The formation of adult and youth education in Brazil

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FONSECA, Paulo Roberto da [1]

NEGRI, Paulo [2]

FONSECA, Paulo Roberto da; NEGRI, Paulo. The formation of adult and youth education in Brazil. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 07 Edition. 02 year, vol. 03. pp 94-104, October 2017. ISSN: 0959-2448

Summary

This article aims to present the process of emergence and creation of adult and youth education in Brazil, the EJA. At first the idea was to format a historical research of adult and youth education, but in the course of work was emerging beyond the story work for training and performance of various agents, institutions and Governments in the establishment of adult and youth education in Brazil . Where you can see a much larger participation of society in the formation of adult and youth education, different from what occurred in the regular education in Brazil

Keywords: education, young people, Adults, training, history, Brazil.

INTRODUCTION

When we speak of adult and youth education in Brazil appears to be a contemporary thing, but actually the educational process in Brazil, has never been so difficult to form as the proposal for adult and youth education. Although much has been working to organize the teaching of young people and adults, which obtained today, it was a mirror of what experience was proposing, every change that occurred in the Brazilian educational system. There were no proposals for deepening social part or as to the subjects ' cognitive ability involved in the process and how they built the your knowledge.

In this work, the proposal is to introduce the importance of adult and youth education for social inclusion and the relevance of your process linked to Popular education programs, that have been applied.

In the years 40 (1940) was when it all started in adult and youth education, is right now, which is given the match on National educational policy, according to CITES Ribeiro (2001, p. 59), "was how educational policy"

Ribeiro shows us in your text, some of the history and importance at the time and the understanding of who were the subject of learning, as they should learn and what's understood that was significant for these students.

On the role of the learning process, he treats a constructivist partner approach, what happens to individuals through social relations, from their individual and collective constructs.  Remembering a lot of Paulo Freire, who claimed that such education should happen critically and reflectively, inserting the individual in the whole process, where do your own self-criticism.

THE FORMATION OF ADULT AND YOUTH EDUCATION IN BRAZIL

Although they speak that in adult and youth education in Brazil, your system today is too big and he shows a balance in tune, because at various times of the pedagogical application, he presented points to compensate for the size of the system. But as we will see that the EJA was created, too, from mistakes and inadequacy of curricula, methods and teaching materials, which although difficult to admit, still persist in many places of learning, have their local features.

But the education of young people and Adults never came at the beginning of the formation of Brazil.  But it came just after the Jesuit Education, it was only for indigenous training and Catechist of the Roman Catholic Church, but has undergone several moments of great political significance, for your organization and proved, to this day, a sturdy and strong.

But it was really only from the years 40, that the education of young people and Adults went on to form and be treated like a "differentiated system and significant" for the brazilian education. And since that time, has been showing how the fit system improve day-by-day. Educational policy was not born only in the Cabinet, was the educational gap and the establishment of industries in Brazil, politics of Getúlio Vargas, along with brazilian population itself, which caused the implementation of public policies for the education of young people and Adults.

In 1920, there was questions, with what to do on the issues of education for adults and what the State should do, because it was a public need. That pressure, then began the creation of the National Fund for Primary Education in 1942 and along with it programs for adult education and expansion of this education modality, because the country had an alarming rate of illiteracy and the Fund tried to give an answer to that fighting illiteracy for adults and children.

When Getúlio Vargas was deposed in 1945, also collections of Unesco and second Haddad (2000, p. 111) "denounced the world the deep inequalities among countries and warned to the role it should play in education, particularly adult education in the process of Developing Nations "and settled targets for literacy, giving a push to the development of adult and youth education.

Of course, we should not fail to mention the contribution of political interests that surrounded the subject, because the level of illiteracy in put as underdeveloped country and did not give more to hide the weak effort for education in the country. He would worry about learning each.

In 1947, there was a good move, which helped us a lot to develop a process for the adult and youth education in Brazil, was the adult education service, the SEA, which field should be concerned with adult education and create a Primary Course for adult the, with trained professionals. "(…) and did there was the desire to meet Unesco appeals in favor of popular education. (…) " (P, 1987, p. 178)

This guidance of Unesco, has generated a moment of great discussion about illiteracy in Brazil and each one of the Government agencies came out looking to understand the process of adult and youth education, because it was directly linked to the development of Brazil, because the would not the illiterate Professional recovery of Brazilian industrial and economic backwardness.

