From exclusion to inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder: a study on educational mediations that promote development

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

GENTILIN, Ana Floripes Berbert [1]

GENTILIN, Ana Floripes Berbert. From exclusion to inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder: a study on educational mediations that promote development. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 07, Vol. 11, pp. 19-39. July 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/educational-mediations

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the article is to disseminate to professionals of education, health, social assistance, political leadership and families the result of the study on the damage caused, through late diagnosis and the absence of appropriate therapeutic interventions, available for the care of students, with Autism Spectrum Disorder – ASD. The lack of qualified health professionals in Cianorte – PR is our problem and challenge. Therefore, this article has as a guide question: how will public managers solve the obstacles encountered regarding the care of people on the autism spectrum? Its main objective, through a Case Study, is to investigate the consequences resulting from the late diagnosis of ASD in the student’s schooling (F.B, 18 years old), enrolled in the 3rd grade of high school, at the State College Igléa Grollmann – EFM. The Research Methods used were the Case Study, Field Research with qualitative approach. There was an interview with the student’s mother, observation and study of the following documents: pedagogical opinions of the school years 2015, 2016, first quarter of 2021 and psychopedagogical evaluation, in the school context. Finally, there was mobilization on the theme Autism at the local level and the proposal for the implementation and implementation of an Autism Reference Center to the Legislative and Executive Branches was forwarded. It was concluded that the delay in the diagnosis generated significant delay in the development of the student, aggravated her clinical status, enhanced family suffering and the lack of qualified multidisciplinary team, to perform early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up have been one of the greatest barriers found in our reality to improve the lives of people with ASD and their families.

Key Words: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Late Diagnosis, Schooling, Prejudice, Igléa Grollmann State College – EFM.

1. INTRODUCTION

The profession of Specialized Educational Support Teacher (PAEE) challenges us daily. Given the scarcity of qualified care in the area of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), mainly in the area of health, it is possible to verify the damage in the academic, social and emotional developments of students attending the Public School System.

Autism is currently considered a neurobiological developmental disorder defined according to eminently clinical criteria. The basic characteristics are qualitative and quantitative abnormalities that, although very comprehensive, most clearly affect the areas of social interaction, communication and behavior. (SCHWARTZMAN, 2011, p. 37)

In our reality, late diagnoses, the demand of students with ASD indicators, treated only comorbidities and the share of students who have not yet been identified by the lack of scientific knowledge of education professionals have revealed a chaotic picture to be faced. From this context it is necessary to question: how will public managers solve the obstacles encountered regarding the care of people on the autism spectrum?

Thus, it is observed that all difficulties departing from the teaching and learning and/or social processes have sent to the individual all responsibility for its success or failure, exempting the school, political leadership and areas of health and social assistance, that is, the Public Policies or lack thereof, of any responsibility for the failure and the dissemination of social exclusion mechanisms, increasing the social stigma about group of people in the condition studied.

According to Carvalho (2006), there is finally a complex network of variants that contribute to the excluding processes of our students. We know that, we are able to identify them even though we can’t remove them alone.

The Colégio Estadual Igléa Grolmann – EFM, offers primary education – phase two to high school. There are 1,003 enrollments, including thirteen students diagnosed with ASD, and only one of them, the diagnosis was closed at four years of age, the others, between eight and fifteen years old, there are also at least five with indications. In 2020, one of the students with ASD, diagnosed at the age of eight, finished high school and currently attends Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Administration and Economic Sciences of Cianorte – FACEC. Recently, there was the transfer of two enrollments, the diagnoses were closed when the students turned 13, after suspicions raised at the school.

