the book, even if they still can’t read the words, they make the images symbolically read, so, over time, they begin to associate the images orally with their respective names.

Figure 3 – Babies interacting with the book during history

Source: researcher’s file

It is observed in the image above, the interaction of babies with the book used by the teacher during storytelling. The puppet makes the book more interesting and stimulates eye contact.

Regarding when to start reading with young children, most teachers agree that literature from an early age in the children’s lives, awakens the imagination, stimulates orality and attention, we verify this in the statements of teachers A and D:

Teacher A: The child who is inserted in the world of reading, will have more ease in learning, because his imagination, orality and attention are worked through books. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

Teacher D: When a child hears a story, they enter this make-believe world, it makes them able to associate learning and apply them in the real world, as is the case with fables. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

We can see in the above statements that imagination is greatly stimulated during history and that fables make reading fun, since animals speak and behave like human beings, always bringing a teaching that can be used in real life.

The above statements agree with Coelho (2000) explaining that

Desde as origens, a literatura aparece ligada a essa função essencial: atuar sobre as mentes, nas quais se decidem as vontades ou as ações; e sobre os espíritos, nos quais se expandem as emoções, paixões, desejos, sentimentos de toda ordem […]. No encontro com a literatura (ou com a arte em geral) os homens têm a oportunidade de ampliar, transformar ou enriquecer sua própria experiência de vida, em um grau de intensidade não igualada por nenhuma outra atividade (COELHO, 2000, p. 29)

The importance of reading in the child’s life is something paramount, because it is through reading that the world expands, that opportunities are revealed, because the fictitious is mixed with reality causing a mix of feelings: fear, joy, suspense, causing them to reflect on what he heard and decide on whether or not to put into practice.

Regarding how the literature is presented to nursery children, it was observed that it is presented through specific books, we found this in the statements of teachers B and C:

Teacher B: The less age they are, the more specific books are. For example, for the nursery, we use books of fabric, rubber, plastic, etc. because we know that one of the first actions of babies, is to take them to the mouth, so the importance of being safe, to be exploited by them. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

Teacher C: In babies we need to stimulate visual, auditory perception as well as motor coordination, and through colorful books and soft materials, we make these learnings more pleasurable and fun. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

The statements of teachers B and C indicate that babies need to have contact with books, books that offer them freedom to handle them, to explore them, that they are safe while being attractive for their color-filled images, because in this act of reading, all senses participate. This idea corroborates Ortiz (2012) in reporting that

Entendemos que os livros mais mordidos são os preferidos dos bebês, os que foram mais escolhidos. Acreditamos que no ambiente educacional, na interação com o adulto leitor, a criança vai aprender aos poucos a manusear esse livro de forma a não o rasgar, mas nesse primeiro momento o que importa é a experiência de tornar-se leitor e sabemos que ainda pequena, no período sensório, a criança lê com os olhos, ouvidos, mãos e boca, enfim, lê com todos os seus sentidos (ORTIZ, 2012, p. 169).

We know that the baby’s first reaction to something that catches his eye is to take him to his mouth, it is part of his development, because it is the phase of experimentation, where everything goes to the mouth. However, it is all a matter of habit, gradually learning to leaf through, observe more images, and the process of building the reading habit gradually consolidates.

Figure 4 – Books used in the nursery room

Source: researcher’s file

In the image above we can observe books used for telling stories with babies, books of various materials, of different textures, arousing curiosity and making them safe for this age group.

We observed some of the types of books most used by teachers to read to children. The colorful books with large prints, with puppets, facilitate at the time of reading, because it draws attention, the books that have lights, music and that make noise and the books in 3D are also widely used, because they present movement, holding their attention, we observe this in the speech of Teacher E:

Teacher E: Children love colorful books, full of images, books that when opening, reveal the scenery and the characters, who seem to have life, who seem magical, but actually are! (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

Thus, we can perceive that the image plays a fundamental role in books aimed at young children, who from an early age can make this creative reading. In this sense, Abramovich (1997, p.33)

livros (feitos para crianças pequenas, mas que podem encantar aos de qualquer idade) são sobretudo experiências de olhar… De um olhar múltiplo, pois se vê com os olhos do autor e do olhador/leitor, ambos enxergando o mundo e as personagens de modo diferente, conforme percebem esse mundo… (ABRAMOVICH, 1997, p.33).

Gradually young children begin to relate what they hear with what they see, relating the names of the figures, in the first words, so the importance of the book being attractive.

