NASCIMENTO, Josefa de Barros Barbosa do. SILVA, Miriam Maria da. MARONES, Bruno. Contextualizing the ludic in the classroom: the importance of playing in early childhood education between 03-05 years. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 06, Ed. 10, Vol. 01, p. 72-95. October 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/contextualizing-the-ludic
This study aimed to investigate the importance of playing and toy in the teaching-learning process, analyzing the conceptions that educators have about the ludic in the education of children. The research field was in a Municipal School in Jaboatão, and had three teachers as participants. Where we use a qualitative research, in which we prove that games and toys provide development in all aspects. The results indicated that playfulness contributes in a positive way in the formation of the child, in the construction of new knowledge and in the healthy growth, that this practice when inserted in the classroom can promote changes in behaviors, transporting moments of affection over time, as well as those who play learn to build a culture of solidarity, leaving individualism behind and allowing healthy coexistence.
Keywords: The toy, The game, Teaching learning Child development.
The current work addresses the issue of playing as a source of development and construction of knowledge in early childhood. It is known that the child is a being in formation and it is necessary to receive stimulation throughout early childhood education, as it is a time when the subject learns values about morality, respect and, above all, grows as a human being. This was one of the reasons that awakened us to deepen the study in the light of the playful action in the formation of the individual, his discoveries and the way of acting in society -RCNEI, (1998).
This study has the general objective to investigate the importance of playing as a fundamental tool in the learning of early childhood education students, thus the specific objectives: to historicize early childhood education in Brazil, investigate the concept of ludicity and also analyze the contribution of ludic activities in education childish.
The theorists presented in this study, Antunes (2012), Kishimoto (2006, 2011), G. Brougère (2010), Linn, Susan (2010) and among other scholars reveal that toys and games provide moments of great joy, In addition to being a social fact that allows children to learn in a pleasant and healthy way, it is through play that they can learn about different paths, for coexistence in society and the construction of new knowledge, and it will certainly be through playing that they are educated. resilient subjects.
Playfulness in early childhood education enables meaningful, creative and inventive learning, as it provides the exchange of knowledge in a pleasant way in which the child can understand the rules during play and, certainly, they are activities that promote skills, physical, cognitive, motor, in addition to contributing to acceptance and respect for norms, contributing to social life, affectivity, creativity and the relationship with oneself and with others, gradually providing the formation of participatory, reflective, active, cooperative beings, occupying their place in society, in addition to favoring freedom, autonomy, knowing only that they are playing. Playing is important because it boosts learning processes, developing imagination and invention, intensifying and allowing development, promoting growth through play, helping in the teaching-learning process.
Toys and games are essential in children’s lives, because those who play develop and grow with more freedom, building a branched world of possibilities, side by side with the ludic. Wallon (apud BROUGERE, 2010, p.104), argues that.
A brincadeira é todos os comportamentos de descoberta da criança. Porém os adultos brincam com as crianças. A criança entra progressivamente na brincadeira do adulto de quem ela é inicialmente o brinquedo, se envolve em atividades que tem forte teor cultural.
It is argued that, at first, the child serves as a toy for the adult, in which they play with them, giving rise to a playful action and, with this attitude, the game is being built and the child gradually learns to play, entering the game and, therefore, their behaviors and discoveries originate in this culture as a whole, and learning occurs precisely when understanding and mastering, and then the child plays, interacts, communicates with the other and then reproduces the previous experience, carrying the development motor, sociocognitive – emotional and affective.
It is known that toys are part of the child’s daily life and, since ancient times, it has contributed to the development of humanity that over time gained colors, shapes and textures, a manipulable object that children love to interact with, it is certainly in play that feeds children’s intelligence and, probably, their perspectives, providing opportunities for new relationships and interaction in the environment that surrounds them. In addition, games are very important tools to be offered to the subject from an early age, especially in early childhood education. (BROUGÉRE, 2020).
The playful culture cannot be forgotten, it must be inserted in the school space, and come full of meaning, as well as represented by playing. It is necessary for the professional who works with younger children to keep in mind how relevant play is in the teaching-learning process, understanding and understanding that the exchange of knowledge based on play motivates and encourages the child to learn and develop joking, that playfulness will not be just a simple game, but it permeates playing. The playful role favors fun, joy and pleasure, the toy is the mediation of any learning that satisfies the subject in his growth, feeding his universe and contemplating the learning process, gradually allowing the construction of criticality. (KISHIMOTO, 2011).
Based on the National Curricular Reference for Early Childhood Education, when it says that “playing favors children’s self-esteem, helping them to progressively overcome their acquisitions in a creative way”.
The teacher of this age group must realize that play is essential in the child’s development in all aspects and not limited to working it in the classroom. Therefore, we list the following question: What is the Importance of Playing in Early Childhood Education?
