ANDRADE, Gibton Pereira de 
ANDRADE, Gibton Pereira de. Youth and adult education (EJA): a tool for the democratization of education in the state of Roraima. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 06, Vol. 16, pp. 141-176. June 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/education-in-the-state
The study has as its object of research the Education of Youth and Adults (EJA), analyzed under the prism of guaranteeing modality of access to free basic education for those who did not have access to it at their own age and in an adequate way to the conditions of the student. Treated in this way, EJA incorporates the subjective right to education, according to what is determined by the Citizen’s Charter of 1988. The core of the scientific problem seeks to know the legal-educational aspects that recognize EJA as the exercise of citizenship, considering the applicable laws, characteristics specific target audience and teaching materials for the sport, in addition to the determining factors in the achievement of higher education by the egress. Through the hypothetical-deductive method, combined with the bibliographic and documentary exploratory technique, embodied in the normative construction, among books, articles, dissertations and theses, as well as documents dealing with the theme of inclusion, we seek to analyze the preponderantly legal aspects of Education Youth and Adults as a tool for the democratization of education; in addition, diagnose the educational profile of EJA and its peculiarities, with emphasis on legislation, students, and teaching materials; and also to know if Youth and Adult Education favors or hinders access to higher education, when comparing the former student of EJA with that of regular education. In this bias, as a research instrument, the interview was the data collection tool, proposing to quantify the statistics of EJA former students graduated in higher education and graduate courses Lato Sensu and Stricto Sensu, with a cut in the State of Roraima. Of the results achieved, despite the difficulties, it was quantified in the statistical cuts for the fact that completing high school in the EJA modality does not prevent or reduce the possibilities of the graduate to attend college, on the contrary, the bad weather adds to the factor. resilience, found in almost all respondents. In fine, the researcher’s academic and professional trajectory corroborates and gives light to the sermon by establishing the conviction that every effort has its reward and that human beings are endowed with the ability to rebuild themselves, leaving the example of resilience, hope and positivity.
Keywords: EJA, Democratization, Citizenship Exercise, Resilience.
Attending a college is in the plans of virtually all people in the contemporary context. In view of the achievement of personal and professional projects, completing studies is fundamental and, in this sense, from an early age parents, school and friends already provoke in children the manifesto according to the question: What will you be when you grow up? For the sake of truth, the answer to this question is in the area of debates on the completion of basic education and access to higher education.
However, considering the economic context of people, isonomy is not achieved in sharing opportunities for access to basic education, considering rates of school stay and completion of studies at the level of basic education in the correct time frame. On this premise, we consider the multiple circumstances that mark the life of the one who needs to decide early on to study or work to ensure subsistence. In view of these options, school dropout is an intrinsic characteristic of Brazilian education.
In this bias, the scope of this research is the Education of Young people and adults (EJA) as a tool for democratization of teaching, which is analyzed from the perspective of a modality that guarantees access to free basic education to those who did not have access to it in their own age, adequately to the conditions of the student and understood as a subjective right to education. , as determined by the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil of 1988.
The relevance of this article is justified in the investigation of the reasons that induce (dis)interest in the continuity of studies, especially higher education courses, considering that the completion of basic education via EJA is not an impossibility of access to higher education. Thus, it is urgent to define the reasons that surround the concludeing high school student by the EJA to continue or not in studies, specifically in higher education.
The hypothetical-deductive method was applied, combined with the exploratory bibliographic and documentary technique, seeking to demonstrate the legal-educational aspects that delimit the EJA as an exercise of citizenship, by promoting the access and permanence of the young person and the adult in school, considering for this the applicable laws, specific characteristics of the target audience and teaching materials intended for the teaching modality , in addition to the factors of influence in the conquest of higher education by his student.
In order to establish the real possibility of achieving higher education by former students, the statistics of graduates of the EJA, currently graduated at higher level and postgraduate courses Lato Sensu and Stricto Sensu, with clipping for the State of Roraima, were quantified; and, in fine, it is proposed to report the academic and professional trajectory of former student of the EJA approved in a public competition and that, currently with graduations and specializations, was approved in 1st place in the Student Selection Process for the entry into Stricto Sensu Graduate Program in Law of one of the most respected Universities in Brazil, leaving the example of resilience, hope and positivity.
2. METHODOLOGICAL PATH
The proposed methodology for conducting the research is the hypothetical-deductive method, based on documentary research and bibliographic review. The technical procedures are directly linked to bibliographic research, documentary, and study of the concrete case.
As for nature, research is applied, with a quantitative approach to the problem and its exploratory objectives, of a specific proposal, allowing the theoretical basis of educational works, legal norms, articles and legislations that deal with inclusion in education, with elements that corroborate the importance of the exercise of citizenship. From the stages of the research, we started from the exploration of the problem, involving the bibliographic survey, through dialogue of the authors; later, the research is sought in the development of the research for the answers to the right-thinking questions, aiming at a clear understanding of the proposed theme.
The research proposed a space for interviews with students who completed high school through Youth and Adult Education, the object of this research. In the course of the methodological process, we sought to collect data on admission to higher education, from graduates of the EJA, as well as expectation swelled to those who have not yet entered colleges, especially those who participate in the research. As for the research instruments, the EJA students and former students were composed of interviews, totaling 30 (thirty) volunteers, with target audience and survey clipping for students aged between 18 and 40 years; students who engage in professional activity; and students who intend to take the entrance exam.
From the collection and analysis of data from former students of Youth and Adult Education, revealing statistics are envisioned, especially considering what is exposed in this research, with regard to the context of Youth and Adult Education, the profile of the student of this modality, in view of the factors that surround the day-to-day life of the student worker. In a final analysis, the results show the existence of factors present in the decisions of the target audience of the research that translates into the driving force that unites them, clearly evidenced in the answers of almost all the questions asked to the interviewees, the motivation. The Results are duly mentioned in the body of the text and at the end, in Appendix A – Interview.
3.1 THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AND ADULTS IN BRAZIL AND THE DEMOCRATIZATION OF EDUCATION
From birth to the final stages of life, we go through several stages of learning. Some are innate to be, others need to be acquired and, in this sense, education occupies a prominent place in the formation of people. Therefore, the educational process is intrinsically linked to human behavior, since only the human being is able to learn and teach through interpersonal relationships and social, economic, political and cultural relationships.
