CAMARGOS, Ellen Kassia de 
MACIEL, Rosana Mendes 
CAMARGOS, Ellen Kassia de; MACIEL, Rosana Mendes. The importance of psychomotricity in children education. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1. Vol. 9. pp. 254-275, October/November 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959
Psychomotor education is the beginning of the process of early childhood education. The learning disabilities detected in a child may cause psychomotor development delay. The general objective of the study was to analyze the importance of psychomotor learning in early years. The methodology used was the review of the literature. The survey was conducted in online bases and repositories of Brazilian universities. The playful games should be understood as practices that promote learning and develop various aspects of the human being, as the engine, the psychological, social and affective. The playfulness should be promoted through the psychomotor activities, in a pleasant and motivating. Especially during the physical education lessons, the teacher must if unlink of repetition of movements and mechanistic prioritize activities that develop body and mind, i.e. the overall body. The game is a direct channel to the child uses to express their desires and emotions, being very valuable tool during the initial series, a period in which the child links to society.
Keywords: Child. Psychomotor development. Physical education.
The psychomotricity is a neuroscience that transforms the thought of harmonic motor Act. (1) the psychomotor education is the "starting point" for the children's learning process. Commonly, if your child has a learning disability is a result of any deficiency in the psychomotor development.
The child who presents the psychomotor development barely constituted may present problems in writing, reading, towards graphics, in distinction of letters, on ordering of syllables, in abstract thinking and logical, grammatical analysis, among others. (2)
The school and the professor have, especially in the initial years, important role, influencing directly in the development of the student. When it comes to physical fitness, professionals can use recreational games and games that stimulate various aspects of the child, as the engine, the social, affective and cognitive. (3)
Through play a child involved in the game and feel the need to share with each other. Although the opponent posture is a partnership relationship. This interface exposes the potential of participants, affects emotions and tests the skills testing limits. Playing and playing the child will have the opportunity to develop skills essential to their future professional performance, such as attention, affection, the habit of staying focused and other perceptual psychomotor skills. Playing the child becomes operative. (4)
"A lesson with playful features don't have to be games or toys. What brings playfulness to the classroom is more a ' playful ' attitude of the educator and students. "(4) the main purpose of psychomotor education is not restricted to children's knowledge about the vision you have of your body, not just content, but rather the discovery of every body system, formation of an organized unit and instrument of relation to reality. (2)
Psychomotor education work with children must provide essential basic training in their motor development, emotional and psychological, giving opportunity for through games, activities, if you get hold on your body. Through these activities the child develops your perceptual skills as a means of adjustment of psychomotor behavior. (2)
In practice, there is that if you look at the fact that children learn more satisfactory and effective through fun and games. The playful context is essential to socialization of the human being. For the game, for the construction of different points of view, elaboration of hypotheses and context of space and time. The Act of play cannot be viewed as an act of entertainment, but rather understood as an activity that enables diverse learning abilities, inserted in a motivating environment, pleasant and planned for early childhood education. (1)
In playful activity, what matters is not just the product of the activity, what her results, but the action itself, the moment lived. Enables those who experience moments of meeting with you and another, moments of fantasy and reality, of ressignification and perception, moments of self-knowledge and knowledge of the other, to take care of yourself and look the other way, moments of life. (4)
The preventive action of teachers is of paramount importance, making it possible to decrease the number of children with learning difficulties, which minimizes the negative effects that the psychomotor disorders have and promotes global development. (5) the research has as North the role that the playful can play in the learning process.
The general objective of the study was to analyze the importance of psychomotor learning in early years. Specifically, the survey sought to investigate the origin and the main features of the psychomotor education; address the importance of psychomotricity in initial series as a tool for the reduction and prevention of educational difficulties presented by the students; Configure the motor and psychological development to which areas are related, their stages and the risk factors for child development; understanding the role of the educator and the school as education thrusters in the initial years. During its early years, the human being is organizing concepts and develops through the search for new experiences. Thus, the playful proposal, psychomotor education feature, visa the motor development, emotional and psychological through games and fun activities, where the child discovers the potential of your own body.
