Evaluation of teaching and learning

0
66
DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/teaching-evaluation
PDF

REVIEW ARTICLE

PINTO, Jacyguara Costa [1], RODRIGUES, Helton Barbosa [2], SILVA, Vanessa de Souza da [3]

PINTO, Jacyguara Costa. RODRIGUES, Helton Barbosa. SILVA, Vanessa de Souza da. Evaluation of teaching and learning. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 11, Vol. 03, pp. 81-90. November 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link in: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/teaching-evaluation, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/teaching-evaluation

SUMMARY

The article presents studies on the new challenges posed to education, and it is essential to think about the evaluation model used by teachers today. Therefore, we sought to analyze the evaluation planning processes carried out in the initial grades of elementary school. The results were obtained through the use of the bibliographic research method of descriptive nature and qualitative approach, performing the analysis of contents of books and scientific articles that allowed connecting the studies and empirical perspectives of the researcher, guiding the construction of the results in three sections, which were described from this point on. In the development of the article, the evaluation of teaching and learning was analyzed, and the importance of self-assessment for the impartial educator was described; and, it was possible to understand, briefly, the adoption of participatory evaluation by objectives in the educational reality of elementary school. It was concluded that the problem of the article was answered, the general objective was reached and it was confirmed the hypothesis that any instrument used by teachers and the school to perform the evaluation, configures a way to establish levels of learning, recognize the best and the worst, and especially, adapt the teaching to the standards of excellence installed by the school. Standardized measures have diverted the democratic, critical, constructive and creative sense of evaluation, preventing the path of effective learning.

Keywords: Assessment, competencies, performance, goals, school.

1. INTRODUCTION

Education in our country is quite complex, the segregation of society has shattered groups of people, these being victims of disparities that are the reflections of the incuria of public power.

These disparities reflect on the relationships that exist in the school. Leading the individual to question their conditions, as a being capable of constructing their conceptions of human being, society and world, in the search to satisfy their needs in various dimensions and at the same time legitimize their identity before their peers.

Given the new challenges posed to education, it is essential to think about the evaluation model used by teachers today, considering that the act of evaluating, whatever the model adopted is not neutral, because it brings in its bulge a certain way of conceiving reality, the individual and society, directing and conditioning the pedagogical practice existing in the classroom and in school.

Whatever the instrument used by teachers and the school to perform the evaluation, it configures certain, establish learning levels, recognize the best and the worst, and especially adapt the teaching to the standards of excellence installed by the school. Standardized measures have diverted the democratic, critical, constructive and creative sense of evaluation, preventing the path of effective learning. Based on these assumptions, the investigation begins with the following problem: What relationship exists between the planning actions of the school evaluation with the improvement of the student’s educational performance?

Thus, it is justified to reflect on the processes that involve school evaluation planning as a learning moment, a means in which the teacher uses to mediate knowledge and not an end, since the evaluation is not limited only to the determination of grades, but follows the path that the student goes, discovers his difficulties and changes the directions if necessary.

Thus, the aim of the article was to analyze the evaluation planning processes carried out in the initial grades of elementary school. Specifically, it is intended to analyze the evaluation of teaching and learning; describe the importance of self-assessment for the impartial educator; and, to understand the adoption of participatory evaluation by objectives in the educational reality of elementary school.

The results were obtained through the use of the bibliographic research method of descriptive nature and qualitative approach, performing the analysis of contents of books and scientific articles that allowed connecting the studies and empirical perspectives of the researcher, guiding the construction of the results in three sections, which were described from this point on.

2. ABOUT TEACHING AND LEARNING ASSESSMENT

According to the time and the model of society, the evaluation has its trajectory since the earliest times. Some authors such as Soeiro and Aveline (1982) have exposed as the origin of the evaluation methods the activities that the first human conglomerates performed to, through rituals, make the young indigenous ready to be an indigenous adult. For these authors, such practices date back to 360.Bc considered as a system of criteria used by the Chinese and Greeks to enable individuals for a given job, enabling all citizens to achieve positions of prestige and power.

From the beginning there were already ways to evaluate, an act used by the Chinese and Greeks in the labor market, this happened unconsciously, imposed by the culture model of society, with the objective of preparing and selecting the best to hold the positions of prestige and power. This evaluation model was also used in China in 2200 BC. (SOEIRO; AVELINE, 1982).

In Greece, Socrates suggested a self-assessment, “know yourself” as a way to get to the truth. Thus, this philosophical thought has become a form of examination, that is, self-assessment, an action of extreme importance, currently, for the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process.