Due to their peculiar characteristics, they need multidisciplinary attention, since, for their identification, correct evaluation and appropriate therapeutic proposals, physicians from various clinical specialties, geneticists, psychologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and several others should collaborate. (SCHWARTZMAN; ARAÚJO, 2011, p.18)

In view of the above, the main objective of the research, through a Case Study, to investigate the consequences of the late diagnosis of ASD, in the student’s schooling (F.B, 18 years old), enrolled in the 3rd grade of high school, at the Igléa Grollmann State College – EFM and specific objectives: research on the fragility of the curricular flexibilization process prior to diagnosis, by the lack of knowledge of its condition, present some pedagogical mediations and the gaps caused in its academic and social life, effects of prejudice, thus delaying the development of its potentiality, record some of the pedagogical interventions performed after the diagnosis and which were favorable in the academic and social areas and propose to the public authorities actions that minimize the problem related to the lack of qualified multidisciplinary team.

2. DEVELOPMENT

In Brazil, there is a limitation regarding census-related surveys. It is known that the demand of people with ASD was not even included in the last Census. Law No. 13,861/2019[2] was required to force the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) to enter questions about Autism in the 2020 Census. This Law amends Law No. 7,853[3] of October 24, 1989, to include the specificities inherent to ASD in demographic censuses. It is known that the spectra are varied and the diagnoses are often inaccurate due to the complexity of autism. Thus, IBGE may have difficulties in mapping who are the Brazilians who are on the spectrum. On the one hand, the new questionnaire has been considered an advance in the agenda of inclusion by many people of the Autistic movement, including relatives of people who fit the spectrum. On the other hand, the decision also raises some important questions about the content of the questions, because the approach may contribute to further stigmatize the disorder.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of conditions that, on the one hand, have been more frequently identified and, on the other hand, have attracted interest from professionals from various areas of knowledge. It also considers that there are three areas absent or compromised in children with ASD: social interaction, communication and repetitive behavior and states that the signs can be identified around 12 and 18 months of life. However, often, due to the lack of scientific knowledge of parents and health professionals, differences in development will only be observed when the child arrives at school.  (SCHWARTZMAN; ARAÚJO, 2011).

The study on the case of student F.B. was chosen due to the diagnosis being late at the age of 13. There were serious consequences, also because she is a girl, which becomes even more difficult in our region, to carry out the diagnosis with safe protocol. The evaluation in the School Context took place in 2015, after its enrollment in the 6th Year. Its report with diagnosis of ASD, associated with mental retardation, is dated December 2014.

In this sense, for data collection, we used the following protocol: observation of the student in the classroom, in the courtyard, court, in her residence, in collective pedagogical activities external to the physical space of the school. There was a face-to-face interview with student F’s mother.B and documentary analysis, among them: Pedagogical Opinions, school years 2015, 2016, first quarter of 2021 and Psychopedagogical Evaluation in the School Context.

For the development of the research, the methodology of Case Study and Field Research was used, the qualitative approaches were prioritized, for working with the problematization of the theme, collecting data and providing their interpretation within the contexts. According to Gil (2011) exploratory research aims to develop, clarify, modify concepts and ideas.

Qualitative research works with the universe of meanings, motives, aspirations, beliefs, values and attitudes. This set of human phenomena is understood here as part of the social reality, because the human being is distinguished not only by acting, but by thinking about what he does and by interpreting his actions within and from the reality lived and shared with his fellow men. (MINAYO, 2010, p. 21).

It is believed that closing the diagnosis of ASD in girls is more difficult than in boys, given that many “camouflage” the signs of Autism. Girls with high cognitive ability are often diagnosed in adulthood. As the diagnosis is higher in boys, the behavior of many girls is confused with extreme shyness or stillness and not as marked difficulties in the area of social interaction.In the case of student F. B, the signs of Autism manifested from an early age, there was no disguise, but the diagnosis was late and its effects combined with non-comprehension had the effect of the strong social impact derived from prejudice. The condition generated a lot of psychological suffering and apparently insurmountable traumas in the student and her family members.

In the process of inclusive education, many questions arise and one of the ways to understand about the diversity of people who make up the school context is essential to active listening, that is, to stand before the need to know the reality of students, with the purpose of identifying their potentialities and limitations, in order to favor them through the organization of pedagogical practices, through curriculum flexibility.

