ARAUJO, Marli Da Silva. SANTOS, Nícia De Oliveira. Analysis of dreams and feelings: Case study in a Municipal School of Imperatriz – MA. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 10, Vol. 20, pp. 59-75. October 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/analysis-of-dream, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/analysis-of-dream
This article aimed to better understand the ways of thinking and dreaming of 4th and 5th grade students, from a Municipal School located in the rural area of Imperatriz – MA, who live under the conditionality of poverty. A brief analysis of poverty was made in Brazil and Maranhão, we noticed that many changes have been taking place in Brazilian public policy, in order to change the reality of many children and young people in poverty or extreme poverty. We cite Brazilian education as an important historical landmark. We highlight poverty in public schools and the possibility of these students learning and creating important knowledge for future life. Education and guarantees of citizenship of children and adolescents is seen as a form of collective construction. The research was developed in a qualitative approach, with phenomenological focus, and semi-structured interviews were used in data collection. For it was necessary to give the students the opportunity to express themselves freely about their dreams and desires for a future without poverty. We had contact with the reality of the students and their families, we know the school where the students study and a little about their dreams, desires and vision of a future without poverty. Given the relevance of the theoretical framework, we reviewed documents and authors dealing with the subject, such as: Arroyo (2015), Freire (2005), Leite (2017), Pinzani and Leão Rego (2015), Reis (2011), among others.
Keywords: Dreams, feelings, poverty, education, citizenship.
We can say that children and young people in poverty, go through moments such as childhood, youth and form a diverse social group, live and live with different social groups with diverse desires and behaviors. While children in situations of social vulnerability see in education, the possibility of leaving the cycle of poverty in which they live. Education as a path of change and school as a social institution, proposes to students the exercise of citizenship, through the social experiences of daily life, in order to adopt attitudes and behaviors that allow improving the living conditions of thousands of impoverished.
The school guarantees the right of children and young people to know their own stories, to feel proud of being part of a collective, which, even if exploited and oppressed, never ceases to fight for their dreams, in the conquest of a personal and professional future, basic right of every human being. The experience experienced in the school environment is fundamental for the construction of knowledge and for a better life, because systematized learning is a path that every human being needs to pass, in order to feel able to develop any role before society.
Faced with poverty and social inequality that many people experience, the importance of education as a social process is a global activity with all individuals in society. Thus, the education of the less favored was essentially contemplated by the authors Paulo Freire, Miguel G. Arroyo, Valquíria Leão Rego, Alessandro Pinzani and other authors who deal with this subject. The emphasis received reaffirms the right to quality and free public education for all people, in an attempt to correct social inequalities.
This study aimed to understand the reality regarding the aspects of poverty and social inequality, which experience children, adolescents and young people from many municipal public schools in Maranhão. Emphasis was placed on the Municipal Friendship School located in the rural area of Imperatriz – MA. Through the authors studied, we were able to better understand the issues involving the poverty of many brazilian families, especially in the Northeast region, with emphasis on the State of Maranhão, where cases of poverty are more evident.
The reference study is organized in topics such as: introduction; brief analysis of education in Brazil, and the guarantee of citizenship of children, adolescents and young people; poverty analysis in Brazil, Maranhão and poverty in public schools; methodological path and analysis of the collected data. Given the relevance of the subjects studied during the modules of specialization in Education, Poverty and Social Inequality, it was necessary a more careful investigation on the dreams and feelings of children and adolescents who experience situations of poverty in the school where these students study.