In fact, the Citizen Charter of 1988, our Federal Constitution, in the social bias, treated education as a subjective right to Brazilian citizens, in addition to foreigners residing in national territory, in order to guarantee access to basic education in a public way, offered by the State itself.
Nevertheless, for different reasons, learning opportunities are not universal, considering rates of permanence in school and completion of studies at the level of basic education in the correct time frame. For subsistence reasons, many do not see alternatives other than school dropout. For others, the withdrawal factors are related to family, social and/or school problems. It is certain that, not today, Brazilian public education is marked by school dropout.
It should be recorded, in the bias of this theme, that school dropout occupies a prominent place in the debates about Brazilian public education. Moreover, in addition to the discussions, the fact that since the birth of the Brazilian nation, education was destined to the ruling class, disfavoring from the beginning the less fortunate.
Despite the words of Beleza and Nogueira (2020, p. 98) that “since the beginning of the Brazilian colonial program, education has never targeted the lower class (the poor), but has always served the ruling class. In view of this, many children and young people had no opportunities for basic education.” From the assertion, to the example of other rights, such as the census vote, that is, based on income, it can be seen that education in Brazil served (at first) those who held economic power, leaving in a situation of exclusion of opportunities the most simple.
However, with the bias of democratizing access to basic education to the most diverse social classes, youth and adult education (EJA) emerges in the brazilian education scenario, present in its beginning in the context of popular education. But it is true, when it comes to people of adulthood, especially workers, “night schools … were the only form of adult education practiced in the country” (PAIVA, 2003, p. 56, 57).
Therefore, it is appropriate to clarify and correct the mistake of tinning the concept of EJA to the nocturnal study, far from it, since it is defined by the specificity of the target audience. In summary, recovering “lost time” is not limited to the main role of the EJA, it is translated by personal liberation, transposition of the limitations of illiteracy, in order to promote personal satisfaction and renewal of the hope of the realization of dreams, projects and goals.
3.1.1 EMERGENCE, EVOLUTIONS AND CURRENT FORMAT OF YOUTH AND ADULT EDUCATION IN BRAZIL
The country has been plagued by high rates of illiteracy and/or semi-illiteracy for a long time. However, over time, there have been many programs created with the objective of reducing this stigma, with EJA being among the educational programs.
Cardoso and Passos (2016) report that the problem of illiteracy began during the colonial period, lasting for four centuries. In this context, the students did not access the school, they could not even read and write and, consequently, literacy was by orality. The schools only arose from the effort of the Jesuits, tied to the goal of religious formation, which were organized for the children of settlers and indigenous children. Like this
It was the education given by the Jesuits that transformed into popular education, its characteristics evidenced the Brazilian rural aristocracy, which extended throughout the colonial period and throughout the empire, and entered the period of the republic without suffering. Although the delay of education in society begins to increase, reach the lower stratum of the population and force society to expand the supply of schools, the final structure will change (MOURA, 2003, p. 29).
It is noticeable that the EJA involved in its guidelines not only formal school education, but also occurred in informality, fulfilling its role with multiforms of transmitting knowledge, among the means, the associations of residents, unions and communities, religious centers, etc., opportunistic access to knowledge, although limited to the basics. In this context, Vieira (2009) points out that this education was still long neglected until it was legalized in Brazil.
With the arrival of the Era Vargas (1930), the policy based on coffee exports was instituted. At the time, the illiterate adult was seen as “no future” and having no opportunity to learn to read and write, he was left with work in the field. Promoting access to basic education, Getúlio instituted the “dictatorship of citizenship”, focusing on the education of children and young people, later considered adult education.
Vieira (2009) highlights that around the 20th century, bills were approved that highlighted the obligation to educate young people and adults in order to increase the number of voters, which resulted in the satisfaction of the interests of the elite, since the Law was in force. Saraiva of 1882 – (Decree No. 3,029, of January 9, 1881) – which legislated to make it impossible for the illiterate to vote, making only those who knew how to read and write enlisted.
It is also verified, by Mészáros (2008), that after World War II a period arose in which the federal government made national literacy campaigns aimed at the illiterate, aiming to serve mainly the rural population., offering the EJA in primary, coming to the gymnasium from the 1960s (BELEZA; NOGUEIRA, 2020).
Of the educational programs of the period is the Brazilian Literacy Movement (MOBRAL), which was limited to “functional literacy”. This, declined in the face of the Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education (LDB 5692/71), which implemented the Supplementary – Project Logos I and II, where, at the time, the student studied at home via booklets and attended the head of supplementary schools for evaluations. Highlighting Mobral, Mota (2009, p.15) brings to light the many criticisms of the Brazilian Literacy Movement, because:
In 1967, anyone could take classes in the program, and MOBRAL was also criticized for not ensuring the durability of learning and the student easily forgetting to read and write. Therefore, MOBRAL’s teaching work is not critical and problematic, and its orientation, supervision and material production are centralized. Therefore, the program creates literate illiterate people, people who often learn to sign only their own name and cannot participate in literacy activities in the social environment in which they live.
Advancing in time, contemporary to the period of innovation of national education (1960s), the concepts of education in Paulo Freire’s vision began to be emphasized in Brazilian education. Known for alluding to the method for the less favored, the educator sought to homogenize the practice and reality of the students.
Moura (2003, p. 124) points out that Paulo Freire redefined the approach in adult literacy, combining reading and writing, knowledge and cultural expression, understanding and interpretation of real problems in Brazil. He believes that “education is essential for understanding the humanities of society.”
In the educator’s bias, knowledge is related to the specific reality of the student, while the educating aims to discuss reality with individuals, aiming at change and overcoming. In fact, teachers and students value and build knowledge through dialogue. Nevertheless, “to be valid, every educational action must necessarily be preceded by a reflection on man and an analysis of the concrete way of life of the concrete man to whom we want to educate”. (FREIRE, 1979, p. 19).
With the process of redemocratization of the Republic, started in 1985, Mota (2009) reports that the federal government closed mobral, opening wings to the EDUCAR Foundation (National Foundation for Youth and Adult Education). It also clarifies that the foundation was responsible for free public offerings and quality basic education for young people and adults. In the period, the decentralization of resources is highlighted, with the federal government investing in the EJA and the States and Municipalities the responsibility of educating the population.