Saviani (2003) shows that to identify the degree of relevance of school content for the formation of school education, it is necessary to distinguish between the essential and the accidental, the main and secondary, the fundamental and the accessory, in the action of selecting content. However, in many cases, without the clinical diagnosis of students with ASD, therapeutic treatment and specialized educational follow-up, there is no way to achieve academic success. In such cases, only pedagogical interventions will never be enough, however good they may be.

The propositioned theoretical knowledge is articulated to the knowledge of practice at the same time resignifying them and being, in turn, resignified. Thus, the role of theory is to offer teachers perspectives of analysis to understand the historical, social, cultural, organizational and themselves as professionals, in which their teaching activity takes place, to intervene in them, transforming them. (PIMENTA, 2012, p. 21)

At the beginning of the second phase of elementary school at the Colégio Estadual Igléa Grollmann– EFM, the behavior of student F.B, oscillated a lot, then showed anger and fear, alternating quickly for bouts of laughter, crying and self-aggression. Your self-esteem, lowered. In the reports it is possible to observe that, in many situations, they were caused by the sudden change of routine. In his individual folder, in addition to the aforementioned diagnosis, there are those of Irlen syndrome, which is a visuoperceptual alteration, caused by an imbalance in the ability to adapt to light, social phobia, attention deficit and OCD. Before receiving ASD, comorbidities were treated only in medical offices. It was possible to verify in the documents, their high level of auditory sensitivity and anxiety, resulting in self-mutilation, the most visible parts were in the arms and lips. This happened with a lot of intensity. The student used the overlay, an overlay blade, to minimize the problem caused by Irlen syndrome, also detected late.

After the initial interview with the mother and reading documents of both education and health, conclusion of the Psychopedagogical Evaluation of the School Context, the school professionals were instructed on their need to study in the classroom that there was little movement. The obstacle was that the rooms were composed with at least thirty students in each of them. Then, a long work was done at the school with regard to the theme Autism. To date, activities are developed with the purpose of improving the conviviality in the school space, considering that, in a universe of more than one thousand students, there are thirteen students diagnosed with ASD, as well as those who have indications of the disorder.

Regarding social phobia, there was guidance, that the student was gradually included in the tasks developed with a larger number of students, that is, that there should be constant stimulus to participate in collective activities, starting for the shortest time and gradually increasing it, according to the evaluated results. In the interview with the student’s mother, she reported that her seven-year-old daughter was already being warned and suspended due to inappropriate behavior, according to the acceptable standards of some regular schools she attended. Although the mother always took her to doctors and psychologists, the diagnosis reached only thirteen years and four months. During the speech there were many moments when he was moved:

My daughter won’t forgive me until today because she beat her. The school professionals said there was no catch. There was a day when the psychologist went to guide the team and said she was very spoiled. I’d get nervous. As she is a perfectionist and took time to do the activities, she sometimes did not participate in the break schedule. One day she urinating on her clothes and the schoolgirls made a choir and called her a ‘mijona’. Then they called me, from the gate even talking to me in a loud tone that my daughter had ready again. I felt ashamed, and I arranged with her that I would always wait for her around the corner. One day they called me and told me she was out of school. Today I understand what happened. She has difficulty with the notion of time. When you hit the halftime sign, you took your purse and waited for me around the corner. No one knew he had autism, even after going to a lot of doctors. (Z. L, mother of F.B)

It is common to hear reports of misdiagnoses, unnecessary medical treatments, use of incorrect medication, intense psychic suffering, social, affective, professional and academic disadaptation, suicides of people considered with “strange” behaviors in communities. In the case of the student in question, it was no different. To this day suffers from the sequelae imposed by the ignorance about his condition. Late diagnosis occurs because often, the child receives several diagnoses before ASD. Thus, this disorder is not detected until there is social contact with a larger number of people. There is a history that by not giving up the search for diagnosis in adolescence or adulthood, there is still a professional who says: “But, it is not important. Don’t worry about it.”

