LIMA, Terezinha Bazé de 
NASCIMENTO, Altair Antunes do 
LIMA, Terezinha Bazé de; NASCIMENTO, Altair Antunes do. Reading and Writing in Youth and Adult Education in the Municipal Network of the Municipality of Chapecó / SC. Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal. Edition 08. Year 02, Vol. 01. pp 184-192, November 2017. ISSN:2448-0959
This article entitled READING AND WRITING IN EDUCATION OF YOUTH AND ADULTS: a study on the policy of Youth and Adult Education (EJA) of the Municipality of Chapecó / SC, elaborated in the light of concepts about Popular Education and dialectical methodological principles. The research was carried out through interviews, readings and analysis of documents of this policy of Popular Education implemented by the Popular Administration of the Municipality of Chapecó / SC, from January to December 1999, turning to the results of the same in the life of the students and alumni, with emphasis on the analysis of their participation in Community Organizations and their contribution to Regional Development. The investigation revealed that in the context of the study on Popular Education there is a multiplicity of definitions, this stems from the historical process and the specific conjuncture of each implementation of this policy. The diversity of approaches that can be found on Popular Education does not exclude fundamental concepts about its political-pedagogical, transformational, democratic, procedural, integral and systematic character. With regard to the participation of students and alumni in Community Organizations and their contribution to Regional Development, there was a significant improvement in the qualification of the activities of these organizations, both in the organization and in the political awareness of its members. The participation of the students and alumni of the EJA enlarged the activities of the Community Organizations, motivating them to assume new social responsibilities that were previously exclusively the responsibility of the State. The performance of these organizations in the context of promoting public policies promoted citizenship by boosting Regional Development.
Keywords: Popular Education, Community Organization, Regional Development, Participation and Citizenship.
In 1999, the Secretary of Education presented a project that, in the municipal government of Chapecó / SC, began a process of inversion, of priorities through the democratization of actions and the municipal public spaces that the local society had long lacked.
One of these spaces that was democratized, went to the school that until then was reduced to the care of children and adolescents of Elementary Day School. In order for the young and adult population to have access to formal education from a new perspective, it was necessary to invest the public power in schools, build classrooms, expand libraries, rent houses and also qualified professionals. In order to serve the large public excluded from the formal school, it was necessary to open the schools in another shift.
The municipal schools began to work during the day with the basic education in training cycles and at night with the basic Fundamental education in totalities ignorance. A debate was held in the schools around the national, state and municipal conjunctures. Reflected on which country wants to build, these questions had as their intention an education focused on discussing the reality of the population, with a critical and conscientious character. In this context, Popular Education was assumed by community leaders, education professionals, parents and students of the communities as a possible educational discussion to be implemented. The municipal government concretized this idea in 2005 by the education secretary of Chapecó SC. The debate began on the political pedagogical plan and the creation of laws to guarantee its execution. These debates have taken shape and come to fruition in practice. In March 1998 the Education of Young People and Adults (EJA), with the assumptions, methodological political of Popular Education began to receive students with the broad support of the community in the mobilization and sensitization to participate in this reality, we produced this research work on the Performance of students and graduates of Youth and Adult Education in the Community Organizations of the Municipality of Chapecó / SC.
Through writing and reading, this project aims to integrate the student with society, in which society does not reduce them into codes, and thus, understand that knowledge can lead to a positive formation of their personal image, and thus direct their formation transversely from this purpose.
For the purpose of enabling students to write and read correctly. As a teacher our goal is to train students who can read and interpret all the subjects that circulate in the media vehicles on a daily basis. Here we start a work and we need to give safety to our students to be developed throughout this project.
“Without acceptance and respect for oneself one can not accept and respect the other, and without accepting the other as legitimate other in the coexistence, there is no social phenomenon. In addition, a child who does not accept and respect himself has no room for reflection, because he is in the continuous denial of himself as a mother month in the anxious search of what is not and can not be. ” Maturana (2001).
In the context of this work, the principle of ethical conduct will be approached through dialogue in the classroom, with the focus of recovering and valuing the citizen, whose value has been lost over the years, being banalized from society, lost the ethical conduct of being human, thus falling if decay.
With the objective of better understanding the research opted for descriptive, in which it aims at a better understanding of the presented problem. Through an interview with teachers who work in this area and experience the practice on a daily basis, it is better to explain the problem researched. This project was developed in the state and municipal network in order to identify the problem of learning of young people and adults and their main difficulties.
1. LITERATURE REVISION
thinking about writing, we understand that for young people to be literate is not memorizing but rather reflecting the process of writing. Over time he hears a conceptual revolution, and the school has set aside its teaching practices. In a classroom when the teacher requests a reading the student feels coerced, a great truth is that they argue that they do not know how to write or read. It depends on the effort of teachers to change this reality, playing a fundamental role that mediates this fear in relation to writing and reading (FERREIRO 2001).
