SANTOS, Lúcia Maria Matos Silva 
SANTOS, Lúcia Maria Matos Silva. The family-school relationship and its contribution to the school performance of children with special educational needs who have learning difficulties. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 06, Ed. 09, Vol. 07, pp. 78-94. September 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/family-school
The development of this article has as its theme special education, a subject that has been gaining space in the scenario and in educational debates throughout the country. Its basic question is how does the family-school relationship contribute to the school performance of children with special educational needs who have learning difficulties? Thus, the objective of this article is based on the verification of how the family’s relationship with the school contributes to the school performance of students with special educational needs (SEN) who have learning difficulties, and we will also present, according to the literature, some of the possible origins of the difficulties of these children. In view of a better understanding of this theme, the text results from a bibliographic study that had as its centrality to analyze, understand and contrast the proposal of students with special educational needs, the problem of the family and school relationship, considering children with SEN. Thus, the results revealed the importance of the role of the teacher in the growth of his students/children for parents, where it was possible to understand the importance of the relationship between parents and school for the development and better school performance of children with SEN who have learning difficulties, and how this strengthens their integration and learning process.
Keywords: Special Educational Needs, Family, School, Education, Cooperation.
The present article had as concern to analyze, in a descriptive approach, the influence of the family-school relationship on the school performance of students with special needs in education who have learning difficulties and the importance of the relationship between the school and the family of the student who has special educational needs (SEN) as a way to contribute to their school performance. It presents a reflection contextualized at the level of regular education, that is, fundamental II, in order to understand the importance that the family, together with the school, assume in the educational process of these young people.
For this, the study had as general objective to verify how the relationship of the family-school contributes to the school performance of students with special educational needs (SEN) who have learning difficulties. The specific objectives were: To analyze some theories related to cognitive development, in order to understand how the family-school relationship contributes to the student’s development; to verify some possible origins of learning difficulties, according to scholars in the field; verify, through bibliography, how the family-school relationship contributes to the development of students with SEN.
In addition to achieving these objectives, it was necessary to ask the question: how does the family-school relationship contribute to the school performance of children with special educational needs who have learning difficulties? Considering that the strengthening of parental participation in educational development, together with the educational institution, can establish and maintain a relationship between school and parents of children with SEN, in order to promote a positive change of attitudes and practices in benefits of these students.
Therefore, this study is justified through a concern about Special Education in the context of providing action between educational and social public policies, thus contributing both to the reduction of educational inequalities and to the valorization of Brazilian cultural diversity.
It is understood that the family-school relationship is fundamental for a good school performance and for the development of children with SEN before the world, knowing the main factors that interfere in the relationship between family and school.
2. THEORIES ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
To better contextualize teaching-learning for students with SEN, it is necessary to understand what the Russian psychologist, Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), teaches about theories related to cognitive development and the relationship between understanding and language. Vygotsky (2000) points out the existence of four stages during the construction of mental operations that cover the use of signs:
- The first stage, which was called “natural or primitive”, corresponds to pre-intellectual speech (babble, crying, laughter) and the preverbal idea that is characterized by rudimentary intellectual manifestations related to the management of instruments;
- The second stage comprises the “naïve psychological experiences”, a period marked by the correct use of grammatical forms and structures, although the child has not yet understood their respective logical representations;
- In the third stage, “of the previous signs”, thought acts with external operations. Such operations are appropriated by the child to solve internal problems. Thus, it is defined by the period of egocentric language;
- And the fourth stage, which is called “inner growth” and is characterized by the internalization of external operations, is the stage of inner or silent speech.
According to Vygotsky (2000), these stages of cognitive development do not have a universal character, due to the existence of a great diversity in the historical-social conditions in which children live, making the social evident in the development of thought. According to the author, the development of thought is determined by the linguistic instruments and sociocultural experience of the child, which includes family life, the way this relationship is presented and how it reflects on the educational development of the student (VYGOTSKY, 2000).