Figure 5 – Babies exploring book

Source: researcher’s file

Figure 6 – Some books used in children’s reading

Source: researcher’s file

In the image above, we perceive the diversity of children’s books. The shape, texture and vivid colors make the material more attractive to children. These books are used daily by teachers, because every day is reading day!

Teachers encourage the practice of reading with children daily, we can observe this in the speech of Teacher B:

Teacher B: I always start the class with the reading of a story, then I ask what part they liked the most, so they interact with me and I know if they paid attention. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

Costa (2009, p. 54) warns us “When the teacher assumes the understanding of the reading interfaces and applies strategies for students to be able to understand them, the teaching […] practice results in the construction of progressive reading projects”.

It is of fundamental importance that the teacher make reading a habit, showing children how much fun it is to read, and through reading, to have many discoveries.

Regarding how the family can reflect in this reading process, teachers said that in the family where the habit of reading is used, the child already brings it with them, she likes books, hears the stories, has a broader vocabulary and can express herself better, we find this in the speech of teachers C and D:

Teacher C: You can tell when the family has a reading habit, even the vocabulary of the child is richer, varied, the child has even easier to express himself. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

Teacher D: The family that reads, transmits this value to the child, it communicates well, even in school presentations, it is usually more uninhibited. (Interview held on May 2, 2018).

It is clear when analyzing the teachers’ statements, that the family has a great influence on the introduction of reading in the child’s life, considering that it is in the family that the first habits are acquired, this is part of the reference of a reading family that the child brings from home.

Costa (2009, p. 52) emphasizes that

A escola, mesmo que realize um trabalho competente de formação, não conseguirá consolidar o leitor sem o respaldo da sociedade que a sustenta. […] a família, embora se posicione a favor, não lê e interfere negativamente no trabalho de formação do leitor, ao privilegiar formas de lazer que, pensa ela, trazem maior prazer do que a leitura.

Thus, we can perceive how important is participation in this process of formation of the reader, because the whole family environment can reflect positively, how negatively, the result depends on the way in which it is given due importance.


According to the analysis of the data presented in this study, it was concluded that the literature is an essential part in the development of the taste for reading in the child. In other words, it was observed that literature, in Early Childhood Education, directly assists in vocabulary and oral communication, as well as arouses in the child interest in reading and contributes directly to the formation of the future reader. When the student appreciates a book and shows the images to a colleague, he builds an affective and social bond, because he is sharing something in that context.

Literature as a form of affective, cognitive and social development in early childhood education is being used and developed and the teacher can perceive this, through the reactions of children and through their teacher sensitivity to perceive, that in addition to it, the family/school bond makes learning more significant, because socialization occurs satisfactorily.

It was also possible to observe that the use of illustrated books, with music and lights, favors the interest of young children, makes them want to be in contact with them, thus facilitating the process of initiation to reading.

Thus, answering the guide question – can the pedagogue, making use of literature, perceive the affective, cognitive and social development of children? – we conclude that teachers can perceive literature as a form of affective, cognitive and social development in early childhood education, reporting through the interviews conducted that it has great importance in the learning of children and that this is one of the most effective means for the construction of knowledge, because it is from it that the child will awaken the taste for reading and consequently in the future, will have a better development in writing. As well as, it was found that teachers seek different methodologies and resources to, in a more pleasurable and productive way, assist children in this process of developing the taste for reading, by affection and socialization between them, as well as between student and teacher, making it an adult with mutual respect.


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COELHO, N. N. Literatura Infantil: Teoria Análise Didática. Edit. Moderna,1º Ed. São Paulo: 2000.

COSTA, M. M. Literatura Infantil. 2ª ed. Curitiba: IESDE Brasil S.A. 2009.

CRAMER, E. H.; CASTLE, M. Incentivando o amor pela leitura. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2011.

LÜDKE, M. Pesquisa em educação: abordagens qualitativas. São Paulo: EPU, 1986.

ORTIZ, C. Interações: ser professor de bebês: cuidar, educar e brincar: uma única ação. São Paulo: Blucher, 2012.

POSSARI, L. H. V. Múltiplas linguagens: pensamento e linguagem. Cuiabá: EdUFMT/UAB, 2009.

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[1] Postgraduate in Early Childhood Education; graduated in Pedagogy. ORCID: 0000-0002-0731-3881

[2] Guidance counselor.

Submitted: August, 2021.

Approved: October, 2021.

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