Ayahuasca: A Way to the balance

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OLIVEIRA, Rita Barreto de Sales [1] AMARAL, Renilda Gonçalves do [2]

OLIVEIRA, Rita Barreto de Sales; AMARAL, Renilda Gonçalves do. Ayahuasca: a path to balance. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 01, vol. 09, pages 724-738, October/November 2016. ISSN:2448-0959

SUMMARY

This article aims to investigate the relationship between the systematic consumption of ayahuasca tea in religious context and the well-being of individuals that consume. Through bibliographical research, explained what is ayahuasca; your use was found among indigenous peoples and religious groups more expressive – the Nacelle, the União do Vegetal, and the Santo Daime; and, finally, enumerated a list of benefits provided by the drink, IE, self-knowledge, addiction treatment, self-restraint and the environment, and improvement in social relations. In this way, understood that the use of ayahuasca in religious context can lead to a better quality of life and a more balanced interaction with the planet.

Keywords: Ayahuasca, Religion, the Nacelle, the União do Vegetal, Santo Daime.

INTRODUCTION

Since the dawn of humanity, man has sought to reconnect with your Creator. Rituals have been performed since the most remote eras in attempt to get results in this tireless quest for rapprochement with the divine, the sacred, spirituality.

In this line of thought, Felipe (2015) declares that the use of psychotropic substances has always followed the mankind, and the knowledge of entheogenical plants has been growing and that these, until then restricted to the ancient and traditional use, away from the forest and gain space in contemporary society, having your use associated with the improvement of the individual as a whole and in the treatment of diseases.

In this sense, Mundim (2016) States that in the bowels of the Amazon rain forest in South America there is a secret, which remained hidden from the world for thousands of years. Only recently, such secret escaped the jungle and began to impact significantly the lives of an increasing number of people throughout the land. This mystery has transformed the lives of most people who experience and some of them believe have the potential to change the world.

This author asserts that the name of this key is Ayahuasca, which is pronounced aya-uaska, which is the name given to a sacred medicinal plant that originates in the Amazon rainforest, where it has been used for thousands of years by the local indigenous population. The word Ayahuasca derives from two Quechua words: Aya, meaning ancestral spirit of the dead person, and Huasca, which means wine or rope. Thus, Ayahuasca is often known as "wine of the soul" or "wine of death".

The author mentioned above ensures that the story of Ayahuasca is relatively unknown since there are no written records of the Amazon region after the Spanish invasion. All there is are several myths and Word-of-mouth traditions passed down for generations. However, a chalice was found in Ecuador and it is believed that this has more than 2,500 years and contains traces of Ayahuasca. It is known that this drink is used in many South American countries including Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and by at least 70 different indigenous tribes of the Americas.

This article has as its overall objective: to investigate the relationship between the systematic consumption of ayahuasca tea in religious context and the well-being of individuals that consume.

1 What is AYAHUASCA

Pereira Júnior (2014) States that ayahuasca is a tea which is obtained from the junction of two Amazonian plants, being one of the species, Banisteriopsis caapi, also known as Banisteriopsis caapi vine or jagube and the other component, the leaf of a shrub, psicotria viridis, called Psychotria viridis, which by going through a process of decoction, results in a qualified as a psychoactive drink Rico in DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE and beta-carbolines; and that has direct action on the serotoninergic system.

Neurotransmitters (2010) state that the DMT (DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE) is a strong hallucinogenic, having serotonin receptors agonist action. However, when there is no oral intake, DMT is inactivated by the enzyme MAO (monoaminaoxidase). But, the beta-carbolines contained in Ayahuasca are potent MAOI, leaving that there is high activity of DMT. In addition, the beta-carbolines extend levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine in the brain.

To the authors mentioned above, therefore, the beta-carboline acts as receptor reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and inhibitor of MAO. In this way, "the beta-carboline prolongs life of DMT for your block reuptake. On the other hand, the beta-carboline can block the reuptake of serotonin neural, resulting in high levels of this neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft "(s/p).