It is known that children like to play, so the teacher must resort to their creativity, developing playful activities, because it is in playing that the child learns to live in a group in solidarity, strengthening bonds of friendship and expanding their knowledge of the world. And probably, building a path of trust with the other, taking the experiences lived over time.
Playing is a path that does not choose an age group, on the contrary, children interact amid so much play and toys, it is analyzed that playing is children’s language that gives rise to ideas with children and in this way, they learn by playing , since this phenomenon in the hand of a child is never something finished, it usually gives rise to a new activity, or even another toy, it is noticed that the playful culture is the focus of union between the children’s universe and enabling the strengthening of friendships, the construction of values, experiences, harmonious coexistence and affection for the other person.
Toys and games are of great value in people’s lives, especially younger children, because those who develop while playing grow and learn happily.
It appears that playing proposes new possibilities to the subject, who seeks to participate and interact with the environment in which he is a part, play is a culture that emerged side by side with the evolution of society and certainly continues to advance today.
Incorporated in this context, it is believed that, based on the theme, The Importance of Playing in Early Childhood Education between 03-05 years old? As well as, in the knowledge of the current literature and, in the bibliographic and field research, making it clear how playing is beneficial to the teaching-learning process.
The contribution of games is children’s language and that is why they are actions of experience, communication, of fun moments, in which the subject recreates, reinvents, builds, discovers, learns, dreams, elevating, motivating and sharpening the child’s curiosity, enabling others understandings such as: group activity, social interaction, in addition to providing development in all aspects.
Thus, it is hoped that the current research can contribute to a better understanding of the importance of toys and games in the learning process and especially in early childhood education. May this work also serve as a support tool for future trainees who decide to investigate this theme.
Methodology is understood as the organization of strategies with the objective of guiding the study in the most diverse stages. For Andrade (2010, p.116), “Methodology is the set of methods or paths that are followed in the search for knowledge”. We decided to choose this approach, as we aroused interest in knowing, in an attentive and careful way, the arguments of several theorists and researchers presented throughout our training, such as: Kishimoto, (2006 and 2011) G. Brougère, (2010), Antunes, (1012), Linn, Susan, (1010), and among others, who presented us with valuable knowledge about the importance of playfulness in the teaching-learning process. The approach is qualitative, it is characterized by being an investigative activity, flexible, considering subjectivity, where subjects cannot be quantified. (TRIVINÔS, 1987).
This approach aims to investigate the relevance of play and toys in early childhood education.
The database was based on a field approach, according to Andrade (2010, p.112). “Field research is based on observation of the facts by collecting data on the spot”. And the selection of the bibliography on the subject, which will provide the necessary data for the realization of the article. The bibliographic research refers to the paper source, whether primary or secondary, where books and other documents are used Andrade (2010). Having in hand the works that could be useful and the data collection that had been carried out in a municipal school in Jaboatão, it welcomes a reduced audience of students, kindergarten and elementary school I. It has six classrooms that work in two shifts, morning and afternoon. We decided to carry out our research in this school because we know the institution and because it is close to our residence.
The instrument used in the current approach was a semi-structured interview that we used paper and graphite to transcribe what was said, as the interview was simply written down as the interviewees’ words. According to Andrade (2010), the interview “is an effective instrument for collecting reliable data for the elaboration of a research, as long as it is well elaborated, well carried out and interpreted”. This type of approach requires certain care, for which the interviewer must organize the material necessary for data collection. The work was carried out with teachers who work in the municipal early childhood education network in Jaboatão, all graduated in pedagogy working in the area for more than ten years, aged between 35 and 40 years and had as techniques the observation and analysis of the data that were interpreted from the questions that we asked the participants, three teachers, so named, who work in the early childhood education network in Jaboatão.
CHILD EDUCATION IN BRAZIL
Law No. 9394/96 in its art. 29, Law on National Education Guidelines and Basis.
A educação infantil é compreendida como primeira etapa da educação básica e, tem como finalidade o desenvolvimento integral da criança de zero a cinco anos de idade em seus aspectos físicos, afetivo intelectual, linguístico e social, complementado a ação da família e da comunidade.
It is known that the motivation that the child first receives from the family is important for their development during this stage, it is crucial for the integral formation of the subject, and must respect the characteristics of the age group and also the cognitive, physical, affective and emotional capacities social, seeing childhood as a historical being in development capable of developing through the stimuli received from the environment that surrounds it.
However, it is known that it was not always like this, that early childhood education happened, according to the studies of researchers, Pinheiro et al, (2014, p.73).
No início do século passado, no Brasil o que tínhamos eram as chamadas “creches” que visavam atender as crianças de mães que trabalhavam fora de casa e o atendimento envolvia basicamente a alimentação, higiene e segurança física tendo assim um caráter puramente assistencialista apenas.
It reflects a feeling that at the beginning of the 20th century, children received only elementary care for their survival, being limited only to an education that did not aim at transforming social reality. Kishimoto (2011, p.21) asserts that:
Cada cultura tem maneiras de ver a criança de tratar educar. Entre as antigas concepções, a criança, vista como homem em miniatura, revela uma visão negativa: a criança é um ser inacabado, sem nada específico e original sem valor positivo.