To give greater emphasis to the trajectory of the evaluation Despresbiteris (1999, p. 113) reports that i[…]n ” 2005 BC. Chinese Emperor Shum examined his officers every three years with the aim of promoting or firing, primarily to secure men trained in defense of the state.” Another important example of how the evaluation was developed is in Marx’s works that “the e[…]xamination is nothing other than the bureaucratic baptism of sacred knowledge” (apud GARCIA, 2001, p. 29).

Thus, the examination is emphasized as bureaucracy, that is, the written part, in which only what is appropriate to the applicators is reported, in this case it is aimed at documentation and not intellectual development using what is mundane for changes and transformations to sacred knowledge.

Also in the thirteenth century, Kraemer (2005) exposes the use of examination as a form of evaluation through the organized discipline of exams and the system of assigning grades, giving rise to a science called Docimologia. It also explains that in the etymological sense the evaluation comes from Latin a + valere having as meaning attribution of value and merit to the study objective. The concept used in several countries already mentioned aims to select people to perform various functions in the labor market.

With the transformations from the technological era and industrialization, from the twentieth century, research and evaluation suffered great influences from the sciences, numerous procedures and theories used today were created, such as the Survey and [4]other instruments: standardized objectives and written tests.

Vianna (2005) points out that the first thirty years of American social life in the twentieth century was influenced by three elements developed in principle for industrial management: systematization, standardization and efficiency, which eventually affected the entire society, including in the educational area. Thus, there was a great concern with the labor market, efficiency was the great goal and, consequently, develops techniques to identify where students were not able to grasp the knowledge taught in the classroom.

In the 1970s, the evaluation ended up creating a positivist paradigm, which should be broken with the construction of new forms of evaluation, applying the novelties that were in vogue in the North American continent. Thus, procedures were developed to compare the performance of students with tests and the composition of new educational plans including the evaluation as a process for measuring this performance in the disciplines. For Prado de Sousa (1998), it was from the 1980s that educational evaluation became more relevant in the school context. That’s when sociology began to contribute relevant research and studies on the inner workings of the school.

The concept of learning as an object of evaluation is another pillar in the defense of a conception of educational evaluation. Human learning is not limited to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, norms of behavior, “aseptic” of values and personal sense. The use of the concept of learning to describe cognitive processes and acquisitions, excluding “affective” and “contive” is inconsistent because it distorts the reality that is intended affective and evaluative unknown dimension of knowledge. All cognitive action has value, knowledge, skill, form of behavior carries a personal sense, it is a subject that learns. Evaluation requires having the object model from an integral, holistic and multifaceted perspective that highlights the complexity and richness of learning. They argue that the need for evaluation of teaching or training (GIBBS, 2003).

3. THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF-ASSESSMENT FOR THE IMPARTIAL EDUCATOR

Self-assessment has been considered a very effective strategy for adopting democratic concepts in the school management process, making citizens, managers, teachers and the entire school community participants in the process of allocating resources in school education (CAMILLONI, 1997).

The scheme of self-assessment consists of making the internal and external processes in which the school is participating can have their results measured rationally and demonstrate the efficiency for the way in which the erofeogics and didactics to analyze their pedagogical and didactic planning in the teaching strategies in the classroom, thus, there is self-assessment when one can identify strengths (potencies) and fragile (ephemeris) in the results.

The problems of the evaluation subjects is to approach the debate about who should, can and is able to participate in the evaluation. It fights and defends the need and the university student’s right to participate in its evaluation, the educational and training value that carries itself and the other subjects of the teaching-learning process. The self and hetero are necessary facets of individual and group work in higher education, which reinforce and express the relationship between the work of the group and the individual responsibility of each special tribute to it; in order to contribute to the development of postgraduate social responsibility as a requirement for higher education. It is established as a legitimate purpose that reverses evaluated evaluator.

Self-assessment occurs through processes that, when the teacher performs and adopts them, lack knowledge regarding the information and criteria that need to be evaluated because they were performed by those who are evaluating them, measuring their own results and considering whether such own results were satisfactory for the success of the teaching learning process. In this case, teachers apply self-assessment tests whenever courses, lectures, training, and counseling are being taught in the classroom and in other school spaces.

The educational evaluation, since its origin, already brings in its bulge a complexity, due to the numerous factors that should be considered when evaluating someone or something, and it is important to emphasize that there is nowadays an awareness of Brazilian society about the relevance of the educational evaluation process.

Therefore, evaluation is necessary, and continuously, even more so when evaluation is seen as a formal commitment and an informal practice. Since currently the evaluation is understood as an indispensable action at any moment in the life of the human being, opposing naturally at the service of education, approaching learning experiences, human development, improvement of quality of life, well-will, elevation of self-esteem and valorization of initiatives among people.