According to Alves (2007), it is necessary to dream, but dream the dreams possible to be realized. In addition, Paulo Freire (1982) considers that dreams can come true when there is a commitment to solve a problem that appears, that they can modify the social imaginary, passed for several decades, when one dreams of the possible dream and transforms the inclusion of children with SEN, into school success. In this way, it is possible that the family, school and teachers can together have a quality education.
It is understood that the education of people with special educational needs has always been permeated with doubts and uncertainties on the part of many educators who question how they can learn and how best to teach. However, it is clear that some families are not prepared to assist their children with SEN in the educational sense, considering that the school does not always have this preparation. However, for many educators it has been a daily challenge to promote the inclusion of students with SEN in regular classes along with other so-called “normal” students (IOSIF, 2007).
The concept of special needs arose in order to avoid the negative effects of expressions used in the educational-deficient context, exceptional, subnormal, gifted, disabled, among others (BRASIL, 2006).
The concept of special needs is an inherent part of the principles and values of inclusive education. For an inclusive school, it is an educational institution that offers all the resources available to meet the educational needs of all students who attend, providing them with the appropriate support and the necessary services to enable them to succeed educationally (BRASIL, 2006).
Based on the Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education (LDB) – Law No. 9394/96, in art. 58, special education should be offered preferably in the regular school network, thus one perceives a greater number of students with special educational needs inserted in the regular school network, and many teachers are being prepared to work with these students according to the specificity of each, but many still feel incapable and are reluctant against this challenge (BRASIL, 1996).
Inclusive education prioritizes the care of people with disabilities in common classes, whenever possible, because depending on the type of disability the school needs to make a whole adaptation and then welcome these students, offering physical conditions, and pedagogical materials to develop their potentialities (BRASIL, 1996).
In view of the above statements, it is understood that the regular school has sought to assist students with SEN by adapting pedagogical materials and physical spaces according to the student’s need, thus, inclusion has been treated more naturally, and the so-called “normal” students have been willing to help their colleague with special educational needs, and this makes a difference, promotes integration and fulfills one of the fundamental rights of every human being: promoting education.
It was thinking about the issues involving SEN students among some families and teachers of the municipal network of Dias D’ Ávila that the interest in this theme was born, due to the importance of family participation together with the school in order to prevent, understand the learning difficulties of students with SEN and improve their skills. Thus, education aims at the integral development of the human being, with a view to the formation of the character of the social personality and skills, because education aimed at young people and children with SEN is of social importance, allowing their insertion in a society that is often not prepared to meet their special needs. However, there is still the particularity of allowing children to go to public classrooms with other non-“disabled” ones or of allowing adults to become competitive in the labor market, noting that the role of the teacher in the learning teaching process is to introduce elements capable of causing a conflict situation into the environment of students, that can lead them to learn, regardless of how they will act from this conflict (LEONARDO, et al. 2009).
Since pedagogical action should be characterized by didactic activities that serve as support for students to take over knowledge and not only acquire, because receiving does not necessarily imply learning (LEONARDO, et al. 2009).
According to Piaget’s studies, learning is linked to the student’s cognitive development, because when knowledge becomes an action, it happens to learning, whose objective is the autonomy of the subject (DÍAZ, 2011).
It is possible to understand, therefore, that the teacher focused on special education occupies a relevant position in the formation of the student, as a professional and citizen, because it makes available to the student with SEN a series of experiences pertinent to work and life, these experiences stimulate the student in the search for theoretical and practical knowledge, enabling him to learn.
When Miranda (1999, p. 44), says that the family and the school must find creative and organizing ways to convince the community to participate, through partnerships, in the maintenance for integration and inclusion, because when there is the awareness of the people involved, the future takes its course, that is, when students are well integrated and included in the classrooms, there will probably be a partnership between teacher, family and school. But when all this does not happen, students with SEN instead of being integrated and included are segregated or excluded; the lack of preparation of common class teachers can cause harm to special students; not all students with special needs are able to integrate and include, some need individual and specialized care; the attention of governments to education is scarce; the participation of the family, which is of great relevance, has fallen short of what is necessary (MIRANDA, 1999).