However, in the Collor Government, the EDUCAR Foundation was “exterminated” and no other plan/program with equal functions was guaranteed. However, in 1996 the new “National Directive on Education and Basic Law” was promulgated – (Law No. 9,394/1996 – Establishes the guidelines and bases of national education). Thus, the EJA has established itself as basic education at the fundamental and middle level.
In the 2000s, discussions on the experiences of youth and adult education gained prominence with the National Guide for Educational Curriculum for Youth and Adults – National Curriculum Guidelines for Youth and Adult Education – compiled by the National Commission of Education/Chamber of Basic Education, of May 10, 2000, in Opinion CNE/CEB 11/2000, related to Process No. 23001.000040/2000-55. In summary, this document was frontally opposed to the discrimination of pseudo-literate people.
In its content, the opinion explains details about time and space between young people and adults; discussion on the content of the course; understanding the importance of age groups (young people and adults) in this type of education; and formulation of regular evening courses, in addition to the Teaching Plan (EJA). The Guidelines notebook is emphatic in asserting that the EJA is a right, on which it presents the concept of “compensation”, replaced by “compensation and justice”.
Currently, when thinking about the appropriate format for Youth and Adult Education (EJA), there is a continuous growth and strengthening of the modality throughout the country, with considerable advances in human focus, social conditions and historical contextualization. The dignity of the human person stands out and proves relevant when considering the possibilities, translating by the right stride in the direction of conquest, getting rid of the simplified view of education.
In summary, it is necessary to understand the meaning of the constitutional and civil achievements and rights established in the current legislation, which support the EJA, like Law 9.394/96, which emphasizes autonomy, flexibility and freedom in the commitment of schools and educators to quality education.
3.1.2 THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AND ADULTS IN THE DEMOCRATIZATION OF EDUCATION
Embodied in the Democratic State of Law (CF/88), some considerations are necessary and applicable to the education of young people and adults, which consolidate the hypotheses to the problem developed in the research. The Citizen Charter of 1988, in the preamble, highlights that established democracy is intended to “ensure the exercise of social and individual rights, freedom, security, well-being, development, equality and justice as supreme values of a fraternal, pluralistic and unprejudiced society”.
When we cut out of the text words such as “social rights” and “equality and justice”, we are faced with the perfect purpose of the legislator to enable the balance of the balance of justice and equity. In this sense, fundamentals such as “citizenship” and “dignity of the human person” (Art. 1st, Inc. II and III, of CF/88), are applicable and lack state attention in its public policies aimed at The EJA, considering the context of the target audience of this modality, already known that it has not been the focus of traditional education for centuries and decades
It is a duty of justice to consider in this discussion the prediction of Art. 3rd, Inc. I, III and IV, of CF/88, legal provisions that reflect the fundamental objectives of the Republic, among others, are mentioned: the “construction of free, just and solidary society”; the “reduction of social and regional inequalities”, in addition to the “promotion of the egalitarian good, without prejudice and any other forms of discrimination”.
In this constitutional bias, Art. 205, of the Federal Constitution of 1988 established that “education, the right of all and the duty of the State and the family, will be promoted and encouraged with the collaboration of society, aiming at the full development of the person, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work”. It is also mentioned the Inc. I, from Art. 206 CF/88, in which we learn that teaching will obey the principle of “equal conditions for access and permanence in school”.
From the context of the Citizen’s Charter, the focus of the democratization of education is to expand the horizons of the public excluded from the traditional educational process. One cannot forget the seriousness of the National Council of Education/Chamber of Basic Education when dealing with the issue of democratization of access to basic education, at the time of approval of Opinion CNE/CEB 11/2000 – Process No. 23001.000040/2000-55, clearly and objectively combating discrimination against those who make up the portion of the excluded, as verified in the Rapporteur’s Vote:
States – Parties to this Pact recognise that, with the aim of ensuring the full exercise of this right: primary education should be compulsory and accessible free of charge to all; secondary education in its different forms, including technical and vocational secondary education, should be generalized and become accessible to all, by all appropriate means and, mainly, by the progressive implementation of free education; (…); basic education should be fostered and intensified as far as possible for those people who have not received primary education or have not completed the full cycle of primary education. (Art.13,1, “d”, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the UN General Assembly of 16.12.66, approved in Brazil by legislative decree No. 226 of 12.12.95 and promulgated by Decree No. 591 of 7.7.92).
In view of the assertions, it is verified that the educational values of Youth and Adult Education, depending on the constitutional text, serve as beacons in pro-educational actions aimed at correcting the errors and failures of the past, as well as conditioning the steps for the better future for young people and adults.
184.108.40.206 EDUCATIONAL RIGHT: LEGAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO EDUCATION IN BRAZIL
As a rule, in developed nations, education occupies a prominent place and, in this sense, it cannot be different on national soil, education needs to be a priority. It is no coincidence that terms such as globalization, economic and sustainable development, capitalism and technological revolution, law and citizenship, among others, go through the quality educational process.
In this bias, notorious is the relationship between law, education and human dignity. In the international field, declarations of rights emphasize education in the context of dignity. For example, we cite the “American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man” (1948) and the “International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (1966), incorporated into the Brazilian legal system via Decree No. 591 of July 6, 1992.
Taken from the Declaration and subsidiary of the International Pact, the right applied is moving towards the meaning that every person should have access to education and, by it, be provided the right of preparation for dignified survival. In addition to being linked to human dignity, education is considered a concept of basic rights, in formal standards. Cardoso and Passos (2016) sign these rights to imperialize los, according to constitutional order, and may be required and triggered via “Empire of the Law”.
Beleza (2020) states that social, economic and cultural rights correspond to this aspect, requiring the public authorities to act positively, in the sense of better living conditions and human dignity, in addition to reducing social inequality. Legal doctrine, in addition to the constitutional text, argues that there are five human rights, among the most basic: life, freedom, equality, security and property. Machado (2002) teaches that the universe of rights is directly related to one of the five basic rights contained in caput Art. 5th of the Federal Constitution of 1988.
Given the theory, Moura (2003) states that it is unequivocal to consider the right to education as a fundamental guarantee. As he teaches, the right to education is directly and internally connected to equality and freedom. The right to be educated is so important in the Citizen Constitution that Lehenbauer and Scheibel (2010) understand to be the comprehensive character of all education and clearly point out that the fundamentality of the right to education is inherent in the essentialcharacter of the full development of personality and embodiment of citizenship.
