FARIA, Bruna Barcelos; COSTA, Costa, Célia Regina Bernardes. Physical education and Leisure activity: the role of playfulness in child development. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1. Vol. 9. pp. 136-155, October/November 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959
- 1. HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF LEISURE EDUCATION
- 1.1 CHILDHOOD CONCEPT
- 1.2 THE CHILD AT DIFFERENT HISTORICAL MOMENTS
- 2 THE BODY, MOVEMENT AND THE PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
- 2.1 BASIC ELEMENTS OF MOVEMENT
- 2.1.1 BODY SCHEMA
- 2.1.2 COORDINATION WIDE
- 2.1.3 FINE MOTOR SKILLS
- 2.1.4 BALANCE
- 2.1.5 LATERALITY
- 2.1.6 SPATIO-TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION
- 3. IMPORTANCE OF LUDIC PRACTICES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
- 3.1 THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL, THE TEACHER AND THE FAMILY IN THE PLAYFUL
- 4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
Is through playful experiences the child knows and recognizes its own identity and it can be seen as unique, complex and individual. According to Garanhani (2002), on early childhood the body in motion constitutes the Basic array of learning by the fact gestate the meanings of learning, i.e. the child into what symbol can experience bodily, and your thinking is built, primarily in the form of action, roll, crawl, walk, run, watch, imitate, create, jump, spin and play make-believe , the child will building senses about the world, assigning new meanings to elements of reality and, also, by setting your personal and collective identity, in a process of cultural production. For being a component mandatory curriculum, physical education is an area that organizes, synthesizes, constructs and produces knowledge, based on goals and pedagogical principles. This research is part of how a work aimed at understanding the role of playfulness in child development through the practice of school physical education. The methodology used in this study was through research in scientific articles, Books, and Internet Sites. After the studies, it was possible to realize playful activities are essential ingredients in the process of growth, development and learning of children at this stage of life.
Keywords: Child. Physical education. Playfulness. Psychomotricity.
The playfulness is a theme that comes conquering space in the national panorama. The playfulness an activity focused on recreation and leisure, offers great contributions to early childhood education, favouring the learning, knowledge production and body improvement, developing aspects of emotion, to pleasure, to affectivity, health and welfare of the children in this stage of development.
According to Pires (2001) the playful part of the children’s world, through play child appropriates the world in a simple and joyous. The Playfulness is seen as a education integrated action and grounded in communication, language and natural movements of the child. She aims to standardize and perfecting global conduct of human beings, through the sensory-motor experiences, affective, cognitive, emotional, and social. To practise recreational activities, the kids will be developing their motor skills and capabilities for the benefit of its growth and development.
In this context the development of playful experiences in early childhood education provides a fun and educational learning, thus a positive factor in a child’s life, allowing you to learn, live and dream. The playful contributes significantly to the practice of body movement, including in the affective aspects-social, cognitive and physical to be developed pedagogical interventions.
Thus, this research is as a work that seeks to understand the importance of playfulness in early childhood education and its interfaces with the physical education. She has a qualitative character, because it aims to understand the role of playfulness in practice children’s motor, aiming at better performance in learning and recognize the basic elements of the movement, such as: body Scheme, motor coordination overall, and eye-hand, handedness, spatial structure, temporal structuring, among other functional aspects of motor development, highlighting the role of the educator in playfulness and child development.
So the playful is closely related to the practice of the physical education, because while playing children express their feelings, their emotions, their interactions, enhance memory and reasoning skills, so cheerful and pleasant, allowing the teacher a comprehensive analysis of the learner, aiming at the global development of the child at this stage of development.
The methodology used in this study will be the literature review, to search for articles published in the scientific data online, such as Google Scholar.
Data collection web-essay, held between February and October 2016, will be guided by articles published between 2006 and 2016; with the use of the keywords: playfulness, child development, recreational activity and physical education. For selection of the sources will be considered as criteria the bibliographies that deal with physical education, especially the playful activity.
To reach the expected results in the present through research will be analyzed and discussed, studies addressing all the benefits of playful activity inserted into the context of the school physical education.
1. HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF LEISURE EDUCATION
The word playfulness comes from Latin ludus, meaning game. Thus, the game is characterized as spontaneous movement, achieved through the action of play. The study of psicomotrocidade brought the playful as essential trait of human behavior, being a basic need of personality, mind and body. “In playful activity, what matters is not just the product of the activity, what her results, but the action itself, the movement lived.” (ALMEIDA, 2009)
Since the most remote times the human being produces culture, which is the set of symbolic codes recognizable within a community. The game, sport, dance and the fights have as common origin body representation, with playful features, which were incorporated by the modern physical education fit. (NATIONAL CURRICULUM PARAMETERS, 1997)
The Greeks and the Latins brought the first discussions about the binding of the toy to the child, either in ancient or modern design, the toy is characterized as the symbolic representation of the real world. Currently, the teaching practice that conceives the playfulness as teaching proposal aims to take the learner to social environment, knowing the world through imagination and assimilating rules through the games. (CINTRA, PROENÇA JESUINO, 2010)
Playful exercises provide a harmonious development of the child, for the game and toy involve a social conviviality, besides developing the affectivity and mental health. The playful contributes to the overall development of the individual, making in the process of construction and expression of thought. (CEBALOS et al., 2011).
The playful situations, competitive or not, are favorable contexts of learning, because they allow the exercise of a wide range of movements that require the attention of the student in an attempt to run them satisfactorily and appropriate. They include the possibility of repetition for maintenance and functional pleasure and opportunity to have different problems to solve. In addition, the fact that the game be a moment of very significant social interaction, social issues are motivation enough for the interest in the activity is maintained. (NATIONAL CURRICULUM PARAMETERS, 1997)
The playfulness has vital role in child development. The make-believe, of games, toys and games, is important in the formation of the child, ethical values and confidence in your learning environment. To overcome the barriers that games propose playful form, children recognize later how best to act in certain everyday situations. The fun and games are present in all stages of human development, being playful activity essential means of interpersonal skills, stimulating creativity. (IAVORSKI; VENDITTI JUNIOR, 2008)
1.1 CHILDHOOD CONCEPT
The word comes from the Latin “in childhood”, which means not and “Francia” which means speech capability. Thus, childhood is characterized by the absence of speech and the presence of irrational behaviors. Childhood contrasts to adulthood, because these irrational behaviors develop in the individual adult, with reason. (LIMA, 2009)
According to Michaelis dictionary (2016), childhood is the period of life, the human being, from birth until the beginning of adolescence; children in General. ” The Statute of the child and adolescent, in his art. Second, States that child, for legal purposes, is “the person up to twelve years of age” and “incomplete one between twelve and eighteen years of age. ”
Nowadays, it is noticeable the difference between the child and the other people because with the development of the education system, there was a separation by age group. Through natural determinations, people put meanings at every stage of life, determining their social roles. (Birth; BRANCHER; OLIVEIRA, 2011). Kramer (2007) complements:
Children are social and historical subjects, marked, therefore, the contradictions of the societies in which they are inserted. The child is not to be someone you’re not, but who will become (adult, the day you stop being a child). We recognize what is specific of childhood: his power of imagination, the fantasy, the creation, the joke is understood as cultural experience. (KRAMER, 2007 apud RODRIGUES, 2009)
Childhood is the period in which the child plays, satisfying their needs and interests through imagination. The playfulness of the games gives the child a reflection and reordering of his private world. The joke is the way of working of the child, to investigate the environment that surrounds it. (DALLABONA; Mendes, 2008)
The idea of childhood in actuality cannot be detached from the history of different views around the child contributed to her current condition. In other words, the concept of childhood has been built historically and reflects the values present in the society in different periods. (BERNARTT, 2009)
The definition of childhood is closely linked to its historical context and to look to the adult has vis-à-vis the child. The society is in constant transformation, each period in which the child is entered in the community highlights their social condition, not just a living being and biological. (Birth; BRANCHER; OLIVEIRA, 2011)
1.2 THE CHILD AT DIFFERENT HISTORICAL MOMENTS