Pereira Júnior (2014) points out that the preparation of this tea does not occur simply with the junction of mariri and chacrona plants, since there's a whole ritual that precedes the time of cooking and, most often, to the completion of the whole process are spent several days. This happens since the harvest of these plants together with a special care until you reach the time of decoction (boil), so that the entire work is completed.

For Fabiano (2012), the use of ayahuasca religious sessions is very effective with regard to the clarification of the spiritual reality, because he works with the sentiment and people's memories, making it possible to record and understand the teachings and revelations they are passed. The reason is not enough for the perception of spiritual reality; the feeling is key. "United, intellect and heart whiten consciousness. The vegetable promotes this unit "(p. 146).

2 USES of AYAHUASCA

Oliveira (2010) claims that many indigenous groups and some religious movements use the drink ayahuasca in some of their rituals.

2.1 indigenous peoples

Oliveira (2010) highlights three linguistic groups that ingest ayahuasca among indigenous peoples: cloth, Aruák and Tukano.

2.1.1 Cloth

Among the Kaxinawá, the drink is recognized as nixi pae. Your intake makes contact with reality more subtle, that doesn't show up in daily life. For these Indians, in this way it is possible to understand the spirit that permeates all of nature, as well as fairness between all beings and humans. Such a vision confirms the view that the man is part of nature, and that the spirituality permeates. The nixi pae is still responsible for preparing for death, besides giving strength to the spiritual struggle. Use is made of ritual and women don't ingest the drink.

For the Maburo, the drink is known as oni. They related to the origins of the world and of beings. This drink is known as the link between the world of the living and the dead or the spirit world.

The Yaminawá imagine the person in three parts: the body, consciousness and spirit. The shori, name given to drink, allows access to the spirit world. Through him, "are presented the myths and acquired the powers that created things" (p. 6). The song is entirely connected to shamanic shori, which allows the spirits sing through the shaman.

The Sharanawa, who recognize the ayahuasca by ondi, notice a connection between dreams and the visions generated by drink. Also how is made a contact with the spirit world by means of dreams, this is also possible in the waking state.

2.1.2 Aruák

Between the Ashaninka, the name given to the ayahuasca is kamarampi, being connected to the notion of immortality. The myths describe the ways to use it, and through them indicate the restrictions that must be observed for correct usage. In the understanding of the Ashaninka,

The spirits are born in the ordinary world disguised as animals and plants, and natural phenomena. With the use of the beverage, you can see your true form. The drink is the shaman's source of power, and that's what makes it possible to view the spirits as they really are: humans (OLIVEIRA, 2010, p. 7).

For the Piro, the kamarampi presents the real world that the powerful beings conceal behind the ordinary world. Their use is linked to the prevention of deaths, the knowledge achieved through the spirits, to eternity or eternal life and body cleansing and prevention.

For the Machinguenga, the use of the kamarampi induces separation of soul and body. The good spirits are observed how birds in ordinary reality, but appear as small men when taking the kamarampi.

2.1.3 Tukano

Among the common Guillemot-father, ayahuasca is called yagé. Its use is essential for contact with the spirits. For them, there are two sides of reality: the regular world and the world of spirits and monsters. To contact the spirit world, you need some kind of special vision. Such a vision is given by yagé. The corner has a crucial role to play in this group, being the way to orchestrate and structure visions culturally unique to each of the participants of the session.

To the Airo-father, the menstruum and the yagé must be kept always distant, and menstruating women cannot take in anything that will be used or swallowed by men, especially those who took yagé. This has, for they, too, great relationship with plant growth and with agricultural cycles, being the yagé songs taken as words of their own plants.

The Makuna, kahi ide, name given to the ayahuasca is linked to the origin of the society and, attached to other cultural assets, is what holds humanity itself. Their use is connected to healing and disease prevention, and still has role in contact with the ancestors. In addition, offers the visions that will guide the spirit after death.

Among the Cubeo, singing and visions connecting the human and non-human world. They enjoy the physical aspect of mihi, drink, on the body.

The Barasana, comparing the effects of the drink to the death, they see the he okekoa, ayahuasca, as "milk of the ancestors":

Already among the Desana, ayahuasca, recognized as gahpi, supplies the transport of men, who are the ones to take it, to a place where they come in contact with spiritual beings and your heroes. The myth of creation and many other extraordinary myths have the gahpi as one of the central elements.