Through the Act of play, it is possible to detect deviations in motor ability and psychological child. The joke must be understood not only as an entertainment activity, but rather as an exercise that promotes learning in various aspects, especially if it is performed in a motivating and enjoyable environment. The play provides discovery and exploration, and direct channel for the expression of emotions. In several activities the child wins obstacles and find within a social environment.
The methodology used in the study was a review of the literature. The survey was conducted on online as Google Scholar and in repositories of Brazilian universities.
Academic exploration guided by articles published between 2007 and 2013; being carried out data collection between February and October 2016. The keywords used were: psychomotor, child and physical education.
For selection of the sources were considered as criteria articles and studies that discuss the psychomotor education as the basis for the learning of the child.
Were analysed and discussed the studies to achieve expected results through the research proposal, addressing the importance of psychomotricity in children's education.
1. CHILD DEVELOPMENT
In the 20 studies began to emerge that addressed human development. These investigations have manifested themselves when the child and the baby began to be studied. Thus began the recovery of human movement and actions related to it, in order to work for the children's overall development. Go Tani (1988) argues that this change of thoughts assisted in the creation of a concept on the development motor, being a natural and progressive Act that occurred without the need of a specific concern, but that as of this moment was administered in an environment where it was favored. (6)
Human development is a process of evolution and change, whether in physical or psychological aspect. At each stage of life, there are specific features, and may occur the acceleration or delay of these processes, depending on examining each case individually. The child naturally feel the need to explore their environment, acquiring motor skills, mental and social. (7)
The modern childhood is marked by drastic changes. The space and freedom to play decreased significantly, a result of urbanistic processes that induce the need for security and the growing technological advancement. The school must be an active agent in this case, not only looking on the professional preparation of the individual, but also with other aspects such as autonomy, creativity and criticism. (8)
The psychomotricity is present in various children's motor activities, which contributes to the knowledge and mastery of your own body. Is an indispensable method for the global and uniform development of the child as its fundamental basis of learning. (2). Conceptual form:
The psychomotor involves every action performed by the individual; is the interaction between the psyche and the movements, seeking a global development, focusing on the affective, cognitive and motor aspects, leading the individual to an awareness of your body through movement. (8)
And yet complementary manner:
Psychomotor development is done through the evolution of the child, in its exchange with the environment, a conquest that will gradually expanding its ability to adapt to common needs, making it necessary for that, the physical space, the diversity of material, playful games, an airy and pleasant environment. (5)
As a science that studies the movement, the psychomotricity is a means that helps a better global development, for Wallon (2005) directly related to affection and emotion. The author even argues that the evolution of the child are a number of factors, including metabolic, morphological factors, psychosocial, psychomotor and psicoemocionais. The lack of development of one of them carries on learning disability. (9)
The physical aspect covers motor and sensory skills that the child needs to develop to survive and adapt. One of the characteristics of the child in the early years of primary education is the need of test your skills, especially. They become stronger, agile and have a greater control over their bodies. The children are happy to test their bodies and learn new skills. (10)
For Piaget, children are able to recognize and represent only the shapes you can rebuild effectively through their own actions. The Motricity plays essential role in intelligence before the domain of speech, which contrasts the positioning of Wallon. (11)
Le Bouch (1988) classifies the psychomotor development in three stages: body, body and body represented. The first stage covers the early years of life, of the 3 year 0, where the child has no self-awareness interconnected environment. Through his maturity and his experience, the child differs from their midst, whether discovering. The second step consists of three to seven years, being characterized by greater coordination of the child, where is aware of your body, being noticeable absorption of concepts such as time/space, top/bottom, among others. In the third step, from seven to twelve years, child development is no longer centered in your own body, thus perfecting their movements and their coordination. (9)
The learning process is a complex system, which involves a variety of skills. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that the child acquires prior to the literacy process, concepts that facilitate the learning of reading and writing. Is the psychomotor education, which requires intense assistance from the teacher, stimulating the child; and not only the Physical education teacher, but everyone involved in the teaching-learning process.