It is noticed that the child was not seen as such, but as a small adult, being unable to think living in a non-child world. But this vision of childhood, the one that suffocated, retracted minimal, that received purely moral education, through religious educators creating irrational beings impossible to develop a critical spirit. This reality changes over time.
The Federal Constitution of 1988, early childhood education came to be understood as a necessary and right of all, from that moment the child is included in an educational policy followed by a pedagogy for transformation.
Since the Federal Constitution of 1988, the Statute of Children and Adolescents of 1990 (ECA) and the LDB Law of Guidelines and Basis of National Education, early childhood education includes children from zero to five years old, who see this stage as essential for childhood development. Bachilard (apud KISHIMOTO, 2011, p.22), “considers the images that survive from childhood as the result of two elements: memory and imagination”. It is understood that remembrance and idealization are populated in the playful culture, feeding fertile thinking. The child in this perspective is a being in full development, with their perceptions, characteristics, interests, senses, creativity and building their perspective of the world.
The child before the laws presented above is seen as a historical, social being and, in full development, through this perspective society becomes more aware of the importance of early childhood coexistence, promoting education for citizenship, aiming to make each subject a transforming agent. According to Kishimoto (2011, p.22). “Childhood is also the age of the possible. One can project onto it the hope of change, social transformation and moral renewal”. The child is seen as a symbol of transformation and the light of renewal in Kishimoto. Thus, in order to educate people with a democratic spirit and who will contribute to the good of society, it is also necessary to reflect deeply on the history of each subject, defined by Pinheiro et al. (2014, p.105). “Educating for citizenship is adopting a posture, making choices. It is to awaken awareness of rights and duties”. It is analyzed about the aforementioned thought that educates so that the other meets justice, respect and more relevant duties, it is necessary to cultivate education for the exercise of citizenship, because it is understood that citizenship will only be built if educate in citizenship.
PLAY AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT
It is verified, in the face of the speeches, that toys and games emerged with the aim of helping man in the interaction with the environment and, in his development, the child who plays when small is happier and learns to gradually perceive the value of objects ( toys), Vygotsky (apud KISHIMOTO, 2011), in his research asserts that.
Só brincando é que a criança vai começar a perceber o objeto não da maneira que ele é, mas como desejaria que fosse. Na aprendizagem formal isso não é possível, mas no brinquedo isso acontece, porque é onde os objetos perdem a sua força determinadora, a criança não vê o objeto, mas lhe confere um novo significado. (p.68).
It is perceived in an axiomatic way that objects when I fell into a child’s hand are worth and mean something else, because it gives another meaning and, this same comes to life and even another denomination, where the gestures speak while the child plays and imagines, symbolizing each toy, when she has a different material in her possession, her imaginary bubbles always looking for something different from what she wants it to be. Playful activities can allow the construction of new knowledge and changes, as it creates real situations in the thinking of those who play, in addition to the formation of values, therefore, toys and games are spaces for learning. According to the National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Education, (1998).
No ato de brincar, os sinais, os gestos, os objetos e os espaços valem e significam outra coisa daquilo que aparentam ser. Ao adotar outros papéis na brincadeira, as crianças agem frente à realidade de maneira não literal, transferindo e substituindo suas ações cotidianas pelas ações e características do papel assumido, utilizando-se de objetos substitutos. (p.27).
It is analyzed that, at the time of games and toys, they are actions that reveal something different, because it is by playing that the child travels in the world of imagination and discovery, allowing them to play the roles they chose to play, traveling through time and building values that only games and games can offer you. As Piaget says:
As culturas lúdicas estão intimamente ligadas à sequência dos estágios divididos por ele e acompanha o desenvolvimento da inteligência do indivíduo o brinquedo é um mundo repleto de representações, que representa o carinho e a imitação, (2011, p.25).
It is known that advances are identified by what the subject does best, because at each stage he gradually develops and, of course, games and games provide for growing together.
Still reflecting on the above thought, games bring in their nature an analytical potential, stimulate student learning with a focus here on early childhood education, they are tools that can be approached with various topics such as colors, animals, fruits and among others contents. That’s why playing is necessary and the subject learns from a very early age the values of each object and that the really cool thing is to play in harmony with others. According to the National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Education (1998).
O estabelecimento de um clima de segurança, confiança, afetividade, incentivo, elogios e limites colocados de forma sincera, clara e afetiva dão tom de qualidade da interação entre adultos e crianças. O professor, consciente de que o vínculo é, para a criança, fonte contínua de significações, reconhece e valoriza a relação interpessoal. (p. 49).