The humanity forward, such as the common Guillemot-father, divide reality into two: the world you see and the unseen world. In your understanding, ordinary reality is affected by unseen forces, both for good and for evil. It is necessary to familiarize yourself with these forces, and try to influence them. Such work is performed by the shaman, and the skill is caught with the continuous use of iko, ayahuasca. The drink is not for the exclusive use of the shaman, and may be taken by the community as a whole. Shamans, however, have the lead in shamanic paths and the newbies expose themselves to many dangers. They accompany the shaman in the knowledge that comes from contact with spiritual beings, which are accessed through the drink. That way, they will learn about the unseen world.

The Tatuyo believe the capi, name given to ayahuasca, leads the individual to the origins of the world. Such a world, in which the Sun resided previously, makes contrast with the world of ordinary reality.

2.2 religious groups

According to George (1996), was from 1920 and 1930 born calls ayahuasqueiras religions, like the Nacelle, the União do Vegetal-UDV and Santo Daime. These are alastradas all over the country, not limited only to places of origin, being present in other countries such as the Netherlands, Spain, France, Japan, Italy and the United States.

2.2.1 The Nacelle

Second Mercante (2015), the Nacelle was founded in 1945 by the Maranhão black, Daniel Pereira de Matos, who was born in 1888 and was Navy cabin boy. Upon leaving the Marine Corps as a Sergeant, he settled in Rio Branco as Barber. In the mid-1930, Daniel fell ill and was aided by your friend and Maranhão State Raimundo Irineu Serra, founder of the Santo Daime.

This author claims that Daniel started following the spiritual works of Irenaeus. After some time had a vision of angels who descended the revelational heaven bringing you a book. Such a vision is the recommendation used by Irenaeus to encourage Daniel to start own spiritual work. In 1945 Daniel received a plot of land inside a former rubber plantation, in what is now the neighborhood of Vila, and Irenaeus you Avelino provided the Daime, which is the name of ayahuasca in these traditions. Thus began the Nacelle.

The author above asserts that, in 1957, Francisca Campos do Nascimento, shortly after the birth of your third daughter, sought the aid of Daniel to try to solve a health problem. She had the body covered in wounds, and doctors couldn't diagnose and not treat the problem. Daniel went on to treat dona Francisca, who promised that, if he's cured, your life would enshrine the doctrine of Daniel.

In 1958 Daniel died, but Frances, fulfilling your promise, follows to this day inside the Nacelle. In 1991 she left the original Center of the Nacelle and opened your own church, the "spiritist Center charity Prince Swordfish". Such is the spirit of Prince charming, a spiritual being that has more than one way: at sea he is a fish-sword, "Prince Swordfish"; on Earth, the "Soldier Warrior Don Simeon." The charms or delighted are worshipped throughout the North and northeast of Brazil, in many religions which have afro and indigenous influence (mercante, 2015).

2.2.2 the União do Vegetal

Seraguza and Gimenez Son (2008) state that the Union of the vegetable is at present the largest, in terms of the number of adherents, and most organized religious institutions that use ayahuasca. This was incorporated on 22 July 1961 by José Gabriel da Costa.

These authors state that the extraction of rubber, after your period of boom, between 1890 and 1912, and your time to decline due to competition in the international market of rubber extracted in Asia, has undergone a new epoch of rise during the period from 1943 to 1947 because of the Second World War and the natural demand for raw materials supridoras military production of allied countries. With the signing of agreements with the United States, the Brazilian Government began a major campaign to recruit workers, especially the Northeast, to the extraction of latex in the North. With other governmental measures in order to meet this demand for LaTeX on the part of allied countries, created the Special Service of mobilization of workers for the Amazon-SEMTA, that only in the year of 1943 led 13000 people to the North of the country, According to official data. It is estimated that approximately 55000 Northeastern took a ship to the North and transformed, from one day to the next, their lives.