In the content of the Citizen Charter of 1988 (Art. 205), education is considered the right of all, with characteristics of universality, gratuity, democracy, community bias and qualitative standard and, “pari passu” – simultaneously – the infraconstitutional legislation complements the normative instrumentality, with the purpose of achieving the subjective public law of all Brazilians.
It should be recorded that, not being applied in fact, it will not do us any good to have the entire legal collection of sustainability. It is necessary to effectand concretely by the Executive, with supervision of the Legislature and, if necessary, the intervention of the Judiciary, in order to “take the theory off the paper” and truly “shape” the rights in education.
220.127.116.11 LAW OF GUIDELINES AND BASES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION AND ITS APPLICABILITY TO THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AND ADULTS
In which to mention the constitutional provisions that deal with education, it is up to point out in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (LDB) those who deal with the “Education of Youth and Adults”, initially treated in Art. 4th, Inc. I and VII, which assert the “duty of the State as public school education” and its implementation through policies that guarantee “I – Elementary school, compulsory and free, including for those who did not have access to it in their own age”. Also, in the context of the legal diploma, the observance of “VII – offer of regular school education for young people and adults, with characteristics and modalities appropriate to their needs and availability”.
Nevertheless, the duty of supply is highlighted in the same device, guaranteeing those who are workers “the conditions of access and permanence in school”, that is, promoting non-school dropout, considering the peculiarities of the modality and not generic and superficial analysis, differing from regular education. This opens up space for a new concept of youth and adult training.
Depending on the above, Art. 5, §1, of the LDB, reinforces that “it is up to the States and the Municipalities, in a collaborative regime, and with the assistance of the Union: I – to census the population of school age for elementary school, and the young people and adults who did not have access to it. In the law, it is clear and evidenced that the public of young people and adults is considered in a special situation and whenever the law deals with the subject, it does so with its adjectives, that is, to those who “did not have access” in the right age or time and, stressing the attempt to reorient and safeguard the interests of this specific public.
The education of young people and adults is a recurring theme of LDB in Art. 37, and §§§, emphasizing the gratuity of teaching “to young people and adults who could not study at regular age”, in addition, that the offer be made with “appropriate educational opportunities, considering the characteristics of the student, his interests, living and working conditions, through courses and examinations”. In this sense, it should be recorded that “the government will enable and stimulate the worker’s access and permanence in school, through integrated and complementary actions among themselves”.
It is clearly perceived the legislative intention in fostering the EJA, by highlighting the peculiar characteristics, guarantee of the right to education, considering the interests, living and working conditions, appropriate opportunities and among other actions that integrated and complementary among themselves will enable the access and permanence of the worker in school, seen from the perspective of the guarantee of a subjective social right , i.e. the democratization of education.
18.104.22.168 LEGAL-EDUCATIONAL AND POLITICAL-SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE EJA
When dealing with basic education, Art. 208 cf/88 stipulates the educational obligations of the state, which will be effected observing its obligation and gratuity, “even guaranteed its free offer to all those who did not have access to it in their own age” and also the “offer of regular night education, appropriate to the conditions of the student”.
Register the constitutional focus on the issue of social inclusion, always considering the conditions and peculiarities of the target audience. In summary, the social issue must have increased attention of the public power, resulting in an objective “must-be” in which, despite mentioning, the “obligation to do” of the State, manifested in public policies of social insertion.
In this sense, Aranha (2001) comments that the transformation of the educational bias from bureaucratic to progressive, from conservative democratic and neoconservative to liberating, turning to important topics for the student. Thus, it aims to contribute to the overcoming and liberation of cultural, political, ideological and economic domination. In this bias, the EJA must be liberating.
With this, the value of the people around is not cornered, on the contrary, students are holders of rights provided for in the LDB (1996) which, moreover, already registers since its Art. 1º that “education encompasses the formative processes that develop in family life, human coexistence, work, teaching and research institutions, social movements and civil society organizations and cultural manifestations”. Therefore, it is urgent of society and teachers to enforce the legal provision of Art. 2nd, of the LDB that stresses that it is the duty education of the family and state, which “inspired by the principles of freedom and the ideals of human solidarity, aims at the full development of the student, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work”.
The premise listed is “do not shirk the law”. At all levels, government and society must join forces and promote awareness of the imposed civic duty, that is, to offer quality education, ensure access and permanence in school, given that the student’s intellectual development is the exercise itself. citizenship and awareness of their rights and duties as citizens.
3.2 EJA FACING THE SPECIALITIES OF THE TARGET PUBLIC
It should be worth noting that the EJA is a modality offered to a very specific public, as already discussed, for reasons common to each other, such as what LDB is about, did not access the school in the regular period or at the correct age.
Nevertheless, the student/EJA should be seen fully capable as much as that of regular education. This capacity includes better living conditions and new horizons, always motivated in the search for achievement and commitment to personal and/or professional goals. Of the many peculiarities, the following are the ones that present the greatest thematic relevance with the proposal of this research.
3.2.1 INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TARGET AUDIENCE OF YOUTH AND ADULT EDUCATION
Interpreted in the light of the LDB, the EJA has audience clipping with very specific characteristics. Of these, the one that translates the diagnosis of the target audience of the EJA and that fits perfectly in the proposal is the possibility of recovering lost time.
This understanding is extracted from Art. 4th, Inc. I, of LDB, which deals with the mandatory and gratuity of teaching “for those who have not had access to it in their own age” and the Inc. VII, which reports to “young people and adults with characteristics and modalities appropriate to their needs and availability”. Thus, recovering lost time is an exercise of citizenship, depending on Art. 2nd, from LDB which teaches us that the purposes that justify education serve the full development of the student.
In this bias, the profile of the Student of the EJA is seen from the perspective of maturity and cultural, social, family and professional peculiarities. The awareness of reality undoubtedly translates into the rescue of wasted time, but likewise, it is envisioned in the expectation of new opportunities, professional and personal achievements.
It is necessary to diagnose the public for which education is intended. Neri (2008) leads to the fact that the young person is motivated by the future and technological innovations. The adult prioritizes the labor market, but the elderly see in the opportunity a perspective of citizenship. However, it should be noted that citizenship is intended only for the elderly, but both young and adult, what deserves to be highlighted is the conquest of space in life in a recognized way (NERI, 2008).