Children have always existed, obviously, in all periods of humanity. However, it is the social/family treatment aimed at them that induces the concept of childhood in each period. (BERNARTT, 2009)
In antiquity, the economic structure brought about by the formation of first cities, gave rise to the first schools. According to Plato, the kids should start to be raised to seven years of age, participating in games under surveillance and in suitable location. The sport had high educational value, forming the character and childish personality. In this period also the first toys, assimilated as facilitators of movement; they were dolls, horses, bones and arches. (CINTRA, PROENÇA JESUINO, 2010). However, this ideal of childhood has changed:
From the barbarian invasions of the fifth century, toys leave completely to be evoked. Only a few rare texts that speak of children educated in religious institutions evoke bows and sticks so pretty inaccurate. (CINTRA, PROENÇA JESUINO, 2010)
The concept of childhood and its historical record were belatedly made, because the child in past centuries was not seen as an individual other than the adult. The existence of childhood as a stand-alone category occurred only between the 16th and 18th centuries. (Birth; BRANCHER; OLIVEIRA, 2011)
In the early stages of civilization, the children’s conditions were very poor, being the death of children something very common. The babies were born only if the head of household so determine, the abortion and enjeitamento of legal practices and common children. (BERNARTT, 2009)
During the middle ages, the child was seen as a “little adult”, performing the same activities of the elderly. Childhood was understood as a transitional state of life, in the absence of any special treatment meant to them, which favored the high mortality rate. When the child completed seven years was taken to the home of a strange family, aiming to learn domestic services, regardless of social class in which was inserted. The child was learning in practice. Ariès (2006) States that: “it was through service that master transmitted to a child, not his son, but the child of another man, the luggage of knowledge that I could have.” (AIRÈS, apud 2006 RODRIGUES, 2009)
During the middle ages, before the schooling children, these and the adults shared the same places and situations, be they domestic, or party. In medieval society there was no territorial division and activities on the basis of the age of the individuals, there was no sense of childhood or an elaborate representation of this phase of life. (Birth; BRANCHER; OLIVEIRA, 2011)
Families during this period were numerous, almost not existing bonds of affinity between its components. People lived on the street, at work or at parties and prayers. The child was seen as replaceable, being alarming the high rates of infanticide at the time. (2006)
During the modern age, the period of transition from feudalism to capitalism, there were significant changes in European society, which reflected the concept of childhood, family and school organization. The child became the family Center, being a source of joy and subject which were dispensed care and attention. (RAO, 2009)
The Renaissance brought this proposal of centrality of the child, as important subject within the social context, which will be trained and educated to be a good citizen, protagonist of his fate. “Recognized the specificities of childhood, then crack it and understand it in order to educate you. “(BERNARTT, 2009)
During the industrial revolution, children of lower classes were educated in a very basic, only for them to be preparing as workmanship of the many factories of the time. For the bourgeoisie existed secondary school, trainers of “heads”, that is, to teach those who would replace the owners of the factories. For these had higher education, in universities or in large schools. (RAO, 2009)
Today, children are educated from an early age, as most mothers need to leave them in day care or educational institutions to work. (Birth; BRANCHER; OLIVEIRA, 2011). The Federal Constitution of Brazil of 1988 proclaims as social right the school attendance of all children, free of charge. The change of this welfare-oriented prioritized the care to be taken with children, as well as the preparation of the professionals who will take care of these children. (BERNARTT, 2009)
Child-rearing experts say that currently, there is a very fine line that separates the adulthood of childhood. Social changes that mainly collaborate to the vast world of information that children have access through new technologies. (Birth; BRANCHER; OLIVEIRA, 2011)
Modern society is living a paradox. Childhood is well determined in theory, but in practice there is a difficulty of relationship with the infant populations. His childhood would be, in this context, disappearing, all as a result of violence, poverty and child labour, which remove the playful world of small; as well as the technology that enables the contact of the child with adult information, making living in an age that still is not yours. (RAO, 2009). Levin (2015) believes that childhood is not over, but children today have of adult concerns such as success and good performance. This is a radical change, renewing concepts of Jean Piaget and other educators/theoretical scientists.