2. BRIEF HISTORIO OF EDUCATION IN BRAZIL
Brazilian education began with the arrival of the Portuguese and the royal family in Brazil in the colonial period, by means of the Jesuits in 1549. The first actions of the Jesuits were to create the schools of first letters, with the intention of catechizing the Indians, the pedagogical method they applied was to scolástica and humanism, as educational values. While the Jesuits were responsible for education in Brazil for many years. In that sense, Ghiraldelli Jr. (2001) mentions that:
Already in the mid-twenties, Brazilian intellectuals interested in education were able to read, among other authors, such as the American philosopher John Dewey who, in 1896, in the United States, created the University Elementary School, coupled to the University of Chicago. So John Dewey was an educator, social reformer, and philosopher of American pragmatism. As an experimental field of new education or new pedagogy or, even, the pedagogy of the new school (GHIRALDELLI JR, 2001, p. 22).
In this perspective, Brazilian education went through the processes of institutionalization of education, by the military regime, until the democratic transition. That is, there were several paths until reaching the twentieth century, which after a long period of turmoil in Brazilian politics, had several educational reforms. Ghiraldelli Jr. (2001) he also comments that, “[…] the first republic that lasted forty years (1889-1930) did not come through a great popular movement, as well as the second republic (1930–1937)”. In this sense, we can cite as an example the Manifesto of the Pioneers of New Education, which enhanced the notoriety of some intellectuals already known and recorded in the field of social prestige, the Pedagogical proposals of the thirties.
From the educational reforms and the process of modernization and redemocratization of education, and other Brazilian constitutions such as 1934 and 1946 for example, the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 was created and approved, which meant the guarantee of various social rights to all people. Among these rights are the gratuity of public education in official educational establishments, compulsory and free elementary education for children from the age of four, university autonomy, among others as art specifies. 205 of the Federal Constitution (1988):
Education, the right of all and the duty of the State and the family, will be promoted and encouraged with the collaboration of society, aiming at the full development of the person, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work. (BRASIL, 1988, p. 121).
Therefore, these rights are reaffirmed in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education – LDB, Law No. 9,394 of December 20, 1996, in which an exclusive chapter was reserved to deal with education, as the right of all citizens and the duty of the State for the full development of the person. So that education itself is already a necessary condition for the exercise of citizenship, and all people regardless of their specificities have their rights guaranteed. O Art. 2nd LDB states:
Education is the duty of the family and the State, inspired by the principles of freedom and the ideals of human solidarity, aims at the full development of the student, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work. (BRASIL, 1996, p. 53).
According to Freire (2005), in class society there is an oppression between oppressor and oppressed, where the oppressor (class social system) that dehumanized imposes itself as being more, in the search for the maintenance of its interest and power over the oppressed. On the other hand, the oppressed (class of the less favored) as being less, seeks change, humanized social transformation. That is, it seeks to break with alienating processes before the oppressor. “Men humanize themselves by working to make the world, ever more, the mediation of conscience that coexist in freedom […]” (FREIRE, 2005, p. 11). So that men are liberated in communion, because the process of liberation is not only about activism, it is necessary to reflect for the transformation to actually happen. Moreover, education is a transformation of a life without prospects, it is freeing itself from the social impositions that society imposes on the less favored.
In this same sense Arroyo (2010) tells us about the various unequal, the poor people who live on the streets, the maid and other people who are victims of social inequalities. So that it can be incorporated into the plural school, because the goal is to make these students feel that the school is their place. The school is the place where all students should feel welcomed, a human place. “Society demands that schools and their masters solve a problem produced in these social, political and economic contexts […]” (ARROYO, 2015, p. 10). That is, teachers would have to go far beyond the school walls, and not be pointed out as if they were solely responsible for the moralization of the student.
2.1 EDUCATION AND CITIZENSHIP
It is a consensus that education and citizenship go together, it is a collective and constant construction that requires a true participation of society, it is the welcome of all without specificities, it is the concern with health, education, environment, basic sanitation, with the improvement of people’s lives, the needy, social inclusion, among others. Citizens should not settle in and expect governments to act alone on the interests of an entire nation, or just talk about the country’s political problems without acting. As Tonet (2005) mentions, it is the conviction of articulating education with the process of building citizenship, because this process contributes to the structuring of a society of effectively free and fully citizen men. That is, it is to discuss and help in the search for solutions to social problems, because the true citizen is always in the search for a fairer society.