Mathew (2002) puts its positioning:
When the handedness of a child is not well established, the same demonstrates spatial problems, doesn't understand the difference between your dominant side and the other, don't you learn to correctly use the terms right and left, presents difficulty in following the direction of reading and writing graphics, can't recognize the order in a painting, among other disorders. Problems on space organization will cause difficulty in distinguishing letters that differ in small details, like "b" and "p", "n" with "u", "12" with "21" (right and left, up and down, before and after), face constantly in objects, not organize well your materials for personal use or your notebook; no respect for banks or write properly about the lines. A child with temporal structuring undeveloped may not realize time intervals, doesn't understand the before and the after, does not provide for the time you will spend to perform an activity, taking a long time on it and leaving, so for further. (12)
Similarly, Le Boulch (1985) asserts: "75% of the motor development occurs in the pre-school phase, and the proper functioning of this area will facilitate the learning process. ” (8)
In this sense, the teacher should have as a basis for its work, understanding that the child interferes with the environment through movement; Thus, it is important to know and understand the motor development and its stages, proposing so consistent and justified activities, creating resumes and designs for children to play, explore, create, feel and learn. (8)
1.1. Affective, cognitive, psychomotor development of children from 0 to 12 months
The child discovers the world through her body, exploring the most diverse situations and through them trying situations, realizing the environment. As the child develops, the more she comes in contact situations, the better control of your body, amplifying their perception. "Since the first day of life, the child develops continuously, and is by the movement that the child establishes the first forms of language. ” (8)
The gesture is the first instrument of social understanding and expression of the child. Actions like pointing, evoke, and start to replace the cry; the child gestures to express situations and actions that still can't verbalize, constituting an important mode of communication that predates the phonetic vocabulary. (8)
According to Rodrigues (1989), during the "I body" it is interesting to see that for each new sensation for a driving response different, so it is not possible to separate the psyche of Motricity. Child development is connected with the maturation of the nervous system. (13)
The inhibition of the reflections stage begins of births and extends to around one year; pr[…]imitive and postural reflexes are replaced by motor behaviors such as voluntary neuromotor apparatus of the baby is still in rudimentary stage, the volunteer movement is not very different, and although intentional movements seem out of control and coarse animal hair; If the baby wants to get in contact with an object, there will be movement of all hand, wrist, shoulder and even the trunk; the process of moving the hand, although volunteer lacks control. (14)
The baby's first movements occur by reflex activity, on the immediate environment, as the light reactions, to touch, to sound. The volunteer movement, primordial form, occurs through rudimentary movements, with stabilizers (control of head, neck and trunk muscles), manipulative (as grab and drop) and locomotores (dragging, crawling, and walking). In the cognitive domain, the child uses the same forms of behavior that other people have used. Since the first days of life, the actions of the child have their own meaning within the systematic social behavior, involving later speech. For Piaget and Vygotsky intelligence is the "ability to learn and renew the knowledge based on new concepts, thus surpassing the new situations. "(14)
It is essential to understand the movement of the child as language, allowing her to be free within the environment, allowing her the opportunity to transform, adapt, interact and create. (13)
Piaget asserts that "the affection and the development of intelligence are indicted and integrated, in psychological development, it is not possible to have two psychologies, one of affection and other intelligence to explain the behavior. "(14)
The affective aspect has influence on the intellectual progression, accelerating or slowing down the pace of children, according to the external factors provided to the child. The affective process is continuous and innovative, where feelings are tied directly to social values such as cooperation. (14)
1.2. Affective, cognitive, psychomotor development of children from 1 to 5 years
From the first years of life the child develops continuously, and as seen, the movement is one of the earliest forms of language. Is the motor skills that the child discovers the world of objects, being the body the first object perceived by her. (8) "is in the course of the first years of life that the real acquisitions in the various domains of behavior (affective, psychomotor and cognitive), since it is the stage at which most significant changes occur. "(13)
For Piaget, cognitive development stages, so synthesized, are these:
Sensory motor or practical (0 to 2 years): the child know the world through the actions that she carries on certain objects and observes the reaction of these. The actions are reflexes and manipulations. Preoperative or intuitive (2 to 6 years): emergence of language that represents pictures and objects. The thought is intuitive and egocentric. Operative-concrete (7 to 11 years): still need concrete to make the abstraction of his thought. Formal operational or abstract (11 years): the operation takes place through language. The reasoning does the survey of hypotheses and possible solutions. (14)