In a learning process school is the best way, so we need to provide the student with a better intimacy with writing and reading. In this way we will analyze the problem and get a positive result at the end of this project. With conviction that data research is the best way to make the work well prepared and with excellent results when it reaches its end. This research will be of great importance to demonstrate where the learning difficulties are and together they will heal them, because with work and the dedication of all we will arrive at a positive result (CAGLIARI, 1982). The young person / adult sees the literate world through reading as it is a social learning, before going to school they learn in their social life the communication of reading through advertising and packaging labels. Literacy refers to the social aspects of the appropriation of writing, in several areas of knowledge, since it is a concept created to refer to the uses of written language everywhere (PCN, 2001). The teacher besides being literate must have the necessary knowledge to act as a true social agent, since he is a manager of resources and knowledge, in this way he uses his knowledge to make the student reflect on writing and gain the taste for it. It is not enough to only read and write, it is necessary not only to decode sounds and letters, but to understand the meanings and use of words in different contexts (CARRANO, 2001, p. 10). As we work with Youth / Adults we realize that contact with writing since childhood is almost zero. For this the difficulty of learning will be much greater than that had kept contact with writing since childhood. To be included in the cultural universe, literacy is extremely important, because through it we can communicate and integrate with other people in society. It has a more active participation in the labor market, discussing actions and influencing decision making (CAGLIARI 1998, p 107). The right way to train people who are sensitive to issues affecting all and minority groups, the practice of freedom and the exercise of citizenship. One of the ways to expand the productive process and technological development of the country. Because it is the way to social mobilization, without which the changes are not feasible, modernization does not distribute its fruits and it does not overcome inequalities and exclusion. This perspective has influenced the design of policies and the confrontation of the challenges that are increasing in the Brazilian educational field. In particular, Youth and Adult Education (EJA) has become, in recent years, a strategic field for tackling social exclusion and inequality, and has assumed new contours, being seen as an educational modality that overflows the limits of the formal education, which encompasses learning in various spheres and throughout life, aimed at the inclusion of millions of young and adult people who could not initiate or complete studies in basic education (CAGLIARI 1982). In order for there to be link between student and writing, teachers make important decisions such as; Respecting the different expressions of each one. Through dialogue letting students express themselves in different ways without interfering. Write clearly so they can understand and absorb knowledge through writing. Propose in class different activities with groups of students through writing. Through books, newspapers, magazines, videos, posters, comic books bring the student to the information of various genres that happen in the day to day. To pass on to the student a positive message, in which he takes a liking for writing, being through jokes, theaters, oratory, in this way the student will read more and more, to seek information and at the same time to enjoy reading (FREIRE 2000) . They all have their ideas and critics, who need throughout their lives to record everything they live, in which they reflect on everything from their own work. We want to contribute to the formation of young people and adults to become citizens capable of reading and interpreting texts (FREIRE 2000, p.19).
In Portuguese language teaching, reading and writing is of paramount importance in the literacy process. The human being to write well must master reading. To have a knowledge, with the media, socialization and expressing their thinking clearly to reading become of paramount importance in this process (FREIRE 2000, p.19).
Reading has a very important meaning in the development of the student, because through it acquires knowledge and improves communication with other people and interprets the problem better and finds the solution for it. The act of reading is not simply the process of memorizing syllables, but the ability to critically reflect the very process of reading and writing, in which he understands the meaning of language (FREIRE 2000, p.19). For Freire to read, it is not only to record in the memory the proposed content, but rather to understand and to argue the process of reading and writing, in which the reader will understand the language of the text.
Freire (2000) explains that the student should not mechanically memorize the words, meaningless, but try to understand the meaning of words, so that the reading process is pleasurable. For this it is important that the teacher offers students different types of reading. In this perspective, success in literacy depends on the transformation of the school into a literacy environment, rich in stimuli that lead to reading and writing, allowing an understanding of the functioning of written language, enabling the appropriation of its social use and providing elements that challenge the subject to think about it. In the last decades, the field of reading and writing in literacy has been receiving a number of contributions from some scholars who encourage the importance of reading, so that learners can become regular readers, making reading a pleasant moment especially for beginners.
Reading and writing have many uses that need to be discussed throughout the process of Youth and Adult Education, it is necessary to have a dialogue between teachers and students, since the exchange of information between them and other colleagues is of the utmost importance (CAGLIARI 1998 , pp. 107). Cagliari 1998 emphasizes that it is necessary to have a student and teacher to have a dialogue, because in this way the teacher can pass the content and the student understand in a clear way, in which reading and writing are long processes to be understood, precise time and dedication of both parties.