It is verified that the playful activities awaken different knowledge in the child, because they observe, participate in the games and, it is in this lullaby by which the little ones acquire and improve their cognitive abilities, socializing and interacting with the environment that surrounds them, also realizing the sincerity and the quality of interaction between the authors, adult and child is a positive point for child development. According to Piaget (apud ALMEIDA, 1974).
As brincadeiras tornam-se mais significativas à medida que a criança se desenvolve, pois a partir da livre manifestação de materiais variados, ela passa a reconstruir objetos e reinventar as coisas, o que já exige uma “adaptação” mais completa. Essa adaptação, que deve ser realizada pela infância, consiste numa síntese progressiva da assimilação com a acomodação. É por isso que pela própria evolução interna, os jogos (brincadeiras) das crianças se transformam pouco a pouco em construções adaptadas, exigindo sempre mais do trabalho efetivo, a ponto de nas classes elementares de uma escola ativa, todas as transformações espontâneas ocorrem entre o jogo e o trabalho. (p.25).
It is verified that the child who has resources that probably help to explore his creativity through games and games, both social and cognitive, will be an adult without difficulties to find his way and, even better, he will enjoy doing his work with pleasure and dedication. With toys, children internalize values, relating harmoniously, both with people around them as well as with objects and naturally with the environment. For Kishimoto (2011).
O uso do brinquedo/jogo educativo com fins pedagógicos remete-nos para a relevância desse instrumento para situações de ensino aprendizagem e desenvolvimento infantil. Se considerarmos que a criança pré-escolar aprende de modo intuitivo, adquire noções espontâneas, em processos interativos, envolvendo o ser humano inteiro com suas cognições, afetividade, corpo e interações sociais, o brinquedo desempenha um papel de grande relevância para o desenvolvê-la. Ao permitir à ação intencional (afetividade), a construção de representações mentais, (cognição), a manipulação de objetos e desempenho de ações sensório motoras (físico) e as trocas nas interações (social), o jogo contempla várias formas de representação da criança ou suas múltiplas inteligências, contribuindo para a aprendizagem e o desenvolvimento infantil. (p.40- 41).
The educational toy is understood as one that contributes to the healthy development and, the games are manifestations in front of the object, (toy) the game is, therefore, something that is related side by side with the toy, where the child plays interacts of the life and meaning to each piece, and the games are related to what is developed in the act of playing, “make-believe”, the wheel games, music and among others. Toys, games or educational games are delight activities, chosen of their own volition, or even when they assume the educational function, the cool thing is that they are great tools for the teaching-learning process, especially with early childhood education. Almeida (2003, p. 33) argues that: “the content of the toy does not determine the child’s play, but the act of playing that reveals the content of the toy”. It appears that it is in playing that the subject makes discoveries, developing skills, physical, cognitive and among others. Endorsed by Aries (apud KISHIMOTO, 1978).
Identifica o brincar como uma especialidade da infância na iconografia de tempos passados, renomados pintores radicados no Brasil mostraram a imagem da criança brasileira em suas maravilhosas telas, na obra ilustrada de Jordão (1979), denominada A Imagem da criança na pintura brasileira, destaca-se o brincar como típico da criança… De pôr a mão nos objetos, como brinquedos, instrumentos e entre tantos outros. (p.77).
In view of the above report, playing is characteristic of the child, it is a merely childish language and that, with each new game, a contagious emotion, therefore, a formation crowned with positive aspects, which involves the child appearing in the face of socio-cultural interaction and with objects that is part of their universe, triggering the game and enabling new experiences, action support and playful attitude.
Children love to play and it is through it that the subject will be able to promote true friendships, living different relationships, where there is a playful environment, without a doubt there is also joy, smiles, happiness, this sound, sharpen the color of the environment and the environment space, whose decoration is toys and games, with a view to successful development and skills from the first days of life. Playing stimulates imagination and creativity, encouraging the learning process.
THE GAME AND THE CHILDISH EDUCATION
For Kishimoto (2011) the game is not an easily explained activity, as the term game can have different understandings depending on the sociocultural context, since when talking about game, one can be referring to games for adults, children and even games even with animals, telling stories, hopscotch, playing role-playing games, building something and among an immensity of games, which I try to use the same name certainly has its particularities. It is understood that the game is an object that represents something, allowing the child to make this representation, imagining, creating and reinventing situations (drawings, images), allowing reflection, socialization, group coexistence and the formation of ethical people from very early on.
In our approach, the teachers revealed that they used activities that involved games and play, since they are instruments that enable the subject’s socialization, so using this category is to motivate the subject to overcome obstacles, losing shyness and strengthening friendship ties. We then verified that playing is a link that embraces cooperative relationships and encourages child development.
Still discussing with Kishimoto (2011), in the game of pretending the great presence of fanciful situations, in dominoes the rules allow the movement of the pieces, playing in the sand sculpture simply for the joy and pleasure of feeling the sand slipping through the hands, filling molds and emptying requires the satisfaction of manipulating the toy, these actions promote manual, cognitive and social skills to perform them.