With a year and a half the child uses movement and tateio; with two years she developed through MIME, representing movements (engine noise, the direction of the car) without executing them. In the third year walk on the balls of your feet and jumps. Thus, achievement its autonomy, possessing greater field of laterality. (13)
According to Piaget, "the child of two years and four years does not form concepts, but preconceptions. She produces information about the world, but as yet unable to discriminate the properties of objects. "(13)
It is important to note, that as soon as the child is included in the school system she is modified especially so emotional, transposing the family bosom and making new friends. The period between 3 and 6 years is marked by the strengthening of motor skills and psychic already acquired. (14)
2. PSYCHOMOTOR LEARNING
The psychomotor can be revealed from the small gestures of a child, leaders put engines through activities that provide the knowledge and the body's own domain. (15). This learning method seeks to contribute to the formation and structuring of the body schema, in order to practice the movement at all times in the life of a child. Through the exercises and games, the child has fun, use their creativity and socialize. (16)
Since the beginning of the psychomotor development begins the socialization process, once the balance of the person can only be thought of by/and in the relationship with others. It is in this relationship, and in communication with others that the man takes place. (17)
The child who presents the psychomotor development delay, consequently will have trouble in reading/writing, distinction of letters, logical thought, among others. It is in early childhood education that the child experiences new sensations, organizes its concepts and search for new experiences. (2)
Within the educational system, the game is a good learning tool, adding exponentially to the learning process, in addition to influencing social relations. Piaget (1977) argues that the interaction of child motor skills, through touch, sight and hearing is essential for their integral development. The author argues that there is a pattern of actions and should be allowed students the diversity and complexity of various games, worked seamlessly with other areas of development. Psychomotor education seeks to prevent learning deficits. (15)
In the initial series that segregation acquires more force and more than 20% of the school population is marginalized by not purchasing the field of reading at the end of the year. Is no need to determine whether this failure arises from difficulties or global causes electives, socio-cultural or emotional. Before learning of the reading, it would be necessary to help the child to use the richest language and correct as possible. I've written is first and foremost a learning engine. Master the gestures of writing would be the muscle forces balance, flexibility and agility of each joint of the upper limb. Therefore, it is essential to fix the motor bases of writing before teaching the child to master the pencil. (14)
Physical education should be an open space of motor development, where the child can play and use your body language. The child has intensity in their movements, and the professional of physical education target teaching methods so that each student build their personality. (15)
2.2. Categories of behavior
Henri Wallon established development theory, where the understanding of various concepts directs the professor to the process of Constitution of the person, as the influence of the environment on the individual. By this theory, it is possible that the educator innovate your pedagogical practice, adding challenges to motor action and logic of the student. In Psychogenic theory of Wallon, the development process is the integration, two of its branches: integration body-middle and cognitive, emotional and motor integration. (19) the search will continue with a focus on cognitive, emotional and motor integration.
The cognitive domain is developed for the game, where the child comes into direct contact with reality, seeking answers to the various proposed predicaments. For Piaget (1992), the game goes beyond the cognitive context and requires that the child understands the concept of rule, acceptance of others and notions of loss/gain. These concepts will accompany the student from childhood to adulthood. (16)
The affection is the ability of human beings to be affected by the outside world, be it positive or negative. "The affective set offers the functions responsible for emotions, feelings and passion. (19)
The affective domain should be worked through playful collective practices, to put aside shyness, communication delays and the feeling of insecurity that many students have. Many children are in need of affective mode or completely protected, since normally the disinterest by the content taught in the classroom originates from organizational problems of personality, from the affectivity. (14)
Motor behavior is designed as the displacement of the body in time and space, based on the body balance. By Motricity, the feelings and emotions are expressed. (19)
The area is also known as motor engine. It involves learning and the combination of motor and cognitive acts, as well as the manipulation of objects and tools. Examples are the cycling and the game of football. The harmonic development of these three types of domains provides the integral development of the person. (3)
2.3. Motor skills
Motor skills are analysed continuously as executable task with parts of movement and cognition. A game of chess, for example, uses more than cognition movement; on the other hand, a football game takes much more physical strength than the mental. (20)