It is inssured from this context that each student wishes to be valued and active in their choices, acting critically and participatively in decisions. In this bias, when the school favors, it is contextualized in the daily life of the student in the form of “school curriculum”, strengthening the exercise of citizenship in other life-making (VIEIRA, 2009).
In general, another striking characteristic among EJA students is the classification in the subsistence economy, forcing work activities during day time (business hours). In addition, not ina few times, girls who became pregnant early (many in the transition phase from childhood to teenager). There are also young people excluded from school for reasons that are different and unrelated to their wishes, such as drugs and crime; and the elderly without opportunities in the regulatory period.
In modern times, the significant number of young people stands out in EJA, according to statistics from the National Institute of Educational Studies and Research Anísio Teixeira (INEP, 2019). According to statistics – “the profile of students” – EJA has been characterized by “students under the age of 30, representing 62.2% of enrollments in youth and adult education. In this age group, 57.1% of students are male. When looking at students over the age of 30, women account for 58.6% of enrollments”. In fact, the predominance of males up to 30 years of age is related to the fact that men start working earlier, on the other hand, women predominate after 30 years of age is motivated by the fact that most of them are already mothers, needing training professional with a view to the labor market.
According to the above, Silva (2015) asserts that the worldview of the adult person who returns to school after a time outside the classroom is extremely peculiar. In fact, they are protagonists of real stories and people rich in experiences, configuring different human types, with consolidated beliefs and values. These characteristics are manifestly manifest among the target audience of Youth and Adult Education.
3.2.2 THE EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL OF EJA IN THE MISSTEP WITH THE REALITY OF THE TARGET AUDIENCE
In view of gaps in the National Curriculum Parameters on the aspects of the material or didactic resource – still in superficial concepts – we seek, for the moment, to define the terms in which it can define what is didactic material, that is, what Bandeira (2009, pg.14) says are the “pedagogical products used in education and, specifically, as the instructional material that is elaborated for didactic purposes”.
Given the meaning, it is clear that the didactic material is intrinsically linked to the materializing “support” of the content to be taught, and these can be printed, audio and visual resources, as well as the technologies and new media available in the market focused on education. In this bias, the materials and resources allocated to the teaching-learning process must be updated as time and technologies advance, according to The Bandeira’s speech (2009, p.15), in which “each epoch exhibits a set of techniques, from papyrus to digital media in the 21st century, these changes revolutionized the writing, production and dissemination of the book” , elements that conceive a didactic evolution.
Despite the evolution of didactic resources and materials available to the teaching-learning process, there is a stark disparity in the teaching material of the EJA, perceived mainly in the distance between the “clipping” of books and the target audience, when considering the baggage of empirical knowledge of the student, not taken into account.
Freire (1999), points out that the educator needs to draw from his knowledge of life and the knowledge of life of the student, otherwise the educator fails. Contrary to sensu, for the most part, what occurs is the use of didactic materials produced for the universe of ‘regular teaching’, in order to reuse them in the EJA.
Thus, we can see the discrepancy between the target audience of the EJA and the material destined, totally outside the cultural, family and professional context of the students, in view of the didactic material being produced for another universe of regular education, this with dynamics different from the young/adult student, which contributes greatly to the “didactic misstep”, causing the consequent discouragement on the part of students of older ages. This negative characteristic worsens pari passu – in the same step – when teachers apply the didactics proper to the children’s public, not realizing that the audience/auditorium is another.
Despite mentioning, there is a recurrent concern of the Ministry of Education in its legislation, fitting into the proposal the National Textbook Program, with reflections on the production of didactic material in its multifaces. Considering the theme, it deserves the “manuals with a conservative and fragmented reading and vision for the content that we currently have in a progressive process and the substitution by materials more consistent with the reality of the EJA” (MINISTÉRICO DA EDUCAÇÃO – PROGRAMA BRASIL ALFABETIZADO, 2021).
In this bias, we choir to the teaching materials appropriate to the cultural reality and more contemporary of the context that surrounds the education of young people and adults, considering the experiences that involve the target audience of the EJA, becoming a proof of citizenship for the “excluded” of yesteryear who need to conduct interdisciplinarity.
Neri (2008), increasingly mentions the picture of phenomena that occur outside the school within the scope of a single discipline.Therefore, the figure teacher/researcher is of vital importance. Efforts should be made in the research and elaboration of teaching materials, in order to have in interdisciplinarity and interculturality its established base, competing for more satisfactory learning in the context of the teaching of the young/adult.
3.3 THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AND ADULTS (EJA) AS A MAJOR FACTOR IN ACCESS AND PERMANENCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Attending a college, arguably, is in human planning in a contemporary context. It comprises part of dreams, achievements of personal and professional goals and, in this sense, from an early age parents, friends and school already provoke in children the intention to manifest themselves before the following question: What will you be when you grow up? The answer to this question is in the area of debates on access to higher education.
According to the LDB, the University is translated precisely by its practical meaning, being “multidisciplinary institutions of training of the staff of professionals of higher education, research, extension and mastery and cultivation of human knowledge”. In colloquial words it is a universe of minds and thoughts in formation, living in time and space. Included in the university context, Santos (2020) emphasizes that for the beginning student in the academic journey the university is seen in the spectrum of a new world in which one lives, thinks, performs tasks and interacts with multiple people, among colleagues, teachers, administrators, etc.
In this sense, there are steps to be fulfilled in the transition from basic education to higher education, which alternate from moment to moment and from public to public. Regarding those from the EJA, the alternations show the complexity that involve the worker, in addition to characteristics specific to the adult age group, among others: obligations as fathers and/or mothers; small or newborn children; distant residences, dwellings in interior places; outside ethnic-racial issues; and also the economic class, sometimes reaching themselves below the poverty line.
It is perceived that to take seats on the benches of universities, the obstacles are opposed to the wishes of completion of the higher education course. About this, Lehenbauer and Scheibel (2010) illuminate the fact that university admission covers habits and changes related to health, food, housing, recreational, cultural, sexual activities and their relationship with the family and the community, which should undoubtedly be taken into account.
Nevertheless, it is emphasized that positive factors are related to the student from the EJA, being these “determinants” not only in entering college, but also during the period in which they are there, in view of the common characteristics that surround them, which are translated by the valorization and motivation of this specific public, making them envision new horizons in higher education.