The game is a type of game in which the child internalizes various knowledge and skills, giving possibilities to participate in the games, where he will gradually understand notions of rules, enters the game, waits for his turn, shares moments and understands the right of his partner, both yours and the other person’s, knowing that he will be able to participate in the next match. It is by playing and playing that the child goes from one phase to another, exercising more specific movements, using the senses for this, manipulating with his hands everything that is within his reach, moving objects, loves to tear, in an intelligent communication, improving his coordination and learning concepts creatively. According to Antunes (2012).
Os jogos em linhas gerais envolvem… O reconhecimento de objetos diferentes. Permitindo associação, comparação, padrões e relacionamento entre eles. A partir dos três anos de idade. Toda criança possui diversas noções de espaços, produto do mundo que explora e que progressivamente, vão permitindo a criação de formas de representação (imagens, desenhos, palavras) desse mundo exploram conceitos de quantidade, tempo, causa e efeito, utiliza símbolos abstratos para representar objeto concreto, passando a sugerir o uso de habilidades na resolução de programas lógicos e utilizando diversas peças (lego) para resolver desafios que envolvam a construção de objetos. (p.22-23).
It is understood that in the face of games, children learn to value themselves and also demonstrate value for their peers, making feelings sprout, harmonizing the group and interests with friends, it is a topic that contributes in a satisfactory way to overcome the obstacles that may arise during play and, learning to play, exploring children’s intelligence, in a dynamic endowed with meaning. And, that the growth of the subject permeated with games and games, motivates the embalming and the reach of other knowledge, making the child conquer his autonomy when going from one stage to another. The teachers conclude that:
Os jogos trazem grandes contribuições na aprendizagem infantil, a criança si sente mais segura de se mesma, aprende a trabalhar em grupo desde cedo e seu desenvolvimento frui facilmente, passando a entender e respeitar regras na primeira infância, favorecendo de forma positiva no desenvolvimento da criança, tanto no contexto escolar, como também na relação com a comunidade, adquirido identidade de valor e promovendo amor ao próximo.
According to G. Brougère (2010). “Play is playful interaction” Playing with games has its importance, as it is analyzed in this context that contributes to the formation of citizenship, and the construction of values and critical and reflective subjects. The game is something challenging and thought-provoking, since it is during the activity (game) that they learn to solve possible problems that may arise in everyday life.
THE PLAY OF PRETENDING
According to Correa (2013).
O amigo imaginário é uma forma de jogo simbólico. Esses jogos são expressões espontâneas que a criança usa para tentar entender os papéis dos adultos. Ela reelabora as experiências pelas quais passou, alterando-as para atender a desejos, vontades, interesses e necessidades. O faz de conta é valioso para o equilíbrio emocional, pois dá aos pequenos a chance de transformar a realidade, seja para resolver ou compensar dificuldades, seja para levar magia para o cotidiano. (p.20).
It is noticed that the child, when creating a friend through the imaginary, is trying to understand the world of adults, revealing and representing the real. Linn Susan (2010), in her studies reports that:
Certo dia estava a conversar com alguns adultos, em uma roda de conversa e de repente surge duas garotinhas, ao brincarem mergulham na fantasia, elas corriam e diziam uma à outra: corre, corre que La vem a Bruxa, sem se quer perceber os adultos que os cercava, a exuberância e a alegria daquelas criaturas eram algo digno de admiração. O fato de causar tanto prazer é razão mais do que suficiente para brincar, ocupar posição tão elevada em minha lista de paixões. Mas há muito mais. A capacidade de brincar é um mecanismo de sobrevivência. Muitos especialistas em desenvolvimento infantil concordam, por exemplo, que, brincar é o fundamento da exploração intelectual. (p.26).
The author goes on to present: “I appreciate and value this aspect of play”. In a deep analysis, it is understood that: the exploration of play is contagious, it’s good, it causes laughter, from the perspective of Susan’s studies, playful activities when inserted in the children’s context, true joy springs on the child’s face, they gain curves , conquer bridges and become something inexplicable, and consequently only feel the dimension of contentment, being able to understand how the game relates to the beauty and health of the mind, traveling in a starry world carrying imaginatively in social life. During our approach, the teachers revealed that.
O brincar de faz de conta contribui na formação do imaginário, da invenção e da participação de papéis diversificados, esse tipo de brincadeira, incentiva a compreensão da vida adulta, já que a criança ao brincar de faz de conta passa a representar outra realidade saindo do real e vivendo um mundo de fantasia e imaginação, pois a criança cria ,recria ,inventa, com isso o processo de aprendizagem ocorre em meio às brincadeiras, desenvolvendo o espírito cooperativo, auxiliando a imaginação, a aquisição da linguagem, aprendendo a lhe dar com os possíveis conflitos do dia a dia, além de construir amizades que levam para toda vida.