According to Marshall (1967), citizenship requires “[…] a direct sense of inclusion in a community, based on loyalty to a civilization that is common property.” Citizenship is, therefore, the relationship of rights and duties that individuals have before society, not only social and political rights, but the right to information and a dignified life, because only then does one have a democratic, free and fairer society.
According to the Federal Constitution of 1988, the term democracy and citizenship have become inseparable, but for many poor people these terms exist only on paper, because the democratic rule of law does not exist. For many Brazilians, regardless of the situation in which each person lives in society, citizenship, democracy and equity are not given, but conquered. Such an understanding from the sociological point of view, the term citizenship goes far beyond basic rights such as voting, is a constant collective social construction.
In this same sense, Pinzani and Rego (2015, p. 9) mention that:
There are several ways for societies and their institutions to understand citizenship and, consequently, democracy itself radically interferes with the status of citizenship as a political principle indispensable to democratic life. The set of rights that make up the prerogative complex of a citizen and, what is fundamental, the concrete realization of these rights in social life are the true indicators of the degree of depth of a democracy.
Citizenship is also the constant concern with a quality public education for all the people who need it. The school as a social institution, together with educators have the mission of finding alternatives to mediate with the less favored, in the conquest of their rights and dreams of a better and fairer life, especially the right to an education that includes everyone. “The existence of citizenship as a historical situation necessarily presupposes a complex of political, social, economic and cultural condition[…]s” (PINZANI; REGO, 2015, p. 9).
3. BRIEF ANALYSIS OF POVERTY IN BRAZIL AND MARANHÃO
According to the understanding of the concepts of poverty, we sought to know the ideas of several theorists who approach the subject, each one has a different perception, but there is a sense of poverty in a way that both define as the deprivation or absence of basic needs. , and minimal access to health, education, basic sanitation, housing policies, among other rights essential to people’s lives. “In a more immediate and generalized conception, poverty means lack of income or little income, a state of deprivation, of deprivation, which can put the human condition at risk […]”. (LAVINAS, 2003, p. 29). That is, they are situations experienced by thousands of Brazilian families.
According to IBGE-Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2019), in the period from 2012 to 2019 there was a slight improvement in the levels of shortages of many families, but there is still a large number of people living below the poverty line, “[…] Maranhão was the (UF-Federative unit) with the highest percentage of people with income below the line, (53.0%)”. (IBGE, 2019, p. 59). In counterpoint with the other states, which have higher incomes. What is evidence is that although there have been many advances in recent decades related to social policies, there is still a large number of Brazilians who live in a state of full need. Because for many there is a lack of decent housing, treated water, food, work and other basic rights.
Regarding the economic structure 2017 to 2018, IBGE verified a slight recovery in some social indicators analyzed in the country. However, “[…] the lowest rates of these indicators were concentrated in the North and Northeast regions, the lowest of them in Maranhão (R$ 607)”. (IBGE, 2019, p. 49). That is, Maranhão is the state where thousands of people live in conditions of extreme poverty, with an average of eight reais per day. This ends up preventing many adolescents and young people from leaving to study to work and help support their families. So that the dreams of a better life get more and more distant, because they tend to continue in a state of full need.
According to Arroyo (2015, p. 10): “[…] the image of poor people as absent from values is also reinforced by the media, by showing poverty associated with violence and crimes such as the consumption and sale of drugs, thefts and thefts”. So governments have inserted forms of organization that has been improving the lives of many children and young people. Initiatives such as modernization and the fight against corruption have helped prevent diversions of public resources aimed at improving the quality of life of thousands of poor families. However, much still needs to be done to improve the social reality of people living in a state of full need in the country, especially in the State of Maranhão.