Until that date don't care about the subject, with the individual and or understand the process of inclusion in professional learning.  The illiterate was regarded as a burden to the country, because I couldn't contribute to the development, but the continued growth of the quota of the illiterate, eventually generate political interest, hence the campaign of education for adolescents and adults have an educational proposal aimed to the life, work and professionalism.

How do we know the lack of literacy and illiterate himself was viewed with prejudice and at that time to the organizers of the campaign saw him biased.  P (2001):

"(…) the central idea (…) is the adult illiterate is a marginal that cannot be the current of national life "" and are the belief that the adult illiterate is incapable or less capable that the Literate individual. (…) " (p. 184)

In the course of the campaign was realized a change of vision, no longer as prejudiced and becoming the representative of education for youth and adults, to just take that way, as we have seen, from the contribution of the State, but it was the popular movement that led to these changes. It is true that very simple struggles in favor of adult and youth education, but they began to be recognized due to this. But still lacked value the EJA and it was from these movements that the reaction happened, as a response to the criticism that State governments do.

(…) now the feature of the development of individual potential, and therefore as individual promotion action, adult education, becomes a necessary condition for the Brazil come true as a developed nation (. ..)

(HADDAD, 2000, p. 111)

This period, then, was what marked deeply the Education of young people and Adults by the popular movement, which were fortified by educational actions and policies with several other programs of interest in ADULT and YOUTH EDUCATION as reports Ribeiro (2001)

"(…) The creation of the National Fund of the elementary school in 1942 of the adult education service, the campaign of adult education, both from 1947, of Rural education campaign, started in 1952 and the national campaign for the eradication of illiteracy, in 1958. "(RAJA .2001, p. 59)

You have to go on record that really popular movements, social groups: labor unions and others were the real responsible of a transformation-oriented education, including in the educational process and modernization of the country. The EJA would take and leads gradually the subject to a social or cultural transformation, as in the ideas of Paulo Freire.

From the Decade of 60, many other campaigns began to appear with different views of those past, now the proposal was an egalitarian and education for all. We present programs to eradicate illiteracy in the country, and with these improvements make the ideal image for the country, but also in policies to improve the living conditions of the Brazilian people, and a little more reflective about what had been to work. "(…) before appointed as the cause of poverty and marginalization, illiteracy has become interpreted as poverty effect generated by a non-egalitarian social structure (…) "(Cunha, 1999, p. 12)

The effort gave political steps in several places in Brazil, Education campaigns for young people and adults and among the best known are: basic education movement, the movement of Popular culture in Recife, "standing on the ground also learns to read" , and the national literacy Plan of the Ministry of education and culture, among others.

Paulo Freire is a reference in the education of young people and Adults, for he shall submit such education thought differently, where the individual learning process, has an education and literacy criticism and dialogicamente manner. Your ideas can be observed in the national literacy Plan, which intended to meet most of the illiterate population of the country, even though that has arisen through student movements and also trade union entity, who worked for the your method was placed on adult and youth education, within the Ministry of education and with their results the program has generated political benefits and had greater support from the Government as a main method.

(…)   the fight between the students and intellectuals of various political and ideological orientations within the trade union movement, that was endorsed by the agreements that resulted from the use of the method Paulo Freire, however also other electoral interests began to Express and if to reflect on the program (…)

(P, 1987, p. 258)

Unfortunately in the period of the military dictatorship in our country many programs were lost, but important social contributions were able to stay.  The dictatorial system himself kept those conservative programs, so many of them spread by Brazil as the crusade of basic Christian action to keep your program alleged that I had no education, but gave support in social actions to the military Regime.

It was the military period, in 1967 that was born the Mobral-mobral "(…) the result of the work and was directed by inter-ministerial group that sought an alternative to cross-ABC's work (…) "(HADDAD 2000 p 114), but many parts of the project were overridden by the interests of the military Government

The military regime was seeking to concentrate but without preparing the labor, which in the process of learning, should just get a pedagogical complementation, a practice of learning preparing the student to just read and write.