2 THE BODY, MOVEMENT AND THE PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The psychomotricity is the science that has as object of study “the man through his body, particularly the movement.” (Corner; BARBOSA, 2010). Le Boulch (1982) conceptualizes the psychomotricity is a science that “studies the relationship between the human movement and the intention to carry it out, which occurs each other by joining the action on the nervous system muscles with the sensations and emotions of the individual.” (BARBOSA; SILVEIRA; OLIVEIRA, 2014)
The movements of the human body are present even before birth, being part of the individual even involuntarily. The movement’s survival, in the same way that the body needs water and food, the body needs to move as staying alive. In this way, since I was a kid, the human being uses movements to meet their basic needs. (PHYSICAL EDUCATION PORTAL, 2012)
The body and the gesture are essential to the construction of man, being the movements “know that we acquired without knowing”. The child, to be forced to be repeatedly with the static body, can develop disorders such as hyperactivity, child depression or even anorexia and bulimia. It is important to highlight that childhood over time became, being the child taken responsibility and maturing early. The movement encourages a healthy relationship with her own body, in addition to developing a pleasurable learning. (LEVIN, 2015)
You can also assume that the psychomotricity is the education of/by the movement, acting on the cognitive through the relationship between thought and action. The psychomotor also stands out as a tool or pedagogical method of teaching, especially of children, i.e. in pre-school children, in order to stimulate the body and mind. (Corner; BARBOSA, 2010)
The motor development is related to internal and external experiences of the human person, from birth to death. So, the engine development is unique and individual, occurring all the time. Advance work on psychomotor aspect during the initial series can influence positively in the actions of the person herself and with the other components of the social group, through the field of psychophysical capabilities, acting consciously, planned, and critical logic, according to their particular needs. (BARBOSA; SILVEIRA; OLIVEIRA, 2014)
2.1 BASIC ELEMENTS OF MOVEMENT
2.1.1 BODY SCHEMA
The body schema is your child’s ability to recognize their existence and his own body, able to separate your individuality. The movement is linked to body scheme, because it stimulates the knowledge of every part of the human body, including the nervous system, responsible for the sensory part. (Corner; BARBOSA, 2010).
For Wallon (1974) the body schema “is the relatively scientific and differentiated global representation which the child has his own body.” The body schema is indispensable for the formation of the child’s personality, resulting from the experiences and the sensations experienced. As the child uses his body, she builds your mental baggage. (EDUCATION PORTAL, 2013)
Le Boulch (1986) States that the Organization of the sensory aspects of the body is critical for child development and the initiation of its possibilities of action. With static or moving body, with other people or with instruments that are in the environment, the child establishes emotional relationships and emotional. (HAWK, 2010)
The notion of the body in psychomotricity does not evaluate its shape or its achievements, seeks another route of analysis which focuses more on study of his psychological and linguistic representation in its relations and inseparable with the learning potential. The notion of the body as a notion constructed by the child acquires meaning and a significance whose integration is at the base of the higher psychological functions. (FONSECA, 2012)
The body schema is divided into three steps: body lived (up to three years) are the first movements of the newborn, in virtue of the imitation of another move, where the child lived experience through research of the environment that surrounds; body realized or discovered (three to seven years) is characterized, in the words of Le Boulch (1986) as “function of reflection”, in which the child shifts their attention of the environment that surrounds to the own body, perfecting their movements; Finally, the body represented (seven to twelve years) understands the notion of body structure, where the child takes conscience of the parties that make up your body, being the mental representation of the image of the body, the cognitive aspect. (HAWK, 2010)
2.1.2 COORDINATION WIDE
“The overall coordination or broad Motricity is the simultaneous action of different muscle groups in the implementation of voluntary movements, large and relatively complex.” (BARBOSA; SILVEIRA; OLIVEIRA, 2014)
This coordination is dependent on postural control, and the handling and experimentation the person seeks its body axis, coordinating the movements in search for balance. Through the global motor skills, the child acquires various movements concurrently, primarily those everyday more like run, jump, roll and jump. (HAWK, 2010)
2.1.3 FINE MOTOR SKILLS
Fine motor skills is “the manual skill and manual dexterity which constitute a particular aspect of global coordination.” Through the skills acquired in the refinement of the movement of the finger, the child investigates the objects that make up your environment, acquiring new knowledge. (HAWK, 2010)
The hand, considered the power unit more complex than animal world, is largely the architect of civilization and, naturally, the architect of intelligence in children and in men. The hand became, in anthropological terms, a better and more effective means of exploitation from the outside world, and also of the own body, allowing the recognition of objects by texture, shape, temperature, etc. At the same time, made its instrument of hold, strong and precise, allowing manipulation of small objects with which created tools and utensil. (FONSECA, 2012)
Through the fine motor skills it is possible to handle small objects, drawing and painting. Through the development of precise movements and delicate child, there is also the refinement of skills that go with for life. (LOUREDO, 2016)
“The balancing brings together a set of static and dynamic skills, covering the postural control and the development of acquisitions.” (FONSECA, 2012)
The whole coordination of movement is sustained by the body balance, allowing the adjustment of man with his environment. The Centre of gravity should be on the axis of the muscle actions, supporting the body. The balance can be static (with just stand or raise your heels while keeping most of the sole in the soil); dynamic (like riding in normal driving on a predetermined location); and recovered (it is the position of balance after one oscillation). (HAWK, 2010)
“Is the ability to experience the movements using, for this, both sides of the body.” (BARBOSA; SILVEIRA; OLIVEIRA, 2014).