At the beginning of normalization, Sassaki (1997, p. 31) states that as a basic assumption the idea that every person with special needs, especially those with mental disabilities, has the right to know a lifestyle or model that would be common or normal to their personal culture. The initial concept was then to normalize, but this was confused with the awareness of “making normal to people with special needs”.
Assuming that human beings develop through the relationships they establish with their environment, Philippe Perrenoud (2001), sees capabilities not as a path, but as an adaptive consequence of man to his living conditions. Thus, each person, in a different way, would develop skills aimed at solving problems related to overcoming a circumstance, such as knowing how to orient oneself on the way back home from a reference point, which mobilizes pedagogical recognition skills; knowing how to build tools, which stimulates skills, that is, students with SEN alone need to walk the same as the so-called “normal”, in a way to unite family, teacher and school in a way that both make a connection, that is, student partnership , family and school.
The child at the time of his birth is a purely biological being, ready to receive any kind of influence. It is in the group that (the family) is born that the initial process of social integration takes place. The socialization process requires the child to adapt their biologically determined behaviors to the cultural practices of the social group to which he/she belongs, the values, attitudes, knowledge acquired within the family aim to make the individual able to assume appropriately to different situations (GALLO; ALENCAR, 2012).
The school is an institution that transmits the scientific and technical knowledge that will allow the individual to play a role in the productive apparatus, however, the school has another essential function: linking social norms, to notions of basic ethics and ideals of society, it will be this whole set of acquisitions that will facilitate the social insertion of the individual. Thus, the family will need the support and collaboration, fundamental, of the school in this process of integration and socialization of the individual. This support will be more required when it is a child considered “different” (GALLO; ALENCAR, 2012).
In view of the above, it can be affirmed that the family and the school have a distinct role from each other, but, nevertheless, roles that are completed in the process of development and integration of the individual along their journey. It is also understood that family and school become the two engines of learning and development for the child, with specific and complementary roles and competence, the school and the family are often separated, that is, they are not sharing together, since the family is primarily responsible for the actions of their child with SEN, it is she who offers him the first training, in school integration and inclusion, the student, with the guidance of professionals and family, will be able to acquire professional and personal competence.
When the relationship between family and school is generally desirable, it becomes essential, when the precarious nature of Special Educational Needs is resolved, however, the relationship between parents and teachers must certainly undergo changes at various levels (mentalities, attitudes, strategies, practices, entrances and exits) constituting, as a process generated by change and generator of it, in a real challenge.
3. POSSIBLE ORIGINS OF LEARNING DIFFICULTIES OF STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS IN EDUCATION
The learning difficulties have in the French thinker and sociologist Edgar Morin (2011) a deep reflection, which can be verified in the elaboration of his work on education.
With regard to students with special needs in education, Morin (2011) creates a debate that is inserted in his theory of complexity, which deals with the relationship between subject and object, order and disorder, in which he recognizes in itself “an obscure, irrational and uncertain zone, opening up to chance, to the right, to disorder, to the anatomical and to the structural” (ESTRADA, 2009, p.85).
In this sense, the education segment demands a more pronounced reflection on the interaction between local and global, when it comes to the insertion of the student in regular rooms. According to Ballone (2004) learning difficulties should be treated as challenges that are part of the teaching and learning process, and not as unsolved problems. In addition, it stresses the importance of identifying these needs in pre-school in order to prevent them.
Children with SEN rely on a support network to achieve not only school success, but also inclusion. There are several obstacles encountered in the educational process of these children, considering that it requires the participation of all. The educator is responsible for rethinking the difference, the singularities considering that each individual is unique and has characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs that are unique to him (BRANDÃO; FERREIRA, 2013).