The role of the teacher is to arouse curiosity, to question reality, to problematize, in which it will transform the obstacles into data of reflection to understand the educational process, which like any social facet, is related to its time, its history according to thought (de CARRANO 2000, p.10). Here the teacher will wake up provoke and encourage the student to argue about the content, in this way the student will understand what is proposed by the teacher.
Reading and writing are indispensable activities in the teaching of the Portuguese language and especially in the process of literacy for young people and adults. For a person to write well it is necessary for them to be able to read. But there are people who only reproduce graphically what they know. This idea becomes clear when Cagliari states that if a person does not know how to read, the act of writing will simply be a copy with no meaning whatsoever. Therefore, reading is one of the most important aspects for the acquisition of knowledge, as a means of communication, socialization and expression of thought. Since reading is more used for communication and, consequently, a vehicle for socialization, it will be efficient if it is well explored and developed in the education of young people and adults (de Carrano 2000, p. 10).
The National Curriculum Parameters states that reading is a process in which the reader performs an active work of contributing to the meaning of the text, from its objectives, from its knowledge on the subject, not only to decode to written information through from letter to letter. But a process that implies a more detailed understanding, requiring greater competence on the part of the beginner reader. It is the reading that will interfere in the learning of writing, contribute to the formation of habits, socialization, interpretation, problem solving, acquisition of knowledge, improvement of communication, memory development, restructuring of its concepts, and finally a significant contribution to development of the student of youth and adult education (PCN, 2001).
The curricular parameters emphasize that reading is a relationship established between the reader and the written text, in which the reader, through some basic strategies, reconstructs a meaning of the text in the act of reading. This same scholar clarifies that no one is taught to read, because reading is not a knowledge, but a practice, it is reading that people develop the capacity to mobilize strategies for the act of reading: verification, anticipation and identification, trying to teach a person to read is, in addition to being harmless, depriving him of teaching himself to read.PN 2001, p. 53).
It is necessary to emphasize that reading and writing can not live with fear, excessive collection, punishment, much less coexist with neglect and mechanical repetition. It is necessary that these activities be contextualized with meanings for the students, making this moment a pleasant, spontaneous act, with diversity of texts brought into the classroom. In this way they will gain intimacy with it and leave the fear aside, being, so they will take by habit reading and writing. Freire emphasizes that reading is not simply the process of memorizing syllables, but the ability to critically reflect the very process of reading and writing, understanding the deep meaning of language.
Thus, the starting point is the investigation of how reading and writing provide some kind of improvement in the usufruct of the goods offered by society, such as access to electronic means, going to the movies, use of means of transportation, etc. In short, the verification of the use that students make of reading and writing in their daily life. (PCN, 2001). When teaching children and adults, the teacher must explain to these learners the meaning of learning to read and write, making these knowledge important for their lives. For from literacy these learners will be able to modify or even transform their lives, because learning to read and write are the starting point for learners to become critical readers, aware in the development of their role in the society in which they are inserted . Because Cagliari says that reading and writing have many uses that need to be discussed throughout the EJA Education process, there needs to be a dialogue between teacher / student, since the exchange of information between teacher / student and the students between them is something important to them. The education of young people and adults makes important in the lives of students, not because they read and write, but to understand their role in society (CAGLIARI, 1982).
Thus the concept of citizenship is understood as the consciousness and the formation that the individual acquires of his political and social role in the conscience and the exercise of his rights and duties, with discernment of being able to participate effectively in his own destiny and in the solidary construction of society. Otero points out that, it is only possible to happen this citizenship when the individual acquires knowledge about social, physical and personal reality, becoming part of a social class and having a certain role in the world. Freire also reports that the role of the educator is not only to teach the basic contents, but to give the learner opportunities to become critical and through reading to understand what happens in their environment, not only to read without a context, becoming a mechanical reading . But teaching is much more than passing information, it is sharing dreams, goals, tasks, meanings and knowledge. It is necessary to understand how this learning happens with the students of the EJA so as to bring it closer to the knowledge of the world and through it they can help you reach your goals. However, the teacher has the primary role, in this contemporary society, of ensuring the formation of critical and active citizens. In a same line of thought Carrano warns us that the role of the teacher is to arouse curiosity, to question reality, to problematize, that is, to transform the obstacles into reflection data to understand the educational process, which, like any social facet, is related with its time, its history. For in fact the teacher is the trigger of the process of mediation reader / text can use different procedures for reading class (CARRANO, 2000).