Ability to have notions of left and right, where there is a predominance, auditory and sensory-motor of upper and lower limbs. The two poles of the organism are complementary. The laterality of the person who owns the predominance of the right side (i.e., performs its functions more common with hand, foot and right eye) is called right-handed or homogeneous; If the prevalence is on the left side, the individual is left handed or sinister homogeneous; If the person has spontaneous dominance on both sides is Ambidextrous; If using the left hand, the eye and the right foot (or any other combination) is a cross-laterality. (HAWK, 2010)
2.1.6 SPATIO-TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION
“The spatio-temporal organisation is the ability of the individual must be situated and focus in relation to objects, people and his own body in a given space.” (JANSSEN, 2015)
The perception of the world, from the body of the individual, developing their perceptions of space and time. The development of these motor skills is very important during the initial series of elementary school, so that they form a solid foundation for later reading and understanding written language. (MEDINA; Pink; MARQUES, 2006)
The construction of the notion of space – time psychomotor is fundamental to daily life. Through the psychomotor stimuli, the child begins the process of literacy, in addition to find what’s left and right, above or below you, as well as in relation to the other person. (JANSSEN, 2015)
3. IMPORTANCE OF LUDIC PRACTICES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The playfulness is a current theme, which is at the epicenter of pedagogical discussions. The toy is the essence of childhood, which enables a wide pedagogical work. The play and the play promote the physical, emotional and mental health, intrinsic to the man being from the times immemorial. (Mauritius, 2008)
Vygotsky (2007) States that play “is a creative human activity, in which imagination, fantasy and reality interact in the production of new possibilities for interpretation, expression and action for children. “(RAO, 2009)
The game should not be seen just as a hobby, but as a process of development of the child within the school context. In this way, the child expresses his creativity by building your own. (Mauritius, 2008)
In the game the child has the opportunity to structure your body schema your relationship with space, expand the use of movement and stimulate their affection. In addition, the game and the game have the added benefit of working his frustrations in that it loses or WINS, the child needs to share collective moments to satisfy the desire to play and learn to live in a group. (Corner; BARBOSA, 2010)
Physical education is a subject quite accepted by students, especially when they are children. Modest & Rubio (2014) claim that the playful aspect is an important tool in the learning process. The method is even more effective in children, since children’s dreams mingle with the reality, which facilitates the use of thought, concentration, social, personal and cultural development, making the building process of thought.
In General, the playful develops cognitive aspects, social and affective engine. (CEBALOS et al., 2011). Children playing with matches involving teams dispute, discover participants of a social environment. (MODEST; RUBIO, 2014). To stop thinking individually, the smallest affective bond, approaching those that identifies, creating links, which often will be for life.