Arroyo (2015) also mentions that society and public power must recognize that poverty and social inequality exist and persist, it is a historical problem and should be recognized and seen by all as the limit of survival, because they are people who do not have enough to feed three times a day. “The fact that poverty, whatever its degree or definition, is always assimilated to the problem of poverty, either ideologically and morally, or at the political and economic leve […]l” (LAVINAS apud DESTREMEAU; SALAMA, 2002, p. 108). So the causes and consequences of poverty are varied and complex, which require survival strategies.
3.1 POVERTY IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
The poverty experienced by many people in society is a challenge for public policies in order to minimize the social inequalities existing in the country, but every Brazilian citizen can make his contribution with incentives and education to the less favored, with the aim of alleviate social inequalities in public schools. Because unfortunately, the poorer the person the less disbelieving it becomes, because poverty is a social, economic and political issue. So that Arroyo (2015, p. 10), “[…] is considered to be lacking in values, it is seen only a solution to educate them in the values of work, dedication and perseverance, since childhood”.
In any case, the community in general may require the public authorities to provide a quality education that includes all school-age children and adolescents, in order to educate them not only in the sense of moralizing them, but also to show the necessary conditions and means of these subjects to leave the conditions of victimized from the absence of public power. Arroyo (2015) also comments that public schools are full of children, adolescents and underprivileged young people and this reality cannot be ignored. For thousands of these students, besides being poor, are almost always mostly black, which causes even more high rates of discrimination. Students from poor families on the outskirts, many still work to help support their families, others are influenced by criminals to commit petty theft and other more serious crimes.
All schools today should be a space that would enable all students and students to have access to relevant and meaningful cultural projects. Because giving these students opportunities to learn and create knowledge is a positive way to work on each other’s dreams and feelings, and broaden their prospects of dreaming of a future without poverty. That is, it is very important to promote an education that rescues the interest and needs of the students as a whole, resizing the importance of educational work, its relationship with the world of work and the experience of citizenship.
The permanence of students and students in the school is one of the conditions to remain in the Bolsa Família Program, even though many families are still in a state of need. “School attendance is a necessary but not sufficient condition to ensure a good education […]” (PINZANI; LEÃO REGO, 2015, p. 25). Because the school needs to be quality, children need good study conditions and especially have the support and follow-up of parents or guardians. Without this help it is practically impossible for the child to obtain good results, to be able to advance in studies and to have a level of education sufficient to have more chances in professional life.
Arroyo (2010) emphasizes that popular collectives are once again the problem, threatening the social order. Because the State and its political institutions offer themselves as a solution in order to maintain the reactions of the collectives, made so unequal within the limits bearable for social, political and school security. “In order to keep under control not so much the production of increased inequalities, but the reactions of collectives made unequal, including children, adolescents and young people […]”. (ARROYO, 2010, p. 13).
4. METHODOLOGICAL PATH
From the literature review on poverty, social inequality, education and citizenship, a qualitative field research was carried out with a phenomenological focus. “In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to reduce the distance between theory and data, between context and action, using the logic of phenomenological analysis, by his understanding of phenomena, description and interpretation […].” (TEIXEIRA, 2009, p. 137). That is, it is at this stage that decisions should be made about areas that need further exploration and aspects to be emphasized, based on a confrontation between the theoretical principles of the study and what the researcher learns during the research.
In view of the nature of the research, the choice was made for data collection through direct observation, workshops, informal conversations and semi-structured interviews with closed and open questions, due to the flexibility of having only a basic script, without a rigid sequence of questions. Thus, the interviewees should discuss more freely about the proposed theme, in which the questions were more significant in the course of their answers. In this sense, Triviños (1987, p. 146) comments that:
The semi-structured interview, while valuing the presence of the researcher, favors the description of social phenomena, besides offering all possible perspectives for the interviewee to achieve the freedom and spontaneity necessary, enriching the investigation.