It is necessary to pay attention to the understanding of differences, characteristics and motivating tools for each student in a different way. Pay on the details and factors unrelated to the school environment, such as the family environment, should be a priority to enable a strategic plan that contributes to learning teaching, through educational resources and methods capable of promoting the global development of these children (AINSCOW, 1999).
Edgar Morin (2011) understands the school class as a complicated institution, which encompasses a diversity of impulses, socioeconomic strata, emotions and cultures, consequently he sees it as a place full of heterogeneity. Thus, he believes that this is the ideal space to initiate a paradigm shift, from the traditional way of thinking about the school environment, in which teaching-learning is effected in a cast manner, without observing the particularities and plurality of students in the classroom. This context needs to have an intense meaning for students and teachers.
Therefore, the school class needs to know the aspects of heterogeneity when it comes to students who need a more appropriate preparation for their reception. Using the direction indicated by Morin (2011), that is, that of the vision that is extracted from the narrowed scope of the discipline, which understands the context and acquires the power to find the connection with existence, one can make an analogy with this vision focused on the context of the learning context of students considered normal and those with special needs.
In agreement with the aforementioned author, it is necessary to break with the fragmentation of information in restricted fields, in the heart of which certain levels are privileged, and eliminate the hierarchical structure prevailing between disciplines and forms of knowledge transmission. Restoring these traditions requires a complex effort, since this intellectuality has been created over countless decades (MORIN, 2011).
The situations of low school performance in which the children find themselves lead them not to believe in them, to develop low self-esteem, to believe that they are not capable and therefore are not accepted in the environment in which they are inserted, whether school or family. Providing a socioaffective environment allows the elevation of the self-esteem of these children (ELIAS, 2003).
In view of this, it is necessary to identify the need to create a school environment of inclusion, in which pedagogical practices are related to the singularities of each student, in order to improve educational routines and contribute to an effective learning of students (MORATO, 2003).
According to a study conducted by Mazer et al. (2009), it is very common to find children with learning difficulties in the school environment and, in them, several risk factors are perceived that have an even greater impact, such as poverty, family conflicts, violence, family abuse, among others. In addition, the authors identified that learning difficulties also manifest emotional and behavioral damage in students.
Thus, it is understood that the role of the teacher, as a facilitator of learning, is also to be attentive to the various manifestations of difficulties presented by the students. The family as responsible for learning the child should understand their role as an example to their children, such as those who first transmit attitudes that benefit learning, whose actions are seen and learned by them, should understand the importance and how much this will determine how their children learn (FERNANDES, 2001).
From Morin’s point of view (2011), it is necessary to look at some factors relevant to the education of students with SEN, which are fundamental in the construction of a successful educational process. The author indicates the need to value error as a learning tool, because not having intimacy with something without first falling into the uncertain or illusions is common and, therefore, should be accepted and understood as part of the learning process.
Parents and educators should also contribute to the development of the self-knowledge of these students, so that education allows the universal, the varied dimensions of the human being and society, in which diversity within the individual himself is strengthened, his complexity and the understanding of where his fears and needs reside (MORIN, 2011).
Thus, it is understood that the dissemination of knowledge needs to meet its fragmentation. It is necessary to understand that the student with SEN is a multidimensional being, who urgently faces their uncertainties and doubts, requiring an active participation between the school and its guardians in order to better develop their educational skills in the school space.
4. THE FAMILY-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIP AND ITS CONTRIBUTION IN THE SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF CHILDREN WITH NEE
The whole society has, over time, resorted to regulatory practices in the face of the “different”, and children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) were no exception (LOUREIRO, 2013). Nowadays, unlike another, the family “hid “the so-called “different” children, an increasing number of children (LOUREIRO, 2013).
In Brazil, the care of people with SEN began during the Empire period when the Institute of the Blind Boys were founded in 1854 and the Institute of the Deaf In 1857 (now the National Institute of Education of the Deaf – INES) (BRASIL, 2010).