Ensuring education for all is related to the change from a curriculum far from the problems of the world and the interests of the students themselves to a curriculum capable of capturing the interest of both students and teachers, favoring the understanding of natural, social and cultural phenomena, as an instrument that predisposes to questioning, learning in action, the attitude of facing the uncertainty of complexity , considering the new knowledge, skills and values.

The educator needs to reevaluate his praxis and didactics seeking to develop a more significant content and a more participative methodology, in such a way that it reduces the need to use the note as an instrument of coertion. This task is not easy in the current context, this performance of the educator has to do with coping with alienation: it is a struggle of perspectives, of meanings for knowledge and for life.

In this context, the LDB as a legal guide of educational policies aims to recover through public school its role in the formation of citizenship, being open to all students, without discrimination, integrating sociocultural diversity and individual differences thus contributing to an integrative socialization. Citizenship education points to a way to face new problems, while allowing the integration of values and cross-cutting themes, instead of presenting them as specific or isolated actions, without restricting themselves to learning certain values, behaviors or attitudes, since the citizen needs the whole set of knowledge and skills that allow him to participate actively in public life , without which you may be excluded or denied citizenship.

However, there are still many challenges to be faced for public education to be a condition for social cohesion and integration: more efficiency in management and more density in content; dialogue between scientific knowledge, the systems of interpretation of the world and the ancestral wisdom of the Latin American peoples; open schools to society and their needs; definition of basic and fundamental skills for the training of students, with the creation of information and evaluation systems; greater social recognition to the magisterium, dignifying and professionalizing educators.

4. USES OF PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION BY OBJECTIVES IN BRAZILIAN BASIC EDUCATION

In the current context, the evaluation we have is still sometimes confused with concepts and grades, and performed to classify students in approved and disapproved. There are minorities who can visualize and perform the evaluation in order to contribute to the qualification of the educational process. Most prefer to sort through the grades, because they think it is the easiest way, that so they will have less work.

Many schools evaluate their students through exams, practices that are positivist and technical in nature that do not contemplate learning as a whole, acting in a classificatory and excluding way, because although grades/concepts are a necessary record, due to the current educational system, they cannot represent the evaluation itself, distorting the teaching-learning process. In this type of evaluation that classifies, the most healthy is the product. Reflecting, an education based on the memorization of content.

Contrary to this type of evaluation that emphasizes the attribution of grades and classification, it can be evidenced the qualitative evaluation that is based on a critical paradigm and aims to improve the quality of the educational system. Considering that its emphasis is on the process of overcoming the difficulties of the students. And this is the assessment that is currently desired, in the face of so many challenges that the school goes through daily.

Currently there is a consensus on the new evaluation methods that are being implemented in the teaching process of basic education. This novelty in the area of Pedagogy has generated the participation of students and has contributed with information and opinions that can foster the transformation of knowledge and teaching, and culminate with the improvement of the quality of teaching with the insertion, for example, of participatory evaluation by objectives, evaluation strategies that coincide opinions and personal vision – critical or overcoming – of the strategies that teachers have adopted in the classroom.

This technique has been used to identify tangible results of the objectives and pedagogical planning considered by teachers, also identifying points related to the performance pictures (improvement or worsening) of the students, as well as identifying their opinions if changes are adopted in the current pedagogical practices. According to Kraemer (2005), this practice has two important functions, with its brief descriptions in Chart 1.

Table One. Classification of evaluation functions by objectives.

ClassificationFunctions and characteristics
Diagnostic FunctionAmong its functions, we highlight the opinions of those who are being evaluated in relation to the management of teacher teaching strategies, for example; or even the students’ perspectives on the causes of low performance in the classroom in a given discipline. This way of collecting data proposes the use of innovative, daring and creative pre-tests, surveys and strategies (brain storm), which aim to assist in the diagnosis of teaching and the adoption of the culture of changes in the pedagogical strategies present.
Summation function, or classificatoryAmong its main characteristics, it is emphasized the adoption of evaluations that can classify and typify the understanding about the tests elaborated by teachers, or else, the student’s classification at the end of the school year (approved or disapproved). It was the most accepted in schools for synthetically ensuring the construction of perceptions about the school reality in the classroom and at the end of bimasters and semesters.

Fonte: Kraemer (2005).

With this approach, it can be inferred that the evaluation of school achievement needs to be practiced as the attribution of a quality to the learning outcomes of the students, based on its essential aspects and that as a final objective, favors a decision-making that directs learning and, consequently, the development of the student.

Thus, the diagnostic evaluation is configured as a moment of understanding of the stage in which the student is of the distance in which he refers to the articulated objectives to be achieved ahead. The diagnostic evaluation also favors the social participation of all students as citizens, since it no longer has the conservative and undemocratic character of the classification evaluation that excluded many people from school.