In addition to these areas, the playful exercises are active in cognitive and motor development direct. The child moves, jumps, turns, crawls, mimics, jumps … Uses your entire body a complete form. And also, for the resolution of the dilemmas offered by exercises, the small force mental expansion, developing your cognitivity. “It’s for all these reasons that the playfulness is a necessity of the human being at any age and can be seen not only as entertainment, but as learning.” (IAVORSKI; VENDITTI JUNIOR, 2008)
3.1 THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL, THE TEACHER AND THE FAMILY IN THE PLAYFUL
According to the National Curriculum for early childhood education, human care is to understand how to help each other to develop as a human being. Through the play, school educators and families can help children to develop their capabilities and potential, involving affective, social dimensions, children’s cognitive and motor. (CURRICULAR REFERENCE for early childhood education, 1998)
The playfulness, as above, provides moments of fun, but accurately is related to health, both physical and psychological. Within the school, in the discipline of physical education must be playful proposals to develop the body as a whole. (IAVORSKI; VENDITTI JUNIOR, 2008)
All children know at least a game or a game that involves movement. This Repertoire of cultural events can come from sources such as family, friends, television, among others, and is something that can and should be shared at school. It is essential that the student feels valued and upheld at all times of their schooling and, in the initial cycle, in which their links with that institution are establishing, the fact of being able to bring something of their daily lives, from personal experience, favors its adaptation to the new situation. (NATIONAL CURRICULUM PARAMETERS, 1997)
The teacher acts as a mediator. The playful activity and the student must connect. The students when fully understand the intent of the joke, and the use of the toy, enjoy more impactful results. According to the national curriculum Parameters, the teacher must have a multi-purpose character, working contents of various natures, always in dialogue with families and the community to develop a good work. Direct practice with the child requires observation, recording, planning and evaluation. (CURRICULAR REFERENCE for early childhood education, 1998)
The educational institution, at the time the motor function becomes an activity of the child, must be attentive to the space given to the everyday movement, incorporating various meanings. Students disciplined are not those who remain silent and still, but rather those who are mobilized to participate in the proposed activities. The playful expressive character should be understood as a natural manifestation of the child, which should be directed by professor, always in search of meet the needs of children. (NATIONAL CURRICULAR REFERENCE FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION. V. 3, 1998)
The physical education teacher can avail himself of the interdisciplinarity in the child’s learning, understanding what is being taught in the classroom and taking this issue to the Court, through cultural dances, sports and dynamic actions. Students progress in the search for knowledge when actively participate in the pedagogical process. (IAVORSKI; VENDITTI JUNIOR, 2008)
Playful activities are an important means to initiate changes of prevailing social values. From the perspective of the playful, Rico for personal development and for coexistence can be suitable for all teachers who wish to intervene in the reality of their students, making them subject able to adopt cooperation as a necessary practice for human interaction. (MATHEW; MOLINA, 2008 apud SANTANA, 2014)
In the educational environment, it is necessary that educators and families act together, respecting differences, avoiding conflicts and complementing ideas in the search for positive solutions. Within the early childhood education are many small children, being that it is essential to have a strong emotional component. The development of the child is coupled to an institutional environment of security, happiness and peace of mind. (CURRICULAR REFERENCE for early childhood education, 1998)
Brazilian law guarantees and drives the family’s participation the participation of families in the learning process of their children. It is part of the family the child in a healthy environment and affective. (Milk; GARCIA, 2008)
The school still playful in the grid is fragile and requires intense improvement. The research and the ongoing training of the Faculty Add to that playfulness is seen as collaborator of current teaching methods.
4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
After studies, it was possible to recognize that the playful this closely related to the practice of the physical education, because while playing children express their feelings, their emotions, their interactions, enhancing its capabilities of memory and reasoning, so cheerful and pleasant, allowing the teacher a global learner analysis, aimed at the overall development of the child at this stage of development.
It is important to highlight also the role of the school, the parents, the teachers in playful activities, provided the small key times of growth and development enabling them to assert as human beings, awakening the power of autonomy, but learn to live with rules and limits.
ALMEIDA, Anne. Recreation: playfulness as a pedagogical tool. Fitness cooperative, jan. 2009. Available in: <http: www.cdof.com.br/recrea22.htm=””>.</http:> Access in: 5 set. 2016.
BARBOSA, Caroline Barreto Brunelli; SILVEIRA, Silvia Helena Piantino; OLIVEIRA, José Eduardo Costa. Psychomotor and human development. Efdeportes, 19, paragraph 192, Buenos Aires, mai. 2014. Available in: <http: www.efdeportes.com/efd192/psicomotricidade-e-desenvolvimento-humano.htm=””>.</http:> Accessed on: 8 Sep. 2016.
BERNARTT, Madhura Mendes. Childhood from a socio-historical look. In: IX national education Congress-26 to 29, EDUCERE out. 2009. Anais … PUCPR. Available in: <http: www.pucpr.br/eventos/educere/educere2009/anais/pdf/2601_1685.pdf=””>.</http:> Access in: 7 set. 2016.
Brazil. Law 8,069 of 13 July 1990. Statute of the child and adolescent. Brasília, 2016. Available in: < http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l8069.htm=””> </>. Access in: 12 set. 2016.