After working for a period in the rubber plantation, José Gabriel moved to Porto Velho where he worked as a public servant in the role of a nurse at the Hospital Sao Jose in Porto Velho-RO. Mr. Gabriel answered people in your home, where played búzios. Subsequently became Ogã and father of Terrace in the Centre of São Benedito Umbanda-RO, mother Chica Cassava (SERAGUZA and GIMENEZ SON, 2008).

The aforementioned authors assert that until 1950 José Gabriel lived with your family in Porto Velho, where in addition to working as a nurse, owned a tavern. He was also fond of politics. And, because your candidate had lost the election the territory of Guaporé-RO, was pursued in your public job in the hospital, being forced to stay away from work. At that time Joseph Gabriel returned to the plantation, going to the region of Vila Plácido de Castro, near Rio Branco in the State of Acre. It was in this situation that José Gabriel da Costa heard a mysterious tea that was consumed by healers of the region. Days after, on 1 April 1959 in rubber plantation Guarapari, border region of Bolivia with Acre, he drank for the first time ever ayahuasca provided by a Tapper named Chico Lourenço (SERAGUZA and GIMENEZ SON, 2008).

In the field of that religion, the União do Vegetal name refers both to the religion itself, as the Union of two vegetables ingredients of ayahuasca, being that drink appreciated as Bark (Ayahuasca), or vegetable. Similar to what occurred in the Santo Daime religion, after the death of the leader and founder of the União do Vegetal, Mr José Gabriel Costa, divisions in the trunk of the religion, other two groups appeared by himself as União do Vegetal, and they : The União do Vegetal, whose boss is Mr. Augusto Jawbone and whose headquarters are in Porto Velho-RO; and the Spiritual Centre União do Vegetal Charity, based in Campinas-SP, whose boss and founder is Mr. Joaquim José de Andrade Neto (SERAGUZA and GIMENEZ SON, 2008).

2.2.3 the Santo Daime

Albuquerque (2011) comments that the Foundation of the Santo Daime religion dates back to the history of the negro Raimundo Irineu Serra (1892-1971), which immigrated from Maranhão to the Amazon in the context of rubber extraction, consuming the drink from a Peruvian healer on the border region between Brazil and Bolivia, in 1920.

This author argues that the history of religion shows that, in the course of his experiences with ayahuasca, Raimundo Irineu had spiritual revelations about the healing powers of the beverage, as well as the lessons that would lead to obtain the title of curator and Master of a spiritual mission in the context of an Amazon in crisis, given the return of economy of rubber and the consequent decline of rubber plantations.

In this way, as in shamanic initiation procedures of Raimundo Irineu in the secrets of ayahuasca entailed a period of isolation in the Woods and some food and sexual taboos, as a way to prepare for receiving your spiritual mission ( ALBUQUERQUE, 2011).

Thus, in early 1930, on the outskirts of the city of Rio Branco, State of Acre, Brazil, Raimundo Irineu, by bringing together a small group of people, most of whom was black, started working with ayahuasca operand, in this process, a Christianization of the use of drink started to get the status of religious sacrament, in addition to another name: daime. Such a term, in addition to being easier to pronounce than ayahuasca refers to the verb give, suggesting the invocation that must be made to the spirit of the drink when your intake (ALBUQUERQUE, 2011).

3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN the SYSTEMATIC CONSUMPTION of AYAHUASCA in RELIGIOUS CONTEXT and the well-being of INDIVIDUALS that CONSUME

The understanding Giacomoni (2004), there are different approaches that differ with regard to the definition and assessment of what is meant by quality of life over time: the economy considers the quality of life of the population by the amount of goods and goods produced by it; social scientists already outweigh the latter theory, considerable and important social indicators like life expectancy, fair distribution of material resources, among others; a third approach is the subjective well-being – BES, which considers the subjective assessment of quality of life.

Second Passareli and Sarkar (2007), is of supreme importance get increasingly deep knowledge about the BES, because he enjoys the way we see ourselves and others, providing a greater contentment in everyday experiences and social relationships.