I’m sure that once in college, those who have attained such status will no longer let the opportunity slip out of their hands. This is due to the fact that the graduates of the EJA see in the higher course a victory, the achievement of dreams designed for the future, the recognition of skills and positioning in the face of specific themes, in addition to the authenticity of convictions, factors that cooperate for the administration of time, in the context of university and personal life, etc.
Haddad (1997) draws attention, referring to the peculiarities of the EJA, to the fact that it is a modality of education that “prepares the individual to serve certain purposes”. Pari passu – in the same sense, Moura (2003) consolidates the understanding that, as isonomy in opportunities, when the real focus of the modality involves overcoming the stigma of “compensatory education”, certainly provides an education that transforms people into participatory subjects and prepared to launch themselves into dreams and objectives, especially progression in schooling.
Thus, it is verified that university students from the EJA, often stigmatized by prejudice, overcome adversities and overcome them in the hope configured in daily efforts, in the expectation of a new chapter to follow in each scenario, appropriately write what the future will look like, in the face of access to knowledge and the exercise of citizenship.
3.3.1 PERCEPTION OF EJA FORMER STUDENTS ABOUT ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION: THE REASONS WHICH SURROUND THE STUDENT TO CONTINUE OR NOT TO CONTINUE IN THE STUDIES
In order to consolidate the understanding of Youth and Adult Education and its characteristics serve as a predominantly positive factor for the entry, permanence and completion of a college, a statistical database was formulated with a view to analyzing the expectations of students in view of the possibility of access to higher education courses, more specifically those who completed high school via Youth and Adult Education (EJA).
Statistics also help to elucidate the extent to which this modality projects or not the access to higher education, when compared to regular education. With spatial clipping for the State of Roraima, the focus was directed to issues involving “access” to the Public University. In the search for answers to the hypotheses, we considered the aspects that guide the EJA and its specific characteristics, especially the essentiality of the target audience, in addition to the Brazilian educational context, analyzed generically.
The interviews were conducted with 30 (thirty) volunteers, at which time data were collected from eja graduates in higher education courses and also the expectations of those who did not experience the academic world. As for the target audience, it was composed of students and former students of the EJA, between 18 and 40 years old, workers who intend to take the entrance exam. Based on the interview questionnaire contained in “Appendix A”, and the data were compiled, the following results were obtained:
- Of the reasons that motivated the choice of Youth and Adult Education as an option for completing high school, 76.7% of the interviewees answered that it was the “need to work during the day”, that is, commercial. The issues related to responsibilities to the “family, spouse/children” follow, with 23.3% and because “time of completion of high school is shorter (1.5 years)” in relation to regular education, it was listed in third position, as shown in Graph 1.
Graphic 1 – As for the reasons that motivated the choice of the EJA for high school completion.
- On the importance of Higher Education for the future professional of the interviewees, 76.7% consider it “extremely important”. 20% reported being “very important” and 3.3% considered it “important”, according to Graph 2.
Graphic 2 – About the importance of Higher Education for the professional future of the interviewee.
- Regarding the belief that it is possible for the former student of the EJA to pass the entrance exam and attend a college, 56.7% say “it is possible to approve”, with 40% stating that “it only depends on the former student of the EJA” and 3.3% “think it is difficult to be approved”, see Graph 3.
Graphic 3 – As for the belief of the possibility of the graduate of the EJA to pass the entrance exam and attend college.
- Of the approval rates in the selection process for admission to higher education, by former students of the EJA, it is seen among the interviewees that 83.3% “have already been approved” and 16.7% stated that they “never tried” the aforementioned approval, verified in Graph 4.
Graphic 4 – Of the approval rates in the entrance exam for admission to higher education by former students / EJA.
- In relation to those who had access to higher education, of the interviewees, 43.3% affirm that they “have already completed a higher education course”, 23.3% said they “have not completed” the college, 20% said they “were normally attending higher education, with the right period expected to end” and 13.3% revealed “that they had already attended some semesters, but discouraged and abandoned their studies” , as shown in Graph 5.
Graphic 5 – In relation to those who had access to higher education courses.
- Depending on the end of graduation, the interviewees’ intention to continue their studies and attend a postgraduate course, as a specialization student, of which 80% said they “intend to continue their studies” and 20% said they had “never attended a college”, according to Graph 6.
Graphic 6 – Regarding the end of graduation and pretensions to graduate school.
- Finally, about having attended some postgraduate course, at the specialization, master’s or doctorate level, 76.7% stated that they had never attended a graduate degree, but intend to start soon”, 20% said they had a postgraduate course at the level of “specialization” and 3.3% revealed to have a Master’s degree, as shown in Graph 7.
Graphic 7 – How much have already attended graduate school.
This interview is revealing, especially considering the above in this research, with regard to the context of Youth and Adult Education, the profile of the student of this modality, in view of the factors that surround the day-to-day of the student worker.
It was demonstrated in the results that there are the factors present in the decisions, translated by the driving force that unites them, clearly evidenced in the answers of almost all the questions asked to the interviewees, that is, the “motivation”.
It is impressive to exhaust this extract of reality that moves the person with a spirit to win, overcome their limitations and leave their legacy to posterity, like the researcher.
3.3.2 OVERCOMING: EJA’S FORMER STUDENT OBTAINS 1st PLACE IN THE STUDENT SELECTION PROCESS FOR STRICTO SENSU GRADUATE PROGRAM IN LAW
In the bias of the democratization of education, this research sheds light on the sermon that every effort has its reward and that, despite the difficulties and mishaps along the way, the human being is endowed with the ability to rise again, to take strength from weakness and continue to fight for dreams, persevering in the race for satisfaction, which we technically know by resilience. In this sense, like motivation, the academic trajectory of the researcher is reported in panoramic terms, which, for obvious reasons and impartiality, did not make up the relationship of the interviewees.
Of simple origin, he attended the primary school in public school (1st to 4th grade) and the gymnasium (5th to 8th grade), two nomenclatures used, at the time, in the 1st grade, today elementary school. From this stage, a failure is registered in the 7th grade, in the mathematics discipline. In the pun of words, there is no indiscipline or major problems that could relate to such failure in the logical sequence of progression of the elementary school grades.
However, finishing high school was not such a simple task. The experience in the 2nd grade of the then high school was too disastrous. In the face of (among others) teachers’ strike combined with the need to work to contribute to family income, a series of “leaveups” began in the 2nd year/2nd grade. Thus, the problem was not “disapproval”, but was related to “school dropout due to work”. Thus, after numerous reenrollments and new attempts to complete basic studies, frustration was recurrent.