In the educators’ dialogues, it is clear that they have a positive perception of pretend play, that this game gives the child the possibility to understand the lives of more experienced people, sharpening their curiosity. To Linn Susan (2010).
O faz de conta ou a brincadeira de fingir, que entendo por criar personagens de fantasia, imaginar diferentes realidades e transportar-nos para mundos imaginários diferentes daqueles em que vivemos. O faz de conta das crianças tem raízes na experiência únicas que elas têm com pessoas e eventos. Quando a oportunidade de brincar surge, a brincadeira aflora naturalmente nelas e serve como uma experiência primaria essencial a auto reflexão e expressão. (p.26-27).
It is analyzed that imaginary play promotes coexistence at different times, when the child plays doctor, treadmill and among other functions that this category can provide, develops cognition, social affectivity of the individual. Piaget apud Kishimoto (2011 p.65-66). “When playing, the child assimilates the world in his own way, without commitment to reality”. The toy in this children’s universe gains meaning, and who names it is the child, thus giving it different meanings. During our field research, it can be seen how much the pretend play contributes to the formation of critical beings, as it is possible to see in the dialogue of the teachers below.
O faz de conta contribui na formação do imaginário, da invenção e da participação de papéis diversificados, esse tipo de brincadeira, incentiva a compreensão da vida adulta, já que a criança ao brincar de faz de conta passa a representar outra realidade saindo do real e vivendo um mundo de fantasia.
In the course of the research, we verified that the educators have a conception that this type of play allows the construction of the imagination, making the subject can play multiple roles, walking in a real world of enchantment, motivating the understanding of the daily life of more experienced people.
THE TOY AND THE PLAY
The toy is an object that acts and interacts with the child in the face of the variety of opportunities, that the subject of analysis is child development, G. Brougère (2010), with that the toy is an instrument that builds a space of interaction with the environment, since it is the result of society and traces of a culture that involves children in environments.
The toy, a relaxed article, still dialoguing with G. Brougére, is a communicable source, providing a different destination, because when the child reaches a toy, it becomes a game. From this point of view, the ludic object is understood as an educational dimension, of motivation where the potential of each being is discovered and leveraged, probably those who play show their intelligence. In the light of the studies by G. Brougére (2010), toys and games are learned actions, which one learns to play by playing with the other, from the stimuli received from the environment that surrounds this child and, certainly, the set of these interactions is that forms the understanding of the playful culture. G. Brougére (2010) asserts that:
O brinquedo, em contrapartida, não parece definido por uma função precisa, Trata-se antes de tudo, de um objeto que a criança manipula livremente, sem estar condicionada às regras ou a princípios de utilização de outra natureza… O brinquedo é um objeto infantil… Com certeza podemos dizer que a função do brinquedo é a brincadeira. (p.13).
The above thought is reflected and it is verified that the role of the toy is not something linear, which is serious without mobility, not going further, the toy has the power to walk on these factors, since it is a palpable object that the children free themselves and give different meanings to a playful piece, giving it constructive value, the basis of its development is the toy’s function. For the game in this context is only possible with the presence of the object (toy).
Plays are crucial factors in the teaching-learning process and, throughout the playful activities, it is possible to offer objects that can awaken intellectual relationships, encouraging the child to build and rebuild new knowledge, raising their curiosity and developing attitudes, which involve good times, because it is in the face of games that the child can reveal feelings according to the experiences lived in their routine. It is in the use of toys that children turn their free time into a huge creation of knowledge, at this moment the role of the adult in front of this pedagogical resource, which will be to emphasize the rescue of the time of children’s play. The subject through playing has the possibility of saying what he cannot say directly, with the playful the child has this opportunity to communicate, especially in early childhood education, revelations can be highlighted here through drawings, gestures, For example, being able to share their experiences in front of their own illustrations, it is known that in this context, playing is attributed to a free and spontaneous character, according to G. Brougére (2010).
Com seu valor expressivo, o brinquedo estimula a brincadeira ao abrir possibilidades de ações coerentes com a representação: pelo fato de representar um bebê, uma boneca bebê desperta atos de carinho, de troca de roupa, de dar banho é o conjunto de atos ligados a maternagem. Porém não existe no brinquedo uma função de maternagem; há uma representação que convida a essa atividade num fundo de significação dado ao objeto num meio social de referência. (p.15-16).
It can be reflected that the toy encourages and assists with regard to meaning and its representation, in which the child who plays mother and daughter, the toy becomes the daughter while the child himself conquers the role of mother, with this task the play becomes more and more true in the child’s imagination, so play is a builder of knowledge and skills, it is thought that the subject still small when playing, playing roles, is at the same time developing, language, motor coordination and visual perception, interacting with the universe and fulfilling their desires through their experiences. Still with G. Brougère (2010).
A infância é consequentemente, o momento de aquisição de imagens e de representações diversas que transitam por diferentes canais. As suas fontes são muitas. O brinquedo é, com suas especificidades, uma dessas fontes. Se ele traz para a criança um suporte de ação, de manipulação, de conduta lúdica, traz-lhe, também, formas e imagens, símbolos para serem manipulados. (p. 42).