No início do século XX é fundado o Instituto Pestalozzi (1926), instituição especializada no atendimento às pessoas com deficiência mental; em 1954, é fundada a primeira Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais – APAE, e, em 1945, é criado o primeiro atendimento educacional especializado às pessoas com superdotação na Sociedade Pestalozzi, por Helena Antipoff. (BRASIL, 2010, p. 11).
After the perception of community, family, school and government about providing children with SEN with the possibility of developing in a school environment, a process of awareness and discussion about education for young people and children with SEN begins in society (MIRANDA, 2003).
With the insertion of children in school, the family is put to the test abroad, both in terms of the skills that the child manifests for learning, and in terms of the skills of the relationship with others (OLIVEIRA, 2018).
The child carries to school the meaningful learning and experiences he/she does in the family and in other systems of life, but is confronted there with other forms of communication and expression of affections, with other values and rules. This contact with new ways of life and new knowledge implies, if the child’s development is healthily processing a strengthening of his competence and safety, implies that as he grows parents cease to be the only mentors, the teacher, colleagues also become an example (LOUREIRO, 2013).
Parental involvement leads to success, children whose parents have contacts with school, have higher scores than children with similar aptitude and family environment, but deprived of parental involvement (MIRANDA, 2003).
Schools that have high failure rates improve greatly when parents are asked to help, because the integration between these two institutions translates the sharing and continuity of the task of preparing and referring subjects to life in its most varied aspects (HENDERSON cit. DAVIS, 1989, p. 38).
The viability of the relationship between the family and the school depends on collaboration, trust and respect between the parties, so that the achievement of educational objectives is productive and significant, I try to believe that the participation of parents in the education of their children is a right and a duty (CARDOSO, 2011).
According to Cardoso (2011):
A importância do papel da família na educação das crianças e jovens com NEE, tal como das outras crianças sem problemas, é sem dúvida fundamental e indiscutível. É pois essencial a participação dos pais em todo o processo educativo, através de uma estreita colaboração entre escola/família. Os pais são participantes indispensáveis na medida em que contribuem com o conhecimento específico que têm do filho e da sua situação familiar e manifestam as suas preocupações e expectativas relativamente ao seu futuro (p.29).
According to Davis (1994, p.82), referencing Broudieu, the parents who most easily engage positively in school, are the ones who culturally identify most with the values that are linked and legitimized by the school, the school and teachers often appropriate their practices bearing in mind “a middle class model of what constitutes the “good family” and the “appropriate education”.
The school assumes itself as a value for being and being that comes from the relationships of “symbolic forces between the classes”, the teacher, as “representative of legitimate culture”, tends to recognize and reinforce those who identify with him. (FORMOSINHO, 1988).
The education of children and young people is a concern of parents and educators, in which the teacher has a complex, challenging role, but mainly, mediator and motivator of teaching-learning (PICANÇO, 2012).In this sense, while the professional in education is perfected in being dynamic, communicative and innovative in their pedagogical practices it is necessary that, on the other hand, parents establish with them a partnership, a continuous effort to share objectives and recognize that this mutual support is for the common good of students (PICANÇO, 2012).
With regard to children with SEN, it is up to teachers to support their parents, assisting them and supporting them in performing the family function, so that it does not cover them so much in relation to the execution of tasks exclusively of school competence, since they are not specialists (CARDOSO, 2011).
4.1 THE INTEGRATION OF CHILDREN WITH NEE IN REGULAR CLASS
Integration is not an easy task and for this, it is necessary to be in mind that the environment in which the child with SEN is inserted, makes all the difference in its development. Therefore, when talking about students with SEN, we also talk about their interactions with the environment, in which the school should provide – equally to the family – a minimally restrictive environment possible (CARDOSO, 2011).