Of the possibilities existing, at the time, to end high school, there were several attempts, among which are listed: a) “High school exam”, today in the format of the National Exam for Certification of Skills of Young people and adults (Encceja), not succeeding, in the face of always a discipline to be won at the end; b) The Education of Young people and adults, in the format of sequential disciplines, every three months, until one year and six months were completed, which also registered school dropout; c) In the last attempt, enrolled in the current format of the EJA, winning approval in the 2nd and 3rd grade of high school, having completed in twelve months.
It was not long before, meeting the requirements of complete high school, could be approved in a public tender to fill vacancies in the Training Course of Soldiers of the Military Police of the State of Roraima – CFSd PM 2000, which after completion the said course in 1st place, was sworn in the Soldier’s Graduation of the Staff of Military Police Musicians Squares , remaining in the Military Unit until the present days, after successive promotions throughout his career, reaching the Rank of Captain in the exercise of the role of Subcommander of the Music Band of the Military Police of Roraima.
It also adds in the military career, the conclusion on 11.12.2020 of the Course of Improvement of Officers – CAO, of the Board of Officers Military Police Musicians, in which it obtained final classification in 1st place, with income coefficient – QR of 9.954. Despite the achievements, he shares the knowledge accumulated in the instructions of the instructions given at the Colonel Santiago Integrated Police Academy – APICS, as instructor of the Disciplines of Criminalistics, Criminology Applied to Public Security, Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure, Human Rights and Citizenship, Military Criminal Law and Military Criminal Procedure.
In February 2004 he began higher education, remaining in progress until December 2008, at the time he completed his first faculty – Bachelor of Theology, at the Faculty of Sciences, Education and Theology of Northern Brazil – FACETEN, an area of science that devoted several years in research, as Professor of Theology, Greek Language, in addition to Hebrew Culture and Language , in the undergraduate courses in Theology, at the Institute of Theology and Philosophy of Roraima – ITEFIR, in partnership with FACETEN.
Continuing in the academic journey, in view of the needs related to the public function he exercises, he decided to attend the Higher Course in Technology in Public Management, pari passu – simultaneously to the Higher Course of Technology in Forensic Investigation and Criminal Expertise, completing the two graduations on the same date, on 11.02.2018, by the University Center Estácio of Ribeirão Preto / SP.
As an established personal goal, he graduated from the Bachelor of Law Course at the Estácio of Amazônia University Center, with a degree on 22.07.2020. As graduates, he also collects the Degree Course in History, with a degree in 11.09 and, also, the completion of two Undergraduate Courses at the end of the semester 2021.1: Bachelor’s degree in Human Sciences and the Degree in Letters – Portuguese Language, all by the University Center Estácio of Ribeirão Preto /SP.
He also completed three Lato Sensu Postgraduate courses, being: Specialization in Military Law, by the Faculty of Educational Verb (Verbo Jurídico); Specialization in Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure, by Estácio of Sá University – UNESA; and the Specialization in Public Law: Constitutional, Administrative and Tax, at the Estácio of Amazônia University Center.
In view of the publication of Notice nº. 109/2020, of October 15, 2020, which made public the Student Selection Process for admission to the Stricto Sensu Graduate Program in Law, Master’s and Doctorate courses, from the Catholic University of Santos – UniSantos, competed in the event presenting the Pre-Research Project entitled: “Fechamento de Fronteiras e Direito Internacional: Questões à luz do caso dos venezuelanos em Roraima”, which obtained final classification in “1st place” (wide competition), guaranteeing enrollment in the first, of the 22 (twenty-two) vacancies, of the Master’s Course in Law, Concentration Area: International Law 2021-2022.
His scientific publications include the Scientific Article entitled: “A Crise Migratória Venezuelana e o Fechamento da Fronteira Brasil/Venezuela: Uma Análise à Luz do Direito Humanitário”, the theme of its TCC in Law, later published in the Generals of the XI Meeting of Scientific Initiation of Estácio of Amazônia (2019), then in the Scientific Journal Brazilian Journal of Development (2020) and in its final format published as a Book Of Topics in Social Sciences – Volume 3 (2020).
Still regarding scientific publications, he presented his TCC in the Post-Graduate Course in Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure, entitled: “Rebeliões e Crimes Bárbaros na Penitenciária Agrícola do Monte Cristo (PAMC): A Crise no Sistema Prisional de Roraima”, obtaining maximum score, which was submitted and approved to compose the Annals of the XII Scientific Initiation and Extension Meeting of Estácio of Amazônia (2020), later published in the Scientific Journal Revista Multidisciplinar Pey Këyo Científico (2020) and, finally, became a Chapter of the book “Direito: Justiça, Políticas Públicas e as Relações entre Estado e Sociedade” (2021).
From Researcher to External Evaluator, in Academic Opinions of Articles, this was the most recent step, in view of the invitation received from the Editora de la Revista de la Facultad de Derecho da Universidad de da República – Montevideo, Uruguay, moment in which he contributed the Evaluative Opinion of the Article entitled: “Como transformar a escola do crime em um sistema prisional ressocializador”, submitted for approval in the aforementioned scientific journal (2021).
It also composes the Organizing Committee responsible for the process of publication of the book in electronic format (e-book), which will bring together the Course Completion Papers of students trained in the Initial and Continuing Training Courses (FIC) for the Improvement of Officers (CAO) and Superior police (CSP) of the Military Police of Roraima in partnership with the Federal Institute of Roraima – IFRR / CBV.
Finally, from the passion for the Hebrew Language, which he has taught since 2009, the book project was born: “Manual de Alfabetização da Língua Hebraica”, already in the final phase of compilation, the result of 12 (twelve) years of dedication in research, with a brief prediction of publication.
What about all this? Undoubtedly, this whole trajectory of success is perfectly translated into the word “resilience”.
Despite being of simple origin, with childhood economically rule speaking, having invited with the traumas of the divorce of parents, because of this having started in manual labor since the age of 9 (nine) years, contributing to the sustenance of the house, beginning at 13 (thirteen) years life living alone, going through a series of work for the maintenance of his own and studies etc. , “not to be discouraged” was the secret, (will did not lack it), but as already mentioned, there is within people a driving force that drives them to want to win, this “motivation” was undoubtedly a determining factor so that nowadays the fruits of a slow and progressive sowing could be harvested and thus overcome their limitations and leave their legacy to posterity. That’s the maxim to practice.