For De Assis, Faria and Lins (2014), in General, the studies on the BES and happiness are comprised under three aspects: a) being in control of life (happiness learned through a psychological development); b) State (be happy), i.e. realizing happiness through a series of fundamental and universal human needs and c) dash (be happy), whose approach ensures that individuals have a predisposition to understanding everyday situations so both positive as negative, and this predisposition is what influences the assessment of life.

On bibliographical research conducted by these authors, when defining categories between the subjective well-being, quality of life and the use of ayahuasca, it was found that:

1. In relation to the category "Self-knowledge"

For this purpose, the subject can you see out of the body and also comes in contact with what is more and deeper into you. With that, he realizes in the world and defines who is and who is not. When developed the self-knowledge, the guy realizes and understands everything in your back with more clarity and honesty. This facilitates the daily activities, as well as interpersonal relationships. He gets to know better his own emotions and behaviors (p. 229).

This means that tea consumption causes the subject to reflect on some aspects, which leads him to modify behaviors, i.e., communicate more affectionate with the environment, participate in the community, rethink values studied, clean things and learn new ways of coping with the everyday situations are some elements that cause, the individual, the understanding of who he is and how he reacts in the world.

2. In relation to the category "addiction treatment

There are reports of therapeutic groups, anthropologists, psychologists and psychiatrists on the therapeutic efficacy of ayahuasca in the treatment of psychoactive dependence. However, you must register the existence of research failures without a solid foundation or basis in studies with rigorous methodological designs. Thus, the success of treatment depends only on the pharmacology of ayahuasca, but also of the rules of the ritual context of religious zeal, the influence of the leader and the social dynamics of the group.

Furthermore, there can be no dissociation between tea intake, psychosocial process and ritual context in which this drink is consumed. Religiosity is emphasized in these rituals, and is a respectable factor for a guy stop consuming psychoactive substances. In addition to the psychological and behavioral effects of tea, issues such as recommendations, standards and punishments within the religious group are factors that, together, enable a person to abandon the use of psychoactive substances.

3. In relation to the category "self-restraint and the environment"

During the trance induced by tea, the individual claims an individual freedom to put into practice everything you've seen in miração, adapting to your way of being. This is through apprenticeship with ayahuasca, which provides tools for environmental control. By means of the images seen during the mirações, the individual traverses worlds (physical and spiritual) and question your existence, develops a spirituality that seeks to balance, learning to become managing your life.

Because of these mirações, the individual begins to analyze their knowledge a priori right up from then on. Learning with ayahuasca enables the individual to acquire knowledge about wellness practices, exercises like body care and development of self-control. The domain you can still be seen in the category of self-knowledge, and the care of the body in category addiction treatment.

4. In relation to the category "Social Relations"

After the mirações, the subject swap and share the visions, sensations and perceptions within the group. This way they interpret aspects of mirações each other, strengthening the link of the group. Also, with the help of the group or of a member, the subject reveals truths which alone could not contemplate. All this experience within the religious group is applied also in social life outside the institution.

Learning brought by mirações and communication generates positive changes in behaviors with family and friends. The relationships become more patient and loving on the part of the subject ayahuasqueiro. Such social practices within the religious group also influence the decision to stop consuming psychoactive substances and decrease or abandon eating habits taken as unhealthy. These decisions can be observed in the diets and abstinências within the category addiction treatment.

CONCLUSION

The search for the interaction with God or a higher power has always been part of human life. Our existence always raised questions as: why are we here? Who created us? Are there other planets with intelligent beings? Where we go after death? Is there something beyond what our senses enable capture?

The answer to these questions vary from person to person. But one thing is certain: there are different ways, just as there are different people. One of the answers to the above questions can be in the use of this plant teacher called ayahuasca. Studies show that your regular use can lead to a better quality of life and a more balanced interaction with the planet. Such quality of life can express themselves in self-knowledge, in chemical dependency treatment, in the field of self and the environment, as well as in better relations with the similar.

REFERENCES

ALBUQUERQUE, Maria Betânia Barbosa. Religion and education: knowledge of ayahuasca in the Santo Daime. In: Brazilian Magazine of history of religions. ANPUH, Year IV, n° 10, may 2011.