It was after the approval of Law No. 12,764, of December 2012, that the subject Autism entered the agenda of public health policy. That law included the person with ASD in the group of people with disabilities. However, although the laws are available we still have many difficulties to have access to public services and there is a large attention deficit focused on the area of Autism. The late diagnosis, in the overwhelming majority of cases, is a consequence of the lack of qualification in the areas of health, education and social assistance or lack thereof. The damage in the area of development when one has the late diagnosis is always accompanied by stories full of psychic suffering and often irreversible in relation to quality of life.The causes of these are always of biopsychosocial origin.

For children with ASD, early detection and subsequent interventions may determine substantially better prognosis, including faster language acquisition, better adaptive development. All of this can increase the chances of these children for successful inclusion in schooling processors. However, such children are often referred for evaluation later than would be desirable. (ARAÚJO, 2011, p. 178)

Important data can be seen in the article “A 20-year study of suicide death in a population with autism throughout the state”, published in April 2019 in the bimonthly medical journal Autism Research. This one, established as the official journal of the International Autism Research Society. Information from surveillance research in Utah, USA, presents studies on the incidence of suicide among people with ASD.

In January 2019, an article called “Prevalence of Depressive Disorders in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis: A Meta-Analysis” was published in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. The research used 7,857 articles to assess the current and lifelong prevalence of unipolar depressive disorders in children, adolescents and adults with ASD. The study showed that suicide rates among people with ASD were higher in studies that included participants with greater intelligence. In addition, lifetime prevalence was associated with increased age and white people. The samples that included more white participants had a higher prevalence of depressive disorders throughout their lives. (Source: https://autismoerealidade.org.br/2021/03/22/depressao-e-suicidio-no-autismo/)

In the Pedagogical Opinions of the years 2015 and 2016, there are records of the resistance of student F.B, to carry out physical education activities in open places. During the theoretical class that took place in the classroom, I participated with tranquility. The movement, the agitation and the noises bothered her a lot. The teachers used various strategies to take her to the court. Sometimes, he remained in the stands and did not participate directly in the proposed activities, but while painting drawings, disguisedly he looked at the others who performed the exercises. It has also been described that in a dance class Professor J.C.B, he requested that he read the proposed texts and develop some activities in his notebook. After insisting that the student participate in physical education classes, she accepted the challenge. The content was dance and the class took place in the school yard. PAEE and F.B, they made an agreement that they would remain in place until she felt good. That is, the student would be, at that moment, controlling her time of tolerance. Then she embraced her Frozen book that she didn’t leave at any time and went. At the scene, they sat next to the class. The teacher began to move the body and the student followed her. The professor of the discipline understood. He went to the student, dancing and invited her. Suddenly they were dancing in the center of the wheel. When she finished she would smile and say, “I can’t believe this happened.” She was delighted to have crossed her own boundaries. There was celebration in the family.

The idea that difference is something “finished” and that a student with ASD is a limited subject in his act of learning has often induced the school to reduce the student’s chances of reaching new horizons about meanings, representations and transformations, aiming at the construction and acquisition of knowledge. Furthermore, considering that the student in the mentioned condition does not have the capacity to develop certain functions qualified as having greater elaboration (comprehension, abstraction, planning of their own actions, etc.), at times, the school removes from its material environment related to the development of these capacities, impoverishing its performance and acting at the level of training of sensory and motor functions. Thus, pedagogical action is reduced to the organic picture of the disorder, disregarding the importance of sociocultural issues in the constitution of higher mental functions.

Vygotsky (1997) does not conceive the disabled child as a quantitatively inferior being to the other child considered without disability. It emphasizes that there are different forms of development, and that the quantitative character of the deficiency, in many respects, only limits the development of students considered with disabilities, and what should be taken into account are the qualitative forms that point to diversity in development. In the process of acquiring knowledge we are faced with two levels, one related to the student’s abilities to solve problems alone or with help, revealing the importance of the teacher’s role as a mediator agent of knowledge.

After much encouragement, student F. B, he’d buy his own snack in the cafeteria. The employees, as soon as they saw her at the counter, attended her quickly, because they were trained and knew about their difficulty in getting to that place, due to their history related to the fear of staying in places with the presence of many people and with turmoil.