Fundamental motor skills start from two years at this age children already have complete power of rudimentary movements that are the basis for the refinement of the fundamental engines patterns. One of the stages of child development, fundamental motor skills are considered the largest and most important of them. This phase is considered to be a critical and sensitive stage, as this may result in changes that will determine the future engine of the individual. (21)
So teaching motor skills can be grouped as Act or task and performance quality indicator. The Act or "task are motor skills that require movement and must be performed correctly. "As an example, the pitch to a basketball hoop. (22)
Performance quality indicator is the synthesis of the degree of competence, and this is a personal characteristic of the performer. An example would be the professional basketball player on charging fouls in 80% of free throws executed. (20)
Go Tani (1989) States that children have a sequential pattern of growth, development and motor learning. Therefore, they should be oriented according to the characteristics of each age group, so they are provided their real needs and expectations. (15) the author also highlights that the experiences during this period of life are fundamental to the construction of their adult personality. (6)
Tani (2000) asserts that the acquisition of motor skills naturally is a dynamic and complex process, which sustains and is also the basis of integral child development. For this scholar, the engine development is a lengthy process and the more pronounced changes occur during childhood. That way, you have to be focused on the child, for the first six years of life are crucial in the integral development of the human being. (6)
2.4. Motor skills
In early childhood, it is necessary to provide children with a variety of motor experiences, so that the brain keep such actions and, subsequently, make them more complex and refined. In physical education, the playful exercises come with this role, because they work with the strength, agility, endurance and speed. In childhood's end, the maturation of motor skills requires stimuli, which are provided through games that combine the intense physical effort, improving the physical fitness of the student. (23)
Motor skills are components of physical performance, used to perform the most diverse everyday movements. They are integrated in a total of five capabilities: resistance, strength, speed, flexibility and agility. (23)
Resistance is the ability to withstand the physical and psychological effort over a period of time sufficient for the onset of fatigue, i.e. a high intensity effort is held and maintained for a period, however, you can't lose the effectiveness of implementation. (24)
The strength is the ability to transpose certain resistance, using muscle contraction. The strength is that you can perform actions such as jump and lift. Speed is the ability to perform high intensity actions in a short time, being characteristic of this ability discontinuous activities. (23)
Flexibility is also known as ability to range of motion, where a combination or all of them. Through the development of flexibility there is improvement in the technical implementation, which consequently prevents injuries. (24)
Finally, the agility is the ability to change direction so sudden, being widely used for pranks and collective exercises. The agility is closely related to the speed and strength, being them dependent. (23)
2.5. Movement pattern
The motor development of children must relate their individual characteristics (physical and structural) with the environment in which it is inserted or the task that has been proposed. These are determining factors for the acquisition of various motor skills, as well as for its refinement. (6)
Go Tani (1988) exposes the changes during the development stages, sectional and way not occur throughout the body at once. So, if the principle of continuity, in which the human being goes through several continuous changes throughout life. (25)
So that the child can reach certain levels of patterns of movement, it must be stimulated through information and experience experienced in motor field. That way, you can organize your knowledge, being stimulated effectively. The motor domain is also understood as psychomotor, because through this range of activities carried out by the child develops not only the motor aspect, but also the cognitive aspects. (6)
In order to simplify the study of motor development, Anita Harrow elaborates a taxonomy, encompassing a string of development starting from the simplest actions to specialised movements (movements, basic skills and perceptual reflexes, physical, non-verbal communication and specific skills) (26)
Gallahue and Ozmunn (2003) expose the fundamental movements are of fundamental importance and must be oriented towards skills acquisition, in a long process. The fundamental movements are divided by the authors in three stages. (6)
Initial stage: represents the first goal child oriented in an attempt to execute a fundamental movement pattern. The integration of spatial and temporal movements are poor. Typically the locomotores movements, manipulative and stabilizers of children two years of age are at the entry level. Elementary stage: involves greater control and better rhythmic coordination of fundamental movements. Mature stage: is characterized as mechanically efficient, coordinated and controlled execution. Typically, children have development potential to be mature stage close to the 5 or 6 years, most fundamental skills. (6)
The move action is essential for the biological and psychosocial development. Through the movement people interact with the environment, in which they are inserted, relating to other people, understand their limits and capabilities. The people who for several factors do not reach the mature pattern of fundamental skills are hindered further development level, i.e. during adulthood. (6)