This means carefully analyzing the records of the semi-structured interview conducted with the research participants. In such a way that the research comprised in research activities and understanding of the perspectives of the future, dreams, education and guarantees of citizenship of children and adolescents under the conditionality of poverty. The research was carried out at the Municipal School of Friendship located in the rural area of Imperatriz – MA. The participants of the research were 40 students from the 4th and 5th grade classes of elementary school, the average age of these students was 9 to 11 years of age.
4.1 ANALYSIS OF COLLECTED DATA
Students were worked on in the classroom, practical activities with workshops, research with oral and written expositions with closed and open questions, the theme involving dreams, personal and professional future, poverty, education and citizenship. The choice of these students was not random, because they were already able to have their own thoughts and desires about a better future. As one 10-year-old fourth-year student quotes him: “The future for a person is as if everyone bad is over and a world of joy has come and not sadness.” The student also commented that he will be a great professional, but for this he would need to study a lot and finish his studies.
In this sense, Freire (1979) mentions that changes are necessary for the adaptation of the human being, it is not an end in itself, but only one of the moments for its insertion in the world and for the possibility of this change to materialize, because the human being is an unfinished being. So it is important that children, adolescents and young people believe in change, the potential that each has, because studying makes all the difference in a person’s life. After all, the school is a social space that aims to make the individual active participant in society.
At the moment with the students were exposed orally the concepts of poverty, education, citizenship and dreams of a person. A written activity was done with the questions related to these concepts, so that they could better understand what was being proposed, as shown in graph 1 and 2 below, with the results of the research activities with the 40 students surveyed.
GRAPHIC 1 – What is a dream for you?
In this first moment, students have the opportunity to express their dreams and desires, which evidence the desires for changes in each one’s life. Everyone replied that all people have the right to dream of a better future. They were able to express their most common dreams and desires about what they want to be when they grow up, the dreams presented were: Lawyer, Teacher, Police Officer, Doctor, Model, Engineer, Makeup Artist, Veterinarian, Soccer Player, Nurse and Delegate. As for the personal and professional future, when they are 25 or 30 years old, they were also able to express that they intend to practice good deeds with people in the community where they live and be committed to society.
Thus, the family regardless of the social condition that is found should be the main promoter of the children’s dreams. Because even though the public school has its precariousness, educators do their best to develop a good job with students. “Education itself is not only done by the school, but with the power of initiative and the spirit of social cooperation between parents, teachers, the press and all other institutions directly interested in the work of education […].” (AZEVEDO, 2006, p. 15). Therefore, it is up to each of us educators and educators, to socialize with our students and students in the classroom, about the importance of the same ones believing and following their dreams.
At another time of dialogue with students, we asked whether they considered themselves rich people with money or poor without money, and if at some point they were discriminated against at school by their classmates on the condition of being rich or poor. One student comments: “I’m not rich with money or poor without money, I don’t feel discriminated against, because my colleagues are not rich either”, (P. L. 11 years of the 5th year).
We noticed that most of these students had the perception of poverty very limited about the true meaning of poverty in their lives, because many live in homes given by the Federal Government, through the Minha Casa, Minha Vida. Others live in invasions (invaded lands), so that they did not consider themselves so poor. What was also possible in the dialogue with the students, was the fact that they considered the families who have a car, a motorcycle or both, for example, to be rich people, so that in their families not all of them had these material goods.
In order to minimize social inequalities among students, with education as guarantees of citizenship of children and adolescents under the conditionality of poverty, the School’s Political Pedagogical Project (2017) addressed education in the broad sense. For it is the primary basis for changes in posture, attitude and life habits. It is the intellectual and social transformation of students through a quality education and development of the most diverse skills and competences of all children of the school.
As for cases of discrimination, we know that they happen daily in schools between students and students. Many of these students do not know, but only the fact of referring to a colleague referring to hair, skin color, physical appearance or other denomination, is already considered to be a discriminatory and racist attitude. According to Amaral (1998) comments:
[…] the presence of prejudices and the resulting discrimination experienced among people are seen more intensely, by significantly different ones, often preventing them from experiencing not only their citizens’ rights, but from fully experiencing their own childhood. (AMARAL, 1998).