In the care of the Infantojuveni Psychosocial Care Center (CAPSi), the team discovered the great talent of student F.B, in the activities developed in the pool. She excelled in swimming activity in terms of speed and breath. The impression is that it had been years since i performed such activities. After some time, the doctor who attended her and the main responsible for the project, left work at the said Center and there was no continuity. However, she is still a user of this health equipment.

Still in the Pedagogical Opinions it can be verified that the student was afraid to grow and, as a consequence, was terrified when the date of her birthday approached. The school developed some activities and that favored it. One of the activities was to celebrate the surprise birthday at school.

The same was planned with caution. She won the dress similar to that of the character Frozen, of a person from the community. F.B and the book are inseparable outside the space of their residence. Behavioral performance was reported by education professionals: the student assumed the identity of the character and her attitudes were different from day to day.At that time, the ASD did not prevent her from walking freely through the school space, receiving the compliments of the people she met on the way, hugging without restrictions and also entering several classrooms, including the elementary school class – phase one, of the school that operates on the same campus of the College. She took pictures with the professionals and students. The students in her class waited in the classroom, sang their congratulations, and applauded her in moderation, a low sound. She and her mother distributed pieces of cake to their friends.

From that date, 2016, he walks through the school and shows no fear. The phrase, “I’m afraid to grow up,” gradually diminished. She verbalized three years later that the dread would be because growing up she risked losing her mother to death.

It was also reported by the mother that after the celebration of her birthday, her daughter gave her grandfather the first hug. In telling her about this fact, she was moved. At school she was very encouraged to greet people and gradually accepted hugs. Over time he presented the initiative to embrace the people of his social life. It was possible to verify the importance of identifying and understanding the students’ feelings, as well as the moments in which they could generate severe anxieties, anticipating and preventing various situations, among them: the main causes that triggered psychic suffering during the performance of academic activities. Thus, the school community learned to distinguish the causes of origin of psychic pain derived from ASD and the environment and/or mixture of the two conditions. In the accounts of student F. B, the hugs, diminished the effects of anxiety.

In this sense, there is the experience of Temple Grandin who was born with Autism, severe level, in the USA. She copied the method of vaccination of cows and created the hug machine. Today he has a post-doctorate in veterinary medicine and can hug some people. Finally, interpersonal difficulties are still confused with affective inexpression. Currently, the hug machine is still used in several therapeutic activities in the United States. Some scientific studies have devoted themselves to verifying the effectiveness of temple’s machine, demonstrating a significant reduction in levels of tension, anxiety, stereotypes and disruptive behaviors in people with autism (GRANDIN, 1992; EDELSON et al., 1999).

According to Grandin (1992), direct physical contact with other people was a virtually unbearable sensory experience. This statement contributes to the understanding of the influence of sensory alterations on the behavior of people with ASD.

It was also possible to verify in the Pedagogical Reports the importance of scientific contents, mainly to develop skills of students who present diagnosis of ASD. Every year, since 2013, the College has carried out campaigns to disseminate scientific knowledge about ASD, to the school community, highlighting that Autism is not a disease and it is necessary to understand, more over the laws, the reality of the person with the disorder in Brazil, Paraná and the Municipality of Cianorte-PR, also the struggles that need to be fought in society for the legitimation of rights. Currently, the students of the school, in the condition mentioned, are the protagonists of the main activities. They are planned collectively and the purpose is to combat prejudices and improve acitic practices.

Goffman (1982) stresses that our preconceptions structure what we imagine of the other, that in front of a person with a stigma we define as partially human. According to the author, one way to camouflage our perception of the stigmatized is to use subterfuge pointing out other differences. Thus, we built a theory of stigma, an ideology to explain its inferiority and without realising the danger it represents, sometimes rationalizing our animosity based on other differences, such as those of social class.