In 1971, the supplementary schooling and looking for Adult illiteracy by putting in those who had not yet been able to finish his studies at the regular time at the right age. The Ged was instituted by law 5,692/7, thought-if only in delayed schooling and educational activities of the more flexible way for the individual, supplying its shortcomings.

Another objective of the Supplementary Education, is that were made some changes in your proposal looking meet only government interest, according to Haddad (2000).

"The secondary education was introduced to society as a future school design, element of an educational system compatible with the socio-economic modernization, observed by the country in 70 years. This was not a school geared to the interests of a particular class, but in a popular school and for your customers because everyone should answer a permanent dynamic update "(p. 117)

Actually, what happened was the pressure of the military dictatorship at the time of brazilian history, where he envisioned only a technical education, to meet the labour market and the social life, but we have to accept that this Supplementary initiative formed the basis of the parameters of distance education, with the early use of new technologies, such as the education with the TV and radio, that have already been copied at other times of the educational projects in Brazil

In the Decade of 80, with the end of the military dictatorship and greater freedom from society, there was then a gap so that he could emerge new contributions to educational issues. The EJA undergoes a new setting and new search techniques and methodologies to work.

We cannot fail to mention the program Moron, I tried to time your way to format a distance education, and that in the 80 's over being replaced by the National Foundation for youth and adult education, Educate, who considered herself different, but relied on many d and their work.

During this period the popular education back to tread paths more open because she can now opening show all your work I had been doing in secret. " (…) Resumed PIS and ability in University environments and influence public and community programs also, (…) " (HADDAD, 2000 p. 120)

In the framework of the Constitution of 1988, called the citizen education theme, with social interest and thereafter settled that basic education was offered also by EJA. The Federal Constitution (RIBEIRO, 2001) also established the face-to-face education and not just the non-attendance, but without much concern with the quality of education, "(…) no institutional way was more important for the education of young people and Adults, in that period that the conquest of the Universal right to free public primary education, regardless of age, consecrated in article 208 of the Constitution of 1988 (…) " (HADDAD, 2000, p. 120)

Then the change came with the extinction of the Foundation Raise in 1990, where the adult and youth education was decentralized, passing the responsibility to the municipalities, even if they still keep going on State intervention.

The Government, in this period, tried to create the national literacy and citizenship Programme (PNAC) in the Collor Government, but with the impeachment he was left aside by Itamar Franco, giving notice as was being treated in adult and youth education period and how stayed in Brazil public policies for education. And even in 1995, when the education reform and the decentralization of educational systems, in adult and youth education, there have been many efforts, she still got sidelined.

The main instrument of education reform, was approval of the constitutional amendment 14/96, which removed the transitional provisions of the Federal Constitution of 1988, the article undermined society and Governments, to eradicate illiteracy and universalizing education Fundamental to 1998, the Federal Government avoids applying that purpose half the linked resources to education (,,,) (HADDAD 2000 p. 123)

Although it was created the Development Fund for primary education and appreciation of the Magisterium FUNDEF, the education of young people and Adults, still got sidelined because this Fund investments, did not anticipate any favouring the expansion of adult and Youth Education (HADDAD, 2000)

One problem remained, since this period, the EJA is seen or associated with a Night of Education second line of complementary and compensatory character, where it absorbs adults who failed to complete his teachings on the ideal age or failed and some are taken up as school failure, and with all of this and the lack of political incentive, led for some time that education to a standstill in tecnopedagógicas arrangements and low investments in the EJA (Ribeiro, 2001)

The struggle to better maintain the EJA, so was the education professional. And through them, important steps were made toward a new concept of adult and youth education, mainly in the social areas and equal education.

In 2008, the EJA, became part of the laws of the guidelines and foundations of education (LDB) and was recognized as public law. And the opinion CNE CEB 11/2000, including comes to clarify that education of young people and Adults, is not a way to make up for the lost education and a new education. About LDB, law No. 9,394, Haddad says, that this law "dedicated to this adult and youth education a short section and little innovative"

Although these laws have been maintained well populist, assistance with compensatory character, but in a way, this new configuration of education started to be carried out in a more acceptable than the marginal position he held previously.

There was thus the emergence of various funding programs to implement projects, whose main objective was literate with the help mainly of civil society movements and teaching and research institutions. The PAS-Solidarity literacy program was one such program, in 1990 he gave a great contribution to literacy, however the Government administrations and organizations worked focusing on young people and the urban peripheries, first, for until then reach other audiences.