3. PSYCHOMOTRICITY IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Currently, physical education designs full training students through human movement. The daily search for tools that help in school learning, and guided by the multidisciplinarity. Physical education and Psychomotricity current together, developing the children's intellectual and motor aspect. This performance is achieved in understanding the importance of inserting elements of psychomotricity in the school environment, aiming to become the global formation of the student. (27)
"The psychomotor work with children must provide the indispensable base formation in their motor development, emotional and psychological provided through games and fun activities that if you get hold on your body. "(28) Go Tani (1988) exposes that even being featured on an individual basis, these three areas most of the actions supported by the joint participation of them, however, there's always the predominance of one of them in relation to other. (26) the psychomotor education work is essential for the development of motor, mental and affective of the human person. The psychomotor as pedagogical instrument can be achieved through playful exercises and games, leading the person to raise awareness with subject and your own body. (27)
In an earlier time, the psychomotricity integrated into school physical education was assimilated only as an instrument of motor development. At the same time, the school physical education recognizes the human person as subject, with complex emotions and own shares. The relationship between Physical education and psychomotricity originates through the yearnings of the human being in relate and integrate the environment in which it is inserted, making it through actions and conscious movements, experiencing experiences at every stage of life. (27)
The physical practice should not be subject to the mechanical execution of the movement, but rather promote children's world-related exercises and leisure. The child uses your cognitive sense to observe how the action perpetrated is intertwined in the real world. Vigotsky (1998) exposes the human being is interactive and psychological functions are stimulated. (28)
Le Boulch (1982, 1983a, 1983b), in her studies, seeks to differentiate the Psychomotor Education of physical education. The scholar is opposed vehemently the mechanistic exercise and, mainly, the precociousness of sports training. Le Boulch argues that accelerate the physical process causes imbalances in the formation of the personality. The Psychomotricity, as understanding of the author was born of the failure of the traditional physical education meet the real needs of education. (29)
The professor, using the Psychomotor Education, must be attentive to children's needs and searches, allowing children to live experiences so that the pacing and the expansion of the concept. Inadequate stimulation during childhood causes numerous disorders during adulthood. The exercises proposed by the educator must consider the psychomotor functions (overall coordination, laterality, balance, among other previously exposed), seeking to associate them. During the games, especially the popular children's games, children are stimulated by innumerable psychomotor functions. (29)
Children should have the opportunity to move around during the physical education lessons, which preferably should be taught by specialized professionals, thus giving greater contribution to child's movement, as they have a more specific perception about human movement than other professionals. (25)
Martinez, Peñalver and Sanchez (2003) state that the basis of the overall development of human being is the motor aspect, and through it you can verify if the other functions are being stimulated too. The movement provides learning and allows live experiences, which have aims and objectives, improving the self-knowledge and the development of human skills. (28)
The intelligence and personality development of a child requires organization and structuring of the self and the world around you, that occurs from experiences and experiences that require a certain rationality and affectivity, which may occur, for example, in activities in the school environment. (28)
The current educational model must enter the psychomotricity in Physical education activities, to provide the learning environment a curriculum that is attentive to the motor, cognitive and emotional development of children, forming basic structures for educational tasks and for the future life of the minor. (27)
The human being, in her early years, systematizes knowledge through the search for new experiences. Psychomotor education is a supportive instrument in this process, since it develops aspects motor, and affective psychosocial. Through the playful games the child discovers his own body.
To observe the child in your games, you can see if there are any psychomotor deviation. Therefore, the fun and games should not be understood only as entertainment practices, but rather a way to promote the learning of various aspects, especially if performed in a motivating and enjoyable environment.
Psychomotor education provides that child can overcome various obstacles, finding themselves within the social environment. The joke awakens the desire for discovery and exploration, being direct channel so that the child can express their most varied emotions. During the physical education lessons, the teacher should not be guided by the execution of mechanical movements, but the exploration of the body as a whole.
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29 MELLO, Alexandre Mathew. Psychomotor: physical education and children's games. 6. Ed. São Paulo: Ibrasa, 1989
 Student of the course of physical education of College Patos de Minas (FPM) graduate in the year 2016.
 Professor in the Physical education course of the Faculty of Patos de Minas. Master's degree in education from the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.