The stigma attributed to people with disabilities and ASD is not only in relation to what is visible in their physical characteristics, but mainly to the mentioned picture, associated with another, resulting in the stigma of inferiority, disability and discrimination. These are constructed under a socially elaboratejudgment pattern based on normative expectations.

Man’s development, as a biological type, was apparently basically over by the time human history began. This, of course, does not mean that human biology has parked since the moment the historical development of human society began… But this biological change of nature had become a unit dependent and subordinate to the historical development of human society. (VYGOTSKY AND LURIA, in VEER, 1991, p. 220).

In this sense, it is necessary to understand that learning difficulties are produced and/or reproduced in the school space and that:

The student with autism is not incapable of learning, but has a peculiar way of responding to stimuli, culminating in bringing him a differentiated behavior, which can be responsible for both great anxieties and great discoveries depending on the help he receives. (CUNHA, 2011, p. 68)

The student’s resourcefulness during these years, given the initial picture, is considered satisfactory and many of the problems related to the process of social interaction were abbreviated. Regarding the problem of pinching the lips, the strategy was the compliment and the use of lipstick.

In the records there is information that when the teachers spoke phrases that the student judged offensive because she presented difficulties in understanding metaphors, she was angry with them. It was necessary to calm it and explain the different forms of languages. By constantly complaining of a headache, it was perceived that the reason could be for not being able to perform all the activities at the same time as the other classmates. Hardly expressed himself verbally. The situation was perceived because she kept a notebook on her wallet and another on her lap. At first, 6th grade, I couldn’t leave the room at break time. The other students leave and student F.B, continued performing the activities that had not finished. There were several mediations and one was to guide the teachers, including those who preceded the interval period.

Some studies have proposed that the essential problem of Autism lies in a peculiar way of processing information, in which the part overlaps the whole. They argued that the individual with Autism does not construct comprehensive interpretations of situations, as it does not integrate the information to which he is exposed. Thus, it would be unable to make inferences that depend on the analysis of the context and to identify the cause-and-effect relationships between actions. It would then have a fragility of the Central Coherence. (PERISSINOTO, 2011, p. 202)

In the pedagogical records of December, school year 2016, it is noticed the decrease in their level of anxiety. The student performed several pedagogical activities successfully. Breathing was compass, the injuries to the lips had decreased, as well as the intensity of the movements of the hands in the hair. The teachers realized that she could not stand loud noises and in some situations showed intolerance when she was asked a question and someone answered before. She got out of control. However, in relation to 2015, the frequency decreased. Thus, social interaction is essential for human development.

Another favorable result described in the Pedagogical Opinions is that, after much guidance, F. B., managed to attend 20% of the activities of the Cia Circo Imaginarium project, presented at the Carlos Y Events Center. Mori. To do so, they sat in the front row and were instructed not to look back. There were over seven hundred people watching the show. The classmates, Maria and Eduarda, who helped her a lot in the classroom, participated directly in the activities of the show. As soon as they saw her they went to find her and hug her, saying, “We’re happy because you came.” She smiled showing satisfaction!After sixty minutes and when he realized that he was no longer able to stay on site, he asked him to call his mother because he wanted to return home. You’ve been congratulated! When he found his mother, he said, with euphoria, “I was able to watch, Mother!”

If, for individuals called “normal”, throughout life, but especially in childhood, distress and anxiety arise from the experience of feelings of abandonment, for people in this condition, distress and anxiety do not arise in the face of abandonment, but arise from disorder, unpredictable, unbehavioral, determining crises of disorganization, difficult to be controlled. (ARAÚJO, 2011, p.196)

In the team work, he was able to go to the front of the classroom and read short excerpts. For them to happen successfully, according to Professor A.F. it was necessary to interpret the silences, words and behavior of the student, as well as that of the class. By succeeding, F.B, he was quiet, sang softly as he performed the tasks proposed by the teachers.