Of Assisi, Cleber Lizardo, Faria, Ferraciolli, Madz Lins, Laís Fernanda Tam, subjective well-being and quality of life in ayahuasca fans. In: Psychology & society, 2014. Available in: <http: www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id="309330671024">.</http:> Access in 18/10/2016.

Fabiano, r. Master Gabriel, the Messenger of God, 2012. Brasília/DF: New Stone.

Felipe, Amanda Castelan. Ayahuasca, a contemporary conundrum: scientific production of the therapeutic use of the tea. University of Southern Santa Catarina-UNESC. Monograph of graduate biological sciences course, 2015.

Giacomoni, c. h. subjective well-being: in search of quality of life. In: topics in psychology of SBP, 12 (1), 2004.

GEORGE, S. L. The cultural roots of the Santo Daime. 1996. Dissertation (master's degree in anthropology) – University of São Paulo, São Paulo.

LIN, Tao. You can't imagine a drug or strangest experience. Available in: <http: www.vice.com/pt_br/read/dmt-voce-nao-pode-imaginar-uma-droga-ou-uma-experiencia-mais-estranha="">.</http:> Access in 18/10/2016.

MERCANTE, Marcelo Simon. Nacelle: ayahuasqueira, Afro-Brazilian Religion or afro-amazônica? In: PLURA, Religion Studies review, vol. 6, no. 2, 2015.

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NEUROTRANSMITTERS. Santo Daime. In: Biochemistry of the neurotransmitters, 2010. Available in: <http: neuromed91.blogspot.com.br/2010/08/cha-de-santo-daime.html="">.</http:> Access in: 18/10/2016.

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[1] Attending PhD by Universidad Iberoamericana (2016). Doctor of science in education from the Universidad Americana (2014). Master in information science from the University of Brasília (2008).  Licensed in Full Letters by the Centro de Ensino Unificado de Brasília (1984).

[2] Doctorate in information science from the University of Brasília (2013). Master in information science from the University of Brasília (2008). Modern Brazilian Literature specialist at Centro de Ensino Unificado de Brasília (1990). Licensed in Letters from the University of Brasília (1979).

[3] Term referring to the State of expansion of consciousness caused by the use of plants that have some active ingredient (FELIPE, 2015).

[4] Quechua is an indigenous language of South America (MUNDIM, 2016).

[5] N, N-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE, or DMT, is an illegal psychedelic tryptamines found in the human body and in about 60 species of flowering plants in the world. The doctor Rick Strassman described it as "the first human endogenous psychedelic" in DMT: The Spirit Molecule (2000) and, in an interview three years ago, said that DMT "apparently was a necessary component to the normal functions of the brain". Terence McKenna-that "all people", wrote in 2000, "Strassman acquired knowledge about DMT through lectures, books, interviews and recordings"-called the compound of "the most powerful hallucinogen known to man and science" and the "most common throughout the nature "in the lecture" Rap Dancing Into the Third Millennium ", 1994 (LIN, 2016).

[6] Related to serotonin.

[7] Ogã (Yoruba-ga: "superior person, Chief", with possible influence of jeje ogã: "Chief, leader") is the generic name for several male functions inside a House of candomblé. Is the priest chosen by the Orisha to be lucid during all work. He does not enter into trance, but still, it does have the spiritual intuition. The candomblé atabaques may only be touched by Alagbê (Ketu nation), Kambondo (Nations Angola and Congo) and Runtó (Jeje nation), which is responsible for the Rum (the conga drum major), and the smallest conga drums under the US ogãs your command. Is the Alagbê which starts the touch and it is through your performance on the Rum that the Orisha will perform your routine, hunting, war, always following the flourish of Rum. The Rum is who runs the Rumpi and Reads (WIKIPEDIA, 2016).

[8] The reports about your encounter with ayahuasca report that, one day, to ingest the drink, Raimundo Irineu had the vision of a female entity who called Clearly identified with the Queen of the forest or our Lady of the conception who would have passed the essential foundations of the doctrine and granted the title of "Chief-Empire Juramidam", that would identify the spiritual entities, the use of the precursor along Incas ayahuasca, as King Huascar (MACRAE, 1992; Couto, APUD 2011 ALBUQUERQUE, 2002).

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