But this does not prevent the development of socialization among students in the development of important knowledge to the recognition of citizenship, as shown in the second graph. Just like, the possibility of dreaming of a better future.
GRAPHIC 2 – What is it to be a citizen to you and how is citizenship practiced?
According to graph 2, regarding the conception of citizen and citizenship of these students, they recognize as being the rights and duties of a person and the true function of the citizen in society. They also understood that it is to be aware of their rights and obligations, ensuring that they are put into practice, such as an education that includes all children and other people. As explained in the National Curriculum Parameters of Basic Education, Brazil (1997):
The school, from the perspective of building citizenship, needs to assume the valorization of the culture of its own community and, at the same time, seek to overcome its limits, providing children belonging to the different social groups with access to knowledge, both with regard to the socially relevant knowledge of Brazilian culture at the national and regional level and in what is part of the universal heritage of humanity. (BRASIL, 1997, p. 34).
Therefore, it is understood that the public school has the mission of improving the educational conditions of society, aiming to ensure a quality education to students, in an environment of social and individual responsibility, as mentioned in the School’s Political Pedagogical Project (2017). Aiming to be an institution recognized in society for educational practices, participatory, committed and innovative work of a team committed to the school community, based on values such as: respect, innovation, participation and guarantee of learning standards to all students, in accordance with the National Curriculum Parameters of Basic Education.
He also asked the students if they thought school education was important, all of which answered yes. Because people who study are easier to get a job and have a profession. According to one student: “education teaches many things, takes people off the streets, from addictions, teaches to talk to people right and can dream of a better life for the family”, (T. N. 11 years, 5th grade). What was observed was that this student already had an opinion about the importance of studying, because the school, being a social institution is responsible for forming true citizens and citizens, active in society and aware of their rights and duties.
In this sense Leite (2015, p. 11) mentions that in our society, “[…] children and young people assume that they have equal characteristics, values, desires, needs and conditions of life, so it makes them homogeneous”. Therefore, full of expectations of a better life in the future, and it is not only about the possibility or impossibility of living childhood or youth, but about the different ways such phases can be lived. Since in the classroom the teacher and the teacher as mediators, they can present various situations and facilitate the contact of students with new elements. The construction of a toy, for example, favors the process of integration of children in the classroom, so they get to know each other better and express their dreams and desires.
The students were unanimous in saying that they dreamed of good things, they emphasized that to realize these dreams they needed to study a lot. Their parents and grandparents wished that they could study, grow, and have the profession they wanted in the future. None of the students and students expressed a desire to follow their parents’ profession, as many work in vegetable gardens, others from bricklayers, domestic workers, carmakers or other professions that do not require much study.
One student quoted: “if you don’t study and don’t go to school, you won’t have a profession and you won’t be someone in life” (H. N. 11 years, 5th grade). So we talk to the students about the importance of them believing and following their dreams, always respecting their colleagues and family members. That is, the experience experienced in the school environment is fundamental for the construction of diverse knowledge and for future life in society.
In this perspective, systematized learning is a path on which every human being needs to pass, in order to feel able to develop any role before society. “Today the student is not expected to develop other skills, the content is seen as a means to achieve something greater, favor the formation of the citizen […]” (REIS, 2011, p. 102). Therefore, we can say that children and young people in poverty go through moments such as childhood and youth and form a diverse social group, live and live with different social groups with diverse desires and behaviors.
According to information obtained from the school secretariat, there were on average 320 students enrolled, of which most of them around 70%, received the benefit of the Bolsa Família Program, because they were children who depended on this little to guarantee survival. In this sense, Brandão, Pereira and Dalt (2013) mention that in all Brazilian regions, especially in the Northeast region, there are negative evaluations about the Bolsa Família Program. It is moving towards pointing out that there is no impact on school achievement, in expanding the interest in studying by students and their families in monitoring the development of children in school. As many parents sent their children to school it was only with the intention of receiving the benefit. They weren’t worried about whether their children were learning anything or their positive frequency, the biggest concern was just the financial.