These educational movements, passes the value the student and your previous knowledge, so he gets access to new knowledge. Shown here the awareness of individuals, and little by little the appreciation, first for your self-esteem. The EJA is valued, leaving only be offering assistance, so that students understand that the school was a place of preparation.

The programs also began to worry about the physical issues of individuals, as in the case of students of adult and youth education, those who exercised less usually strenuous work and arduous that tired, had many difficulties in learning but also caused the circumvention school EJA.

Hence the proposal for differentiated service of individuals concerned with each individual, with positive social changes that can get and these projects are now geared exclusively to EJA.

Even today the proposals for development of the EJA, depend on governmental actions. More contemporary we observe the case in Lula, where was created the Literate Brazil Programme, where even through your folder actions, the Minister of education contributed much to decrease illiteracy in Brazil.

The program was created by Decree No. 6093 of 24 April 2007, and your goal was the universalization of literacy for young people and adults from 15 years or more and it was really an achievement because he went on to fund the Education of young people and Adults that had been always p recária, by the Government.

Fortunately the States followed this example, as the Government of Bahia that launched the check all for literacy, whose goal was to 1 million people literate by the year 2010, that sense of the Literate Brazil Programme realized great progress in literacy States and municipalities and with continuing education and best educators to create professionals opens and the specific material for these programs

These programs led educators to establish a professional relationship with society and affective, educators for their classes and so can develop a more proximal reality, applying in the daily educational activities

The education of young people and Adults had another great achievement when, was included in the basic education development fund the FUNDEB, who had replaced the maintenance and development of basic education and appreciation of the Magisterium FUNDEF, because he helped a lot on the basic issues, how to book resources for adult and youth education, even though they are still smaller than the other

But the Popular education no longer present in adult and youth education in Brazil, was a struggle of the people, a participatory education through popular movements, that is, it was very important for civil society, and marked the history of brazilian education. Were these moments, which have generated new conceptions educational partner for adult and youth education.

When you start by Paulo Freire, Popular education, with a view to political awareness, seeking that the population would understand concepts such as: freedom, equality, and could overcome the disadvantaged conditions and pressure from society.

It was actually in the EJA, popular education contributed much to meet the claims of improvements of popular appeal and again it is important to remember that before the emergence of adult and youth education, other civil society movements fighting against illiteracy, but it was very important to the emergence of an educational framework devoted exclusively to the adult audience.

"during a period of about 20 years in the same way as happened in other areas of social work with popular sectors, adult education went from an emphasis on the integration of individuals into society, to another whose objective was to act on groups and communities and ducats organized and motivated to take on your level, your role in the development process ". (…) (BARRETT, 1984 p. 52)

Can that adult education even in the early days of brazilian education received some support communities generating educational exchanges, and Barrios (1984) in your view the popular education happened in various ways, at various times, including our own, as those of antiquity.

The thought of educating for Popular education would have a proposal of liberation, since these movements valued the wisdom of each of the people and the knowledge of the world.

So between the ideals of Popular education be awareness, where let the pedagogy of the Oppressed, to a guy who would have a position of fighting for change and Liberation, "(…) Liberation here did not arrive by chance, but by the praxis of your quest for knowledge and the recognition of the fight for her. (…) " (FREIRE, 1987, p 31)

In the educational contract, Paulo Freire has always shown in their interests to designing an education for equality, which were in addition to the ideals of learning and teaching. Should be so conceived from exchanges between teacher and student in their cultural relationships, at work, in the family and so on, "always trust people, always reject donated formulas, always believe you had something to exchange with him, never exclusively offering you" (FREIRE, 2007, p. 110)

Paulo Freire with all your determination, left a great contribution to the education of young people and adults than was conquered, their ideas of educational practice of equality, with critical subjects, is that today has been worked mostly on ADULT and YOUTH EDUCATION.

"immediately move away any chance of a purely mechanical literacy, once thought the Brazilian man, literacy in a position of making a conscience in the immersion that did in the process of our reality at work as we try to promote naivety in criticity while alfabetizarmos "

(FREIRE 2007 p. 112)

So the work in the classroom have been made seeking a rapprochement between the students and the teacher, your daily experience classes, with debates and interviews that were used for gathering information and to exploit their knowledge, valuing them, so that could build new.