If we analyze the consequences of this understanding, the toy as social learning allows the relationships between images, symbols and materials are sources that allow observation and discovery, motivating in the formation of the behavior of playing and representing and providing opportunities for mastery and grasp of these symbols.
DATA COLLECTION, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The current work had as data collection a field research, where we used as a collection instrument a questionnaire that contained four open questions, with the contribution of a group of three teachers who work in the municipal network of Jaboatão. The educators work in early childhood education for more than 10 years, and are licensed in pedagogy, so we believe that they were prepared to dialogue with our inquiries; the participation of the teachers was of great value for the improvement and implementation of the study.
The educators were involved in our research, because we realized that they liked the theme a lot, for adopting the playful in their pedagogical actions and, for this reason, they were able to efficiently answer the questionnaire, offering important and enriching knowledge for the work in focus, outside a group participation where three visits were necessary for the conclusion of the data collection and, from that moment on, the data were analyzed. And, we came to a perception of how much play contributes to child development, that the toy is a primordial tool in the teaching-learning process, acting positively in the construction of new knowledge and discoveries. G. Brougère (2010, p.88-89).
Entretanto, o brinquedo é mais do que um instrumento de brincadeira. Traz para a criança, não só um meio de brincar, mas também imagens, representações, universos imaginários. Ele estrutura o conteúdo da brincadeira enquanto a criança brinca.
In the thinking of G. Brougère, the toy is a fundamental part in the freedom of play, with Kishimoto apud Penteado, (2011, P.189) “play is playful in action”, Kishimoto understands that one should cultivate the play of child, the freedom to play, because it is the moment when the child represents, imagines and reveals knowledge, opening doors to a multiplicity of relationships and reflection.
The teachers revealed during the discussion that the games encourage children to interact with each other, learn to relate, stimulating imagination, motivating creativity, socialization, in addition to inviting the child to enter a world of representation and construction, conquering gradually their self-esteem, as we can see in the speech of the three teachers below.
O lúdico é importante, pois contribui, auxiliando no processo de ensino aprendizagem em todos os aspectos, cognitivo, motor, social e na afetividade, contribuindo para a construção da autonomia. É uma forma positiva já que o brincar desperta na criança a vontade de aprender, estimulando sua criatividade, criticidade, e com isso desenvolve seu lado criativo e inventivo, digamos que o brincar é uma ponte que caminha, guiando para as descobertas.
It can be seen from the educators’ report that playing is a valuable resource and serves as a basis for seeking new knowledge. It is then verified that, just as one learns to perform a task, the game is also an action built in the socio-cultural environment. The toy in this sense is an object with definitions, so it has a strong cultural value (BROUGÈRE, 2010).
The teachers demonstrated in the discussions that when the child plays, picks up an object (toy) to start a game right away, it symbolizes creates, interacts and with that happens to learning in the midst of playfulness, because, through play, the child grows and learn with more confidence and joy.
This research was of great value, because it can be seen how much play contributes to the teaching-learning process of younger children, and that toys and games are essential in the development of skills. In the studies of the theorists presented in the course of this work, especially G. Brougère, we changed concepts about playing and toys. We realize that playing is a learned task, since one learns to play in the sociocultural context, because depending on the degree of incentive, this result will be more or less positive in the formation of ethical subjects, who can act in a respectful way for the well-being of the community society. While the graceful object, consequently, enables the game, as it triggers different situations and representations.
Throughout this study we can research and analyze the relevance of playing in early childhood education, this work had as its main theme, contextualizing the Playful in the Classroom and sub theme. What is the Importance of Playing in Early Childhood Education between 03 – 05 years old? It is verified that the playful action when offered to the child in this age group is essential in the growth and development of the subject.
It can be seen quite clearly that when the child learns by playing he finds a pleasant and joyful universe. Pleasure takes care of each boy, infecting everyone, and the path to school is traveled side by side with joys and the desire to get to the school environment soon, because the child knows that when he arrives at the school space he will find several fun activities that he will learn by playing and, probably will not give up going to school or studying.
Playing makes fantasies come true, and the child’s conception is like a great river, which is fed through the waters, which flows into it when walking along a large trail, sharpening the imagination and curiosity of small children, strengthening their memory and opening doors to the world of discoveries and invention.
We verified that the game is a fundamental tool in the teaching-learning process, bringing contributions in socialization and in the construction of concepts contributing to the growth of the person, who plays usually invites someone to participate in the game, and the child hardly accepts playing in the kitchen interacting only with the object, when there is another person nearby. Playfulness certainly proceeds from imaginary moments, in the same way it leads to a norm. (BONTEMPO apud KISHIMOTO 2011). It is considered a way of devising the role-play. The ludic has an engaging, joyful character, collectively that leads to participation. The importance of the act of playing goes beyond simple distraction, giving the possibility to learn to organize and socialize, building lasting relationships and transporting friendships to adulthood. It is thought that toys do not bring colors randomly, these objects have bright, spicy, flashy colors in order to trigger the child’s cognitive process.