______. Ministry of education and sport. Fundamental education Secretariat. Benchmark national curriculum for early childhood education: introduction. v. 1. Ministry of education and sport, Ministry of Basic Education. Brasilia: MEC/SEF, 1998. Available in: <http: portal.mec.gov.br/seb/arquivos/pdf/rcnei_vol1.pdf=””>.</http:> Access in: 12 set. 2016.
______. Ministry of education and sport. Fundamental education Secretariat. Benchmark national curriculum for early childhood education. v. 3. Ministry of education and sport, Ministry of Basic Education. Brasilia: MEC/SEF, 1998. Available in: <http: portal.mec.gov.br/seb/arquivos/pdf/volume3.pdf=””>.</http:> Access in: 12 set. 2016.
______. Fundamental education Secretariat. National curriculum parameters: physical education. Fundamental education Secretariat. Brasilia: MEC/SEF, 1997. 96 p. available at: <http: portal.mec.gov.br/seb/arquivos/pdf/livro07.pdf=””>.</http:> Access in: 12 set. 2016.
CORNER, Tony Rodrigues; BARBOSA, Fernando Sérgio Silva. Psychomotor applied to the development of body schema. Science and technology week of Ariquemes, v. 1, n. 1, 2010. Available in: <http: www.periodicos.unir.br/index.php/secta/article/view/63=””>.</http:> Access in: 7 set. 2016.
CEBALOS et al. Leisure activity as a means of child development. Efdeportes.com, Buenos Aires, 2011. Available in: < http://www.efdeportes.com/efd162/atividade-ludica-como-meio-de-desenvolvimento.htm=””> </>. 28 sea access. 2016.
CINTRA, Rosana Carla Gonçalves Gomes; PROENÇA, Michelle Alves Muller; JESUINO, Kenrick’s Dean. The historidade of the playful on Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach. Draft Cultural magazine, v. 1, n. 2, p. 225-238, cushion/MS,/dez.. 2010. Available in: <http: www.academia.edu/15662178/a_historidade_do_l%c3%badico_na_abordagem_hist%c3%b3rico-cultural_de_vigotski=””>.</http:> Accessed on: 8 Sep. 2016.
DALLABONA, Sandra Regina; Mendes, Franel Samson. The playful in early childhood education: play, play, a way to educate. Instituto Catarinense de post graduation, out. 2008. Available in: <http: www.posuniasselvi.com.br/artigos/rev04-16.pdf=””>.</http:> Access in: 7 set. 2016.
HAWK, Hilda torres. Psychomotricity in preschool: learning from the movement. 96 p. 2010. Dissertation. (Masters of science in health and the environment. UNIFOA, Volta Redonda, 2010. Available in: <http: web.unifoa.edu.br/portal_ensino/mestrado/mecsma/arquivos/30.pdf=””>.</http:> Access in: 6 set. 2016.
FONSECA, Vitor. Psychomotor observation Manual: psiconeurológica meaning of psychomotor factors. 2. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: editora Wak, 2012.
GARANHANI, Marynelma Camargo. Physical education in the early childhood education. Thinking about the practice: physical education and childhood. Journal of the graduate of the Faculty of physical education – Federal University of Goiás. Goiás: UFG, vol5, p. 106-122,/jun.. 2001-2002.
IAVORSKI, Joyce; VENDITTI, Rubens JUNIOR. The playfulness in the development and learning of the child in school: reflections on physical education, play and multiple intelligences. Efdeportes.com, Buenos Aires, Apr. 2008. Available in: <http: www.efdeportes.com/efd119/a-ludicidade-no-desenvolvimento-e-aprendizado-da-crianca-na-escola.htm=””>.</http:> Accessed on: 8 Sep. 2016.
JANSSEN, Daniela. Psychomotor: organizing timeline. 27 Aug. 2015. Available in: < http://danielajanssen.com.br/?p=”164″> </>. Access in: 7 set. 2016.
Milk, Akhil; GARCIA, Haydê Morgana Gonzaga. The role of the family and the school in school learning: an analysis on Escola Municipal José Theobald de Azevedo in Limoeiro-PE. Anais … Second meeting of teaching, research and extension of Faculdade Senac. Available in: < http://www.pe.senac.br/ascom/faculdade/edital/iiencontro/cd/o_papel_da_familia.pdf=””> </>. Access in: 12 set. 2016.
LEVIN, Esteban. The body helps the student to learn. Interview of Paola Gentile. New school, 2015. Available in: <http: acervo.novaescola.org.br/formacao/esteban-levin-corpo-ajuda-aluno-aprender-423993.shtml=””>.</http:> Access in: 12 set. 2016.