It is normal for autistic children to feel uncomfortable and intimidated in a new environment like school. It is normal to seek support in the things or movements that attract her by staying permanently focused on them, forgetting everything else […] In this relationship, who learns first is the teacher and who will teach him is his student. (CUNHA, 2011, p. 33)

In the 2021 school year, there are records that, due to the pandemic, remote activities are carried out through the cell phone. The student did not use the computer and because she had Irlen syndrome, the cell phone screen impairs her vision. So, you don’t participate in class video calls, via Google Meet, and you also don’t watch classes through Google Classroom. In this case, the “Learning Trails” were made available, which are printed activities, weekly. To perform them, the WhatsApp app is used. This time, the teachers organized the work according to her routine. The activities are carried out through audios and some videos. She follows the commands. This strategy, possible for the moment, increased the gap related to development opportunities, both in the educational and health areas.

The activities are carried out after discussing the subject. PAEE speaks through audio and she responds in writing. Just open the camera to show your pets. Some are read line by line to facilitate their understanding, due to the varied concepts involved in the clippings of activities. According to Professor A.F, it is possible to verify the development of their superior psychological functions, their level of attention, concentration, reasoning increased considerably.

There are numerous challenges in thinking about the perspective of inclusive education and the aitudinal aspect needs to be faced, among them: prejudices, stereotypes and stigmas. Social representations of prejudice go from generation to generation.

Tunis (2007) states that prejudice is an act of social responsibility and its brand is still very expressive when dealing with disability and diversity in the school context. The notion of disability is associated with lack, which can be partial, transient or absolute. This notion is usually applied to people who are assigned labels such as: lack of intelligence, lack of skill, or ability to do a task that is expected to be performed in a certain way. Thus, the notion of disability is part of the idea of social expectation.

3. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

This article worked with the following problems: How will the specialists in the educational area promote the learning of students with ASD without the presence of the qualified multidisciplinary team in the health area? How will public managers solve the obstacles encountered in our municipality regarding the care of people on the autism spectrum?

Regarding the main objective on the investigation of the consequences of late diagnosis in the schooling of student F.B, it was possible to reflect on how much suffering could be avoided throughout his school, his family and school trajectory, if the precise diagnosis had come at an early age, with the appropriate therapeutic interventions. At the moment, there is a new concern: at the end of high school, what is the qualified place that will continue its social development? As for the initial questions, after the research there was evidence that it is impossible for the school to replace the support and accompaniment that students need in the area of health, for more commitment and dedication in the educational area. But, the government and society can and should change this scenario based on planning, theoretical and practical organization based on the rights of people with ASD.

For Schwatzman (2011) Autism has no cure, but with proper treatment it is possible to minimize the effects of the disorder and the sooner one detects the signs of Autism, the results in terms of development will be significant. However, it is perceived that the family with better purchasing power opportunities adequate treatment for their children and many seek specialized care outside the municipality of Cianorte-PR, while low-income families are difficult to get close to the diagnosis, much less treatment and adequate follow-up. It is possible to experience the two realities mentioned within the same public school.

Regarding the specific objectives on the fragility of the curricular flexibilization process prior to diagnosis, due to the ignorance of the condition of student F.B; pedagogical mediations and gaps caused in their academic and social life, effects of prejudice; pedagogical interventions carried out after diagnosis and which were favorable in the academic and social areas and proposal of intervention forwarded to the public authorities, it was found the following: the student before her diagnosis suffered a lot of bullying. During this period, his behavior regarding the delay to deliver the activities was interpreted, such as: lazy, slow, rude, rude, antisocial, etc.

At Igléa Grollmann State College, to perform some evaluations demonstrated a high level of anxiety. In the reports, there are records of the increased request to go to the bathroom, the movements of the hands in the hair and bites on the lips. Pedagogical mediations were constantly performed, including during the evaluations. The teachers always returned the result first to her. When I received it, I showed joy and when I was quiet I sang.

The school develops many activities on bullying. During their exposure, the F.B, cried and his wallet and socialized his story with the class. The subject always referred to his previous suffering. Given experience, it is possible to affirm that the lack of scientific knowledge and empathy, the lack of knowledge of the students’ histories limits us in understanding the cases, making it difficult to organize pedagogical work. Therefore, general and specific continuing training is extremely important.