After finding, it was found that youth and adult education (EJA) follows the constitutional proposal, by confirming itself as a tool that ensures access to basic education to those who did not enjoy their own age, besides being a modality of education that fits the conditions of the student, assertive that translates into the realization of the subjective right to education , all extended.
The determining reasons for the student’s stay or dropout were mentioned, highlighting the economic context of the target audience of this modality, in which it is marked by the absence of isonomy, once considering the rates of school stay and completion of studies at the level of basic education in the correct time frame and, also, the aggravating circumstances that determine the decision to study or work to ensure subsistence.
Analyzed under the sieve of democratization, the legal-educational aspects that recognize that the EJA is an exercise of citizenship, embodied in the applicable laws, the specific characteristics of the target audience and the teaching materials destined to the modality of screen teaching.
However, it is recognized that there is much to be done in the sedimentary increasingly the specificities that contextualize the Education of Young people and adults, such as the improved teaching material directed to the target audience, a fact that is still a present disparity between the age group of the student and the resources and pedagogical practices available for the moment.
Despite the difficulties, it was quantified in the statistical clippings that the fact of completing high school in the EJA modality does not prevent or decrease the chances of the graduate attending a college, on the contrary, add to the weather, the resilience factor, found almost in its entirety in the interviewees, which induce them to continue.
Finally, the academic and professional trajectory of the researcher corroborates and gives light to the sermon by establishing the conviction that every effort has its reward and that, despite the difficulties and mishaps along the way, the human being is endowed with the ability to rise up, to take strength from weakness and continue to fight for dreams, persevering in the race for satisfaction , which we technically know by resilience, hope and positivity.
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UNIVERSIDAD DE LA REPÚBLICA – URUGUAY. Revista de la Facultad de Derecho – ISSN 0797-8316 / eISSN 2301-0665, (2021). Disponível em: <https://revista.fder.edu.uy/index.php/rfd> Acesso: 05 Mai 2021.
UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DE SANTOS (UNISANTOS). EDITAL Nº. 109/2020. Processo Seletivo Discente do Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Direito, cursos de Mestrado e Doutorado. Disponível em: <https://www.unisantos.br/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/UNISANTOS_2020_EDI_109_ProcessoSeletivoStrictoSensu_Direito.pdf> Acesso: 04 Mai 2021.
______. EDITAL Nº. 144/2020. Processo Seletivo Discente para o Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Direito – Resultado Mestrado. (Seletivo regido pelo Edital nº. 109/2020, de 15 de outubro de 2020). Disponível em: <https://www.unisantos.br/graduacao/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2020/12/EDITAL-N%C2%BA-144_2020_UNISANTOS_P%C3%B3s_DIREITO_Resultado_final_Ed.109.pdf> Acesso: 04 Mai 2021.
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APPENDIX A – INTERVIEW
Youth and adult education (EJA): A tool for democratizing education. Research Form on Youth and Adult Education (EJA) as a tool for democratization of teaching, considering the specificities of this modality, its target audience and Brazilian educational context. It also aims to help elucidate the extent to which this modality contributes or does not to access to higher education, by former students of the EJA, when compared to regular education.
What is the determining reason for the choice of Youth and Adult Education (EJA), given the need to complete high school?
- Need to work during the day (Morning/Evening).
- Issues of responsibility to the family, spouse/children.
- Repeated distastes in previous years/series.
- By the time high school completion is shorter (1.5 years)
- I don’t know and/or prefer not to give an opinion
What importance does Higher Education have for your professional future?
- It’s not important.
- Very important
- Extremely important
- I don’t know and/or prefer not to give an opinion
Do you believe it is possible for an EJA former student to pass the Vestibular selection process and attend a college?
- I think it’s possible to approve
- I think it is difficult to be approved
- It depends only on the former student of the EJA
- Don’t see any possibility
- I can’t say and/or i’d rather not give an opinion
Have you, former student of the EJA: Have you been approved in the vestibular selection process, for the purpose of access to higher education courses?
- Yes, I’ve already been approved
- No, I’ve never been approved
- I’ve never tried
- I’d rather not try because I don’t feel able
- I’d rather not answer
You, EJA alumnus: Have you completed a college?
- Yes, I’ve already completed a higher education degree
- No, I couldn’t complete a higher education degree.
- I’ve studied a few semesters, but I’ve been discouraged and dropped out of school
- I am normally attending higher education, with completion expected in the correct period
- I’d rather not give an opinion
Do you want to take a postgraduate course or are you satisfied with higher education?
- I intend to continue my studies
- I do not intend to continue
- If I finish college, I’ll be satisfied.
- I’ve never been to college.
- I don’t feel able to go on
Have you ever done a graduate course, which one?
- Yes, Latu Sensu Specialization
- I’ve never studied graduate school, but I intend to start soon.
- Yes, Master’s degree
- Yes, phD
- I am a Master’s or PhD student
(Form with a copy of replies will be sent to the email addresses provided.)
APPENDIX B – GRAPHICS
Based on the Interview contained in “Appendix A”, having compiled the data, the following results were obtained, all with graphic statements as follows:
APPENDIX C – INTERVIEWEES’ RELATIONSHIP
APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE REFERENCE
2. For more and better information on the statistics presented, it is suggested the detailed analysis of the article entitled “Enrolments in the education of young people and adults fall; 3.3 million students at EJA in 2019”, published by the National Institute of Student Studies and Research Anísio Teixeira – INEP (MEC), available on the website of INEP itself.
 Master’s student in Law, Area of Concentration: International Law, Stricto Sensu Program in Law, Catholic University of Santos/SP – UniSantos; he has a Lato Sensu Post-Graduation in Military Law from Faculdade Verbo Educacional (VERBO JURÍDICO); in Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure, by the Universidade Estácio of Sá – UNESA; in Public Law: Constitutional, Administrative and Tax, and Bachelor of Law from Centro Universitário Estácio of Amazônia; Bachelor’s Degree in Theology from the Faculty of Science, Education and Theology of Northern Brazil – FACETEN; Degree in History; Human Sciences; and Letters – Portuguese Language; Technology in Public Management; and Technology in Forensic Investigation and Criminal Expertise, all from the Estácio University Center of Ribeirão Preto/SP.
Submitted: May, 2021.
Approved: June, 2021.