LIMA, Sandra Valenzuela. Concept of Childhood. Foundations of early childhood education, 2006. Available in: <http: fundamentoseducacaoinfantil.blogspot.com.br/p/conceito-de-infancia.html=””>.</http:> Accessed on: 8 Sep. 2016.
MALACHI, Monika Santos; RIBEIRO, Suely de Souza. The importance of playfulness in the teaching and learning process in the development of childhood. Psicologado, 2013. Available in: <http: psicologado.com/atuacao/psicologia-escolar/a-importancia-do-ludico-no-processo-de-ensino-aprendizagem-no-desenvolvimento-da-infancia=””>.</http:> Access in: 28 mar. 2016.
MAURITIUS, Juliana Tavares. Learn playing: the playful learning. Educational psychology, 2008. Available in: <http: www.psicopedagogia.com.br/new1_opiniao.asp?entrid=”678#.V9KZAlsrI2x”>.</http:> Access in: 7 set. 2016.
MEDINA, Josiane; ROSA, Greisy Kelli Broio; MARQUES, Inara. Development of the temporal organization of children with learning difficulties. Physical education magazine EMU, v. 17, no. 1, 2006. Available in: <http: eduem.uem.br/ojs/index.php/reveducfis/article/view/3377/2404=””>.</http:> Accessed on: 8 Sep. 2016.
MICHAELIS dictionary Brazilian Portuguese language:. 2016. Available in: < http://michaelis.uol.com.br/busca?id=”Ykw97″> </>. Accessed on: 8 Sep. 2016.
MODEST, Monica Cristina; RUBIO, Juliana de Alcântara Silveira. The importance of Playfulness in the construction of knowledge. Electronic journal of knowledge education, 2014. Available in: <http: www.uninove.br/marketing/fac/publicacoes_pdf/educacao/v5_n1_2014/monica.pdf=””>.</http:> Accessed on: 8 Sep. 2016.
MATTHEWS, Paula Louredo. Motor Coordination. Brazil School, 2016. Available in <http: brasilescola.uol.com.br/biologia/coordenacao-motora.htm=””>.</http:> Access in: 9 set. 2016.
BIRTH, Claudia Earth; BRANCHER, Roberto Vantoir; OLIVEIRA, Valeska forts. The social construction of the concept of childhood: some historical and sociological dialogue. UFSM, 2011. Available in: <http: coral.ufsm.br/gepeis/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/infancias.pdf=””>.</http:> Access in: 7 set. 2016.
Pires, Santa Marli. The playfulness as science. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 2001.
Website of the Gym, 6 mar. 2012. Available in: <http: www.educacaofisica.com.br/escolas/educacao-fisica-escolar2/educacao-fisica-os-movimentos-e-seus-beneficios/=””>.</http:> Access in: 6 set. 2016.
Education PORTAL. Body schema and psychomotricity, 4 Apr. 2013. Available in: <http: www.portaleducacao.com.br/pedagogia/artigos/42204/esquema-corporale=””>.</http:> Access in: 6 set. 2016.
RAO, Munawwar. Children and play. 2009. Monograph (post graduate), Decade of research and graduate studies, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Mesquita, 2009. Available in: <http: www.ufrrj.br/graduacao/prodocencia/publicacoes/desafios-cotidianos/arquivos/integra/integra_rodrigues.pdf=””>.</http:> Access in: 7 set. 2016.
SANTANA, Rafael France. Activities in physical education classes. 2014. Work of conclusion of course (graduation degree in physical education)-College of education and health sciences, Centro Universitário de Brasília, Brasília, 2014. 22 p. available at: <http: repositorio.uniceub.br/bitstream/235/5892/1/21273857.pdf=””>.</http:> Accessed on: 8 Sep. 2016.
SILVA, Luciana de Araújo, M.; Lima, Nagesh Jaslene. Scientific methodology manual for the preparation of scholarly works. 2. ed. College Patos de Minas-FPM. Undergraduate courses and Specialization. Patos de Minas, 2015.
 Student of the course of physical education of College Patos de Minas (FPM) graduate in the year 2016.
 Professor of the course of physical education of the Faculty of Patos de Minas. Master in Health promotion from the University of France.