Given the context presented and based on practical experience on the “floor” of the school, Professor A. F, forwarded an explanatory text to the City Council presenting important issues and the purpose was to alert them about the need for awareness campaigns and the implementation and implementation of an Autism Reference Center or other specialized service model that meets the current need of our Municipality. The same should be composed, at least, of a group of professionals able to diagnose with health insurance protocol, carry out therapeutic interventions and information campaigns, train professionals in the areas of health, social assistance and education, serve families, insert and monitor for a period of time the target audience in the labor market.

Then there was the local mobilization, meetings with the government and Legislative Indication No. 144/2021, by Councilman Vantuir Carlos da Silva (Tuika), suggesting the implementation of a Reference Center on Autism Spectrum Disorder – ASD. Then, several actions began, such as: creation of the Decree establishing a Study Committee, represented by various segments of public agencies, parents and guests. In the last group cited are Vice-Mayor João Alexandre Teixeira, Mayor Wilson Pedrão and Vice-President Afonso Lima; conducting the Census in the municipality and in the region, there was a preliminary survey and referring to enrollment in schools, a number of approximately two hundred students with closed diagnoses, in this calculation lack those who have indications. A major problem was raised: lack of qualified professionals to meet the demand in both public and private networks and philanthropic;  preparation of an agenda with the purpose of knowing the various experiences of other municipalities in Brazil regarding Specialized Services in the area of ASD, so that, after the survey and reading of our reality, the government, based on the budget, prepares a project of practices that strengthen the specialized support existing in public schools, and philanthropic organizations and present a central specialized service model that meets Cianorte and Region.

When searching for information in the individual folders of students with ASD of the Igléa Grollmann State College to find out about the number of closed and investigated diagnoses, it was observed in the Psychoeducational Assessment documents in the School Context that when raising some suspicions of ASD indicators, they are referred to external care. In many cases, they return with reports of auditory processing disorder, attention deficit, hyperactivity, social phobia, depression, among others, and most of them, makes use of the medication Ritalin. There are students away from school and perform home activities with reports of social phobia and when they are referred for external evaluation, in the reading of the school professionals present indicative of ASD. Moreover, other cases that finished high school and the trajectory is permeated with much psychic suffering, especially in girls, and in the reports indicated depression and schizophrenia. In some situations, several reports with different diagnoses. In the examples cited, the majority are very easy to learn. One of them is enrolled in two Higher Courses. She has no bond of friendship and when asked why she enrolled in two colleges, she replied: “It’s to keep your mind busy. Not thinking about other things and I love studying.” As for the perceived fragility in both education and health, it is the turnover of professionals, there are several different signatures in the reports and pedagogical opinions. This directly affects the development of students, as there are Case Studies conducted at school that are not completed. Therefore, appropriate pedagogical interventions are not performed. There were even records of suicide attempts in the group of students surveyed. This is an important topic for future studies.

Finally, at school it is possible to perceive the slight or extreme deficit in the areas of social interaction, communication and repetitive movements, but without qualified multidisciplinary team in school and health, problems worsen and remain unsolved.

It is known that the proposal of school inclusion presupposes respect for individual differences, the reassessment of educational programs and processes, the expansion and improvement of scientific knowledge, the training of professionals, the improvement and adequacy of material resources and, above all, the change of views on the terms: disability, disability and limit. On the other hand, the school does not replace the role of the external Support Network and without collective action to face reality, it will increase the frequency of psychological distress in the school community.

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APPENDIX- FOOTNOTE REFERENCE

2. Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2019-2022/2019/Lei/L13861.htm

3. Available in: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l7853.htm

[1] Specialization in Geography and Environment (FAFIJAN), Special Education Integrative Vision – Special Education / Regular Education (UNIPAR), School Pedagogy: Supervision, Guidance and Administration (FACINTER). Graduated in Social Studies and Geography (both completed at FAFIPA/UNESPAR).

Submitted: July, 2021.

Approved: July, 2021.

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