In this premise, the diagnostic evaluation aims to identify, verify, investigate the difficulties and objectives achieved in order to resize the educational action, and it is a procedural act, leading the educator to reflect on the results of his research, building new proposals, methodologies, with a view to teaching quality and commitment, needing to continuously evaluate the student , to detect the various moments of its development, not being restricted to judgment about the success or failure of students, understanding it as a set of performances that has the function of guiding pedagogical intervention, this happens continuously and systematically through the qualitative interpretation of knowledge constructed by the student.

The teacher will use the evaluation as an instrument that allows him to constantly question his proposals in the teaching-learning process, enabling the educator to redirect his practice.

5. CONCLUSION

It is considered that the problem of the article was answered, the general objective was reached and it was confirmed the hypothesis that any instrument used by teachers and the school to perform the evaluation, configures certain, establish learning levels, recognize the best and the worst, and especially, adapt the teaching to the standards of excellence installed by the school. Standardized measures have diverted the democratic, critical, constructive and creative sense of evaluation, preventing the path of effective learning.

The objectives have also been achieved. Regarding the objective of analyzing the evaluation of teaching and learning, the authors analyzed exposed the origin of the evaluation methods and their uses by the Chinese and Greeks in the labor market. The mark of the thirteenth century was the organization of evaluation exams with the attribution of grades, giving rise to a science called Docimologia. Today, procedures were developed to compare the performance of students with tests and the composition of new educational plans including the evaluation as a process of measuring this performance in the disciplines.

In relation to the second specific objective, which proposed to analyze the importance of self-assessment for the impartial educator, it was found in the selected studies that the self-assessment scheme consists of making the internal and external processes in which the school is participating can have their results measured rationally and demonstrate the efficiency for the way in which their pedagogical and didactic planning has generated satisfactory results in classroom teaching strategies thus, there is self-assessment when one can identify strengths (potencies) and fragile (ephemeris) in the results.

Finally, the third specific objective was achieved, demonstrating that the uses of participatory evaluation by objectives in Brazilian basic education result in going in a way contrary to that of evaluation that gives grades and classifies. Its emphasis is on the process of overcoming the difficulties of the students. And this is the assessment that is currently desired, in the face of so many challenges that the school goes through daily. This technique has been used to identify tangible results of the objectives and pedagogical planning considered by teachers, also identifying points related to the performance pictures (improvement or worsening) of the students.

6. REFERENCES

CAMILLONI, A. R. W. Los obstáculos epistemológicos em la enseñanza. Barcelona: Gedisa, 1997.

DEPRESBITERIS, Léa. O desafio da avaliação da aprendizagem: dos fundamentos a uma proposta inovadora. 1ª ed. São Paulo: Editora Pedagógica e Universitária, 1999.

GARCIA, Ronaldo Coutinho. Subsídios para organizar avaliações da ação governamental. Planejamento e Políticas Públicas, Brasília, n. 23, p. 7-70, jan. /jun. 2001.

GIBBS, G. Uso estratégico de la evaluación en el aprendizaje. In: Brown, S.; Glasner, A. Evaluar em la Universidad: problemas y nuevos enfoques. Madrid: Narcea, 2003, pp. 61-70.

KRAEMER, Maria Elisabeth Pereira. A avaliação da aprendizagem como processo construtivo de um novo fazer. Avaliação: Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior, v. 10, n. 2, 137-147, 2005.

SOEIRO, L & AVELINE, S. Avaliação Educacional. Porto Alegre: Editora. Sulina, 1982.

VIANNA, Heraldo Marelim. Fundamentos de um Programa de Avaliação Educacional. Brasília: Liber Livro Editora, 2005.

4. Testes normativos usados para avaliar a eficiência da Instituição escolar.

[1] Doctor in Education Science, Master in Education Science, Lato Sensu Specialist in Higher Education Teaching, Lato Sensu Specialist in History, Culture, African Literature, Afro-Brazilian, Bachelor and Bachelor of History.

[2] Master of Science in Education, Full Degree and Bachelor of Geography, Lato Sensu Specialist in Environmental Management, professor of the state public network, currently exercising his functions as a teacher in basic education in the Organizational System Modular teaching of the State of Amapá.

[3] Master student in Education Science, Specialist in special education, Licensed full pedagogy, teacher of the State and Municipal public schools in the State of Amapá.

Posted: September, 2019.

Approved: November, 2019.

Doutor em Ciência da Educação, Mestre em Ciência da Educação, Especialista Lato Sensu em Docência de Ensino Superior, Especialista Lato Sensu Em História cultura, Literatura Africana, afro-brasileira, licenciado e Bacharel em História.

DEIXE UMA RESPOSTA

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here