According to information obtained through the educators of the classes surveyed, many children went to school because of the snack that was served, because they did not have enough at home for the first feeding of the day. “What we have at home is for lunch, there is no way to buy snacks”, (Reports a 4 grade student, 9 years old). At this point, the children are very sincere, they report what really happens in the family. It is understood that the studies themselves, or the activities that these students and students develop with the groups do not have much relevance to them. In the Brazilian reality, many in a state of full need before completing elementary school give up studying and dreaming of a better future.
Even with so many advances, Brazil still needs to make progress on poverty reduction and the fight against hunger. For in many Brazilian states, as well as in the northeast region, Maranhão is one of the states that have more people living in extreme poverty. In this scenario, children, adolescents and young people of school age are the ones who suffer the most, since “[…] participation in diverse and increasingly broad social, political and cultural relations is fundamental for the exercise of citizenship in the construction of a democratic and non-exclusionary society”. (BRASIL, 1997, p. 33). Therefore, it is understood as being the social exemption, respect for ethical, moral and citizenship values, necessary the life of different social groups.
5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
In this work we were able to investigate the ways of thinking, feeling and acting of children under conditionality of poverty in a public school. This allowed us to be involved with the reality of children and adolescents living in precarious subsistence conditions. Having as main reference to poverty, education, citizenship and the reality of many Brazilian municipal public schools, managers and coordinators play a very important role in transforming the reality of thousands of poor children and young people.
This work involves the entire teaching staff of a school, especially teachers, who, in addition to developing the role of educators, have the function of teaching the values of respect and citizenship, values that many children do not learn from their families, due to the lack of basic dialogue and harmonious coexistence in any family. In addition, the objective was to understand the reality regarding the aspects of poverty and social inequality, in which children and adolescents from many municipal public schools in Maranhão live.
Emphasis was placed on the Municipal Friendship School located in the rural area of Imperatriz – MA, where it was possible to analyze and investigate the perspectives of personal and professional future, dreams, thoughts and feelings of children. We highlight the performance of the activities of action and reflection and the workshops, which was very important for understanding the reality of the students and their families. The dialogue on school education as a guarantee of citizenship was indispensable for the understanding of students about their dreams, desires and vision of a better future for themselves and their families.
The focus of the research was qualitative with the explanatory character, and with the methodology used it was possible to explore beyond the dreams, thoughts and feelings of children, but their point of view on education and citizenship. The research with the students provided us with a more comprehensive knowledge about the social issues of students in the school environment, their opinions and perspectives of a life without poverty. Having education as the main ally in the understanding of new knowledge, for the future life.
As well as the equality of other rights necessary for the recognition of citizenship, as the continuous basis for the transformation of the reality of thousands of children, adolescents and young people in conditions of poverty. Soon, we realize that the norms of the school are based on the construction of an education that respects the integral development of students, their rights and duties, because this school as a social institution is committed to together with families, society and community, to promote the development and socialization of students.
The appropriation of new knowledge has enabled us to perform an analysis of the school space where these subjects live daily, because the school is the best example of where people are committed to society. So that further studies and investigations can be done on this subject. It’s quoted, Miguel G. Arroyo, Lúcia Helena A. Leite, Alessandro Pinzani and Valquíria Leão Rego and other theorists who specialize in the subject: poverty, social inequality, education and citizenship, as a source of research and new knowledge.
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 Pedagogue and specialist in Education, Poverty and Social Inequality.
 Guidance counselor. Master’s degree in Communication, Culture and Citizenship from the Federal University of Goiás.
Submitted: October, 2020.
Approved: October, 2020.