Inclusion does not only require that students with SEN be placed in a regular school, but rather that an environment conducive to their learning, their development be created, and it is essential that they have their good physical and human conditions guaranteed by the family, as well as commitment and availability by professionals in education, where opportunities are created so that they can interact with other children, sharing the same spaces and, above all, providing them with the essential stimuli to teaching-learning, always having families as partners (CARDOSO, 2011).
According to Saraiva and Wagner (2013), a hypothetical explanation is that a good relationship between family and school positively influences the integration of children with SEN into the regular class class. In addition, these authors also point out that the existence of an association of parents and guardians can contribute to a good family and school relationship in the integration of children with SEN (SARAIVA; WAGNER, 2013).
According to Paro (2000) the school realizes that some families have more difficulty in helping in the educational development of the child, because they often do not have the opportunity to learn, to attend a school, but still the school needs this continuity of teaching-learning, in the family environment (PARO·, 2000).
As Saraiva and Wagner (2013) point out, the activities most requested by the school to parents and guardians are participation in school improvement, with the participation in money, participation in the construction and development of the evaluation of projects that the school develops. In addition, it may also involve communication strategies in the family and school relationship, such as parent meetings, telephone contacts and written notes (SARAIVA; WAGNER, 2013).
It is understood, therefore, that including students with SEN requires an educational intervention that allows their progress in school, which, depending on the problem, implies changes in the curriculum, strategies and resources, which are sometimes not easy to achieve in view of the limitations that may be presented in the school or family environment.
5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
With the realization of this study, it was perceived that the fundamental aspects that underpin the questions of learning difficulties of students with special needs in education, in their concepts, bring the perspective of a teaching more focused on the preparation of the subject for life. A quality education that includes the care of the student, in partnership with the family and with the community where he lives, aiming at the effectiveness in the process of evolution of their learning, considering the issues that refer to the formation of a school with the ability to include students with SEN in their physical, affective aspects, social and cognitive factors.
It is worth mentioning that every teacher, during his/her journey as an educator, will find students with SEN at any time in his/her life, members of his/her class or school. It is very likely that you will be confronted with situations for which you have not been properly prepared pedagogically and psychologically. In this way, the teacher will have to adopt attitudes and look for the best way to meet the needs of these students.
In this perspective, the object of study refers to the participation of the family, the child and the adolescent with SEN. A family and school relationship in a multifaceted approach that is inscribed in the vast area that is that of Special Education.
The result showed as the main demand, the participation of the family in the course of the studies of their children, aiming at reducing a better learning, the family having active participation in the school together with teachers and classmates ensures the continuity of this and in the family environment makes there a positive evolution in the development of children and young people with SEN.
In this sense, if the child’s success with the SEN involves the participation of parents in school, then the attitudes and predisposition of parents and teachers, in view of the implementation and maintenance of the interrelationship, becomes pertinent, a pertinence is related to innovation or change and the fact that parents are fundamental partners in this change procedure.
From the above, this study proposes the reflection, from the bibliographic survey, on the relationships that parents and teachers establish with each other and how this reflects on the school performance of their children/students, besides understanding the way this relationship is constructed, is present in the success of children with SEN.
At the end of this analysis, it seeks to show that the parents interviewed believe that the teacher’s work has contributed greatly to the development of their child with SEN, that is, in the parents’ view the role of the teacher is fundamental for the growth of their child. It was noticed that parents have shown great interest in knowing the dynamics of their children’s lives, by addressing subjects that give them the opportunity to interact and, as such, it can be inferred that all parents of children with SEN can make their contribution to improving the process of integration and learning.
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 PhD in Educational Sciences from Universidad San Carlos – USC. Master’s degree in Educational Sciences from Universidad San Carlos-USC. Graduated in Artistic Education, with qualification in Drawing – Catholic University of Salvador – UCSAL. Also graduated in Mathematics, with a full degree in the Special Program of Pedagogical Training and graduated in Pedagogy – Cruzeiro do Sul University; Specialization in Psychopedagogy – Salgado Oliveira University.
Submitted: August, 2021.
Approved: September, 2021.