The mediation is described, in the reading room, in the early stages, the teacher serves as mediator between the student and the author. In this mediation, he can provide models for global activity as he can, depending on the objectives of the lesson, provide models of specific reading strategies, making predictions, questions, comments. We live in a literate world where there are various types of texts and the effective use of language must meet the personal requirements of each text. Thus, the teacher has a responsibility to make reading and writing a wider universe. In this perspective, the teacher should see reading and writing as a social function, thus able to transmit this to his students, because reading has varied functions and having mastery of it provides citizenship conditions and through them can seek information through read newspapers, books, look up phone books, cookbooks, read medication booklets, run errands, organize shopping lists, write errands, build shopping lists, cookbooks (KLEIMAN, 1993).
Teno and Faccenda (2006) explain that the theoretical course explains that in the reading process the reader is able to identify the various types of reading and for this it is necessary that the teacher contributes with the pedagogical support. “Textual genus in Marcuschi’s view, is what is used the term” textual type “to designate narration, argumentation, exposition, description, injunction” for textual genre, unlike types, are all possibilities of reading such as: phone call, ticket , romance, reportage, horoscope, bull, tale, chronicle, recipes, poems, reviews, outdoor, edict, joke, conference, comics, computer chat. This work refers to the textual genres to search for the knowledge of reading. Finally, it is important to emphasize that full literacy, not only teaches to spell or sign the name, refers us to the concept of reading and writing as individual act, singular experience, author / text / reader interaction. It is necessary to see reading and writing as fundamental forms of integration of man to citizenship, allowing him to be aware of his commitment to the community and to the struggle for equal rights and duties for all (TENO AND FACCENDA, 2006). reading and writing together go together with a process of young and adult literacy. That teachers should encourage them in this training process by arousing curiosity and interest in writing and reading. Respecting the difficulties of each one and improving his knowledge to the logo of his studies. (INEP, 2003, p.11).
2. THE SEARCH
Bibliographic research includes the reading, analysis and interpretation of books, periodicals, texts, mimeographed or xerocopy documents, maps, photos, manuscripts. It aims to know the different scientific contributions available on descriptive writing (GIL, 2008 (GIL, 2008).
The research will be restricted in the Municipal Primary Schools of Education of Young and Adult Paulo Freire located in Rua Clevelândia 727 and center Chapecó SC and in the CEJA Youth and Adult Education Center of the state of Santa Catarina with responsibility of the state government located in Rua Assis Brasil 31 D, neighborhood Maria Goretti Chapecó sc.
3. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
Literacy is a means for literacy, because in order to form participatory citizens it must take into account the notion of literacy rather than literacy. Literacy is the habit of reading and writing correctly, this is the young / adult needs to know the use and engage in reading and writing activities, as it needs to seek the habit of reading newspapers, magazines, books need the effective living of reading, in this way will appropriate the writing system. Literacy is the act of deciphering phonetic codes (letters), that is, a literate individual is not necessarily a literate individual. So what distinguishes literacy literacy is the way the individual finds himself in society and the environment in which he lives.
Observed teachers of young people / adults reported that they may progress during the year, since the students in the second year have just graduated from literacy, now they are in a series that they learn in addition to specific knowledge with more attention mainly in the Portuguese language that the matter that the students have more difficulties, the teacher of the third year has told me that students who have difficulties in writing are because there is some disturbance of difficulties or are weak in writing, but agile in reading, ie, these students observed have difficulties in writing the other students have very serious difficulties in reading and writing.
In pursuit of a more valued education and giving opportunities to young people and adults, to attend the school society with more dignity and the anguish in school, I did this project to see how they teach our youth and adults in the EJA and how they learn. The study was of great importance because there was an effort to achieve the objectives. In view of the difficulties of reading and writing, it was possible to develop this article to uncover what leads the young person / adult to not be able to read and write. The routine of reading in the lives of these people brings many facilities in reading and writing, but this habit should not be only in the school, but in all the places frequented by these students. At the end of this work I could not fail to consider everything that caught my attention that was to observe how much still has to be done to account for literacy and sign our young people / adults.
CHAPECÓ SC, Secretary of Education of the Municipality of Chapecó Santa Catarina, April 2002.
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FREIRE (2000 P 1 to 19).
CARRANO, P.C.R. (2000 May). Youth; the identities are manifold, Youth, Education and Society.
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KLEIMAN, A. Reading workshop. Campinas: Pontes, 1993.
MARCUSCHI, L. A. Textual genres: difference and functionality. 2 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Lucena, 2003.
OTERO, E.S. Literacy of Adults: recovering the totality to reconstruct the specificity. Porto Alegre: Edições EST, 1993.
Maturana (2001, p.31)
Teno and Faccenda, “Reading Genre Textual Typologies: theoretical course” (2006)
(INEP, 2003, p.11 National Institute of Educational Studies and Research).
CARLOS, Antônio. How to design research projects. 4. Ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2008)
 Professor of UNIGRAN / Dourados in the course of Pedagogy, FUNLEC / UNIGRAN and FUNDECT / MS researcher and researcher.
 Graduating in Letters by UNIGRAN.