If you look at what has been researched in terms of ADULT and YOUTH EDUCATION, education is still little consolidated, there is a struggle and it is historical, which still demand recognition and respect within a formal education, but of a different composition, universal with a reconfiguration of the State's commitment

 "(…) discusses, the EJA in new structures of functioning of basic education-Maintenance Fund and development of basic education (FUNDEB) created this managerial structures specific to ADULT and YOUTH EDUCATION in State and municipal offices. ”

(ARROYO, 2006, p. 20)

But discussions about the new configuration or structure to EJA, is still going on in many social movements like trade unions, NGOs or universities, all looking to promote a different model to meet the public's needs of adult and youth education. "the commitment of this collective diversity of society, is no longer even paternalistic action campaigns" (ARROYO 2006 p. 20).  And there are already other just this is detention with Academic looking for implementing public policies, the real needs of adult and youth education

This process of educating through new educational model starts to take shape, different than before, with a more adult and youth education complete, analyzing the subject, your way to learn, your experience of life, the environment, because now they have a mode specific, and which must be fully developed

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

This submission of the survey we could observe that the education of young people and Adults, in Brazil, of involuntary initiatives, but still what if noted that she was more popular than the other educational initiatives in Brazil.

After decades of neglect and unconcern, the Brazilian Government for a levy to be a good external image and also to "improve the workforce" starts a process of training for young people and adults with lackluster measures and without answering the purpose of forming citizens.

However the success and the good examples of experiences of associations and other Governments even as State and federal, have served to establish an inclusive education, even if it was without the Government's interest to time.

The great motto was noted as pedagogical ideals was Paulo Freire, in your pedagogy of autonomy, already had been disclosed in the efforts of social movements, churches, associations in their efforts to supply the deficiency of adult and youth education since the late 60.

But what we see then is much more than an education education training of young people and adults established today in your majority has a shadow of call by Paulo Freire pedagogy of liberating, because most of the institutions that develop today value the social baggage student.

So the adult and youth education in Brazil, has a much more social training that regular education in Brazil, because it was born from the beginning of popular initiatives and involuntary and settled almost for effort.

REFERENCES

ARROYO, Miguel González.  Education of young-adults: a field of rights and public accountability.   In: SOARES, Leontius Soares (org.).  Dialogues on adult and youth education. Belo Horizonte: Authenticates, 2006, 2nd Edition.

BRANDÃO, Carlos Rodrigues. Popular Education. São Paulo, Brasiliense, 1984.

CUNHA, Maria Conceição da.  Introduction – discussing basic concepts.  In SEED-MEC leap into the future – education of young people and adults. Brasilia, 1999.

FREIRE, Paulo.  Pedagogy of the oppressed.  Rio de Janeiro, Peace and Earth, 1987, 17th Edition.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _, Paul. Education as the practice of Freedom.  Rio de Janeiro, Paz e Terra, 2007.30 Edition

HADDAD, Sergio and DI PIERRO, Maria Clara.  Education of young people and adults. Brazilian education magazine, São Paulo, mai. /jun./Jul./Ago.  2000, no. 714, p. 108-130. Available at: <http: www.anped.org.br/rbe/rbedigital/rbde14_08_sergio_haddad_e_maria_clara_="" di_pierro.pdf="">accessed: 24/11/16</http:>

Paiva, Sameer.  Popular education and adult education.  São Paulo, Edições Loyola, 1987.

RIBEIRO, Vera Masagão, JEWEL, Orlando, PIERRO, Maria Clara Di.  Visions of adult and youth education in Brazil. Cadernos Cedes, year XXI, paragraph 55, November 2001. Available at: www.scielo.be/pdf/ccedes/v21n55/5541.pdf >.

17/11/2016 access.

11 http://www.educacao.escolas.ba.gov.br/node/# sub1

http://portal.mec.gov.br/index.php

[1] Licensed in Pedagogy from the University of the North and in history and geography from the University of Macaws post-graduate Education of young people and adults – FAPI-Espirito Santo dos Pinhais-PR

[2] Doctor in communication sciences

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