It is analyzed that every child likes when talking about toy and play close to them, it is noticed that all of them are radiant and, with a smile stamped on their face, pleasant to be observed. Pedagogical actions or teaching activities in early childhood education institutions must be systematized in the face of play, wanting to emphasize the playful theme, in the teaching-learning process of children, it has and should be addressed periodically, opening wide discussion and becoming inspiration for the work with the fun culture and, that new ideas will emerge expanding the repertoire of toys and games, that can open a range of trust between all, making children happy and healthy, that they build images in each social context according to their way of life be of, communicate.
Therefore, let’s say that it is in playing that we find the route to success and the search for a great person, as a professional, someone who nurtures or captivates the relationships in which they are part of his life, bringing him and making him enjoy pleasure, comfort, friendships, consideration, affection, love and many other accomplishments, which can be expanded in the conquest of spaces, respecting and being ethical in their attitudes. The games are sources of joy, they go beyond learning, enabling the path of the present and aspiring to a harmonious future.
In his research Ribeiro (apud KISHIMOTO, 2011), O gracioso enables the playing subject of cultural contents in which jocosity. Discussing with thought, the games reveal other playful activities, because from one of these actions the child gradually builds his own learning and certainly the formation of concepts. The graceful object tends to provide aspects with regard to the learning process during the first stage of basic education in the fun construction of the promotion of graceful culture, since those who play learn confidently.
It is thought that when each object appears at a given moment and, through its exploration, it will have a different meaning in the child’s daily life. It is noticed that it is in the course of entertainment that the individual tends to exercise his power to launch himself into different movements of mutations and experimentation of each symbol, regarding each configuration. In a brief analysis, the toy is impregnated with the constructive culture, a toy that starts to represent another reality before the active manipulation of the individual over the toy. Valuable tool for the child’s development process, especially here between four and five years old.
In the light of the current study, it can be clearly perceived since those who play when they are small allow themselves to new experiences, discoveries and horizons. Play invites both adults and children to live together and share the same effort, planting the seed of affection. Soon he walks towards a great friendship, in a world full of colorful imagination, in which affection is united with playing and, if it becomes a pleasant universe, in developing, participating and learning in this way, the subject is preparing to act in the corporation in an active and sociable manner.
It is reflected, therefore, that the pedagogical practice in which playing is thought and applied in the children’s context tends to enable vigorous socialization, minimizing the culture of individualism, allowing dreams and probably fantasizing more and more loudly, bringing out the thoughts of each one of them, motivating creativity and transforming this child into a more generous and kind person who understands from a very early age the true value of things, be they, from the simplest to the most elaborate, and also who is able to plant the seed of kindness by contributing to change each person’s world.
With this work that we have just carried out, it is expected that it can serve as a source of research for future researchers, and that they will use it as a theoretical foundation, changing concepts regarding the theme in early childhood. It was through this study that we strengthened and fortified our knowledge, firmly showing the importance that playing is necessary, and this pedagogical practice must be reflected and applied in the early childhood education classroom, because in this perspective, those who play show the competence of intelligence and, therefore, the child expresses his ideas and feelings, it is worth noting that toys and games act in a collaborative way, in the maintenance and strengthening of child development, creating resources so that the potential of early childhood is reached and , that it is possible to plan the pedagogical action through educational play.
Playing is something that is learned in social interaction, it is interesting that it is taught by playing, collaborative essence, the guiding thread and source of knowledge, and that children can be guided at their tender age, that their dreams are possible to be fulfilled , since playing is incorporated into the teaching-learning process.
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APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE
Joaquim Nabuco College.
This research had as its theme Contextualizing the Playful in the Classroom: What Importance of Playing in Early Childhood Education between 03 to 05 years. The questions and perspectives were developed by Josefa de Barros Barbosa do Nascimento Mirian Maria da Silva, students of the Pedagogy course at Recife unit.
Age range of respondents 35 – 40 years.
They have been working in the area for over ten years.
They are all graduated in Pedagogy and have graduated.
What is the contribution of toys and games to child development?
What is the contribution of games to learning?
Do you work with games in the classroom here at school?
What is the contribution of pretend play to learning?
4. National curriculum framework for early childhood education.
 Graduate of the Degree in Pedagogy at Faculdade Joaquim Nabuco – Recife.
 Graduate of the Degree in Pedagogy at Faculdade Joaquim Nabuco – Recife.
 Advisor. Master in Education from the Federal University of Pernambuco; Specialist in History of the Northeast from the Catholic University of Pernambuco; Graduated in History from the Higher Education Foundation of Olinda.
Sent: June, 2020.
Approved: October, 2021.