Human performance management: linking skills assessment and sectoral performance indicators

0
256
DOI: ESTE ARTIGO AINDA NÃO POSSUI DOI SOLICITAR AGORA!
ARTIGO EM PDF

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

CARDOSO, Elano [1]

CARDOSO, Elano. Human performance management: linking skills assessment and sectoral performance indicators. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 04 year, Ed. 03, vol. 08, pp. 42-59. March 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959.

SUMMARY

Evaluate the performance of employees has become a powerful tool within the organizations to develop human capital. Based on this new model of people management, this article aims to perform a case study on the evaluation of human performance, combining the results of two evaluation models, being the first for essential skills for business, and the second through results of the indicators of the area in which the officer acts. This study was conducted in the company of appliances Esmaltec S/A, with 2,500 employees and a leader in the cooking segment. A model was used to study quantitatively and qualitatively with the theoretical foundation structured through the current literature on the topic. By means of special forms to the performance evaluation, the results were collected over a 12-month cycle, with reviews conducted every six months. The results obtained after the cycle of twelve months showed an increase of about 4.1% in the overall result of the indicators of the company. Thus, it is concluded that the performance evaluation process has generated a positive impact on the company’s culture.

Keywords: human capital, performance evaluation, essential skills, positive impact.

1. INTRODUCTION

Given the constant changes in needs of organizations with regard to its employees, under performance, comes from several factors such as; competition for new markets, price dispute, launching new products, reduced operating costs, increased revenues and their own economic crises, the intellectual capital begins to represent great strategic differential, in which, the development and maintenance of the professionals are essential to achieve organizational objectives. However, the pace of these changes has not been accompanied by the emergence of techniques and advanced tools in the framework of the management of People and, as a result of this the difficulty of managing the human resource. However, a tool that has contributed to the advancement of this segment is the assessment of Human Performance, using as a parameter to the career plan, compensation and recruiting & selection. However, your main objective is to stimulate the development of professionals and improve your productivity, consequently improving the results of the organization.

The topic on the agenda was chosen due to the need to adapt the system of personnel management changes required of organizations, in this context the assessment of performance is an effective instrument, as it brings the benefit of developing in people the ability self-evaluation and the perception of the need for training, in addition to providing managers the elements to correct its weaknesses and enhance the strengths.

Therefore, this project has proposed conducting a case study on the performance evaluation model, used by the Esmaltec S/A, appliances for the leadership positions. Mapping the results over 12 months of 4.5 cycles for the positions of production leaders, supervisors and plant manager stoves already quoted company.

The survey used a bibliographical study through the ideas and assumptions of various authors to theoretical contextualization, and the case study is based on real data of the Organization, which were collected in loco “in” dash boards of each sector, and in archived feedback sheets in HR.

2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

The definition of performance appraisal can be observed under several approaches to Vilas Boas and Andrade (2009, p. 166) part of the perspective that: “performance evaluation is to measure the performance of the employee in the exercise of your Office in a given time period” . So, we can say that evaluate the performance is to assign importance or significance to a result and can be connected to various areas of the Organization, since it evaluates the employee in performing their duties.

Human performance within organizations is directly correlated to the behavior and performance of the individual within the company. Soon, a precious portion of the Organization’s performance is obtained from the behavior of the employee or staff in the performance of a task or compared to the standard expected. So, based on the author’s thoughts, it can be said that the company’s employees are the sources that generate the results, because it is understood that the individual results of each Member of this company, will serve as the overall outcome of the company.

Another definition for the topic, which refers to a deeper reflection, is cited by Chiavenato (1989, p. 85[…]) “a systematic assessment of an individual’s performance on the job and your potential for development. All assessment is a process to estimate or judge the value, excellence and the qualities of any person “of this analysis, it is necessary to eliminate the passage; (…) “estimate or judge“. Yes, gives a performance assessment subjective character, which can lead to discrediting the people.

In a way, it is wrong not to pay attention to the fact that the implementation of the evaluation of human performance within a company will not have difficulties to your fully functioning. Because, despite the strengths, the weaknesses of the tool, that need to be considered by managers and employees. The tool can be perceived as a reward or punishment and, that can generate the discontent of the people. The use of the performance assessment tool adds value in the enterprise at the moment favours the identification and solution of problems of personnel, management, motivation, relationships, the internal environment and in the effectiveness and overall result of company.

To avoid this discontent must make a selection in most critical evaluation and reward systems, determining the weight of aspects such as performance of the individual, the Group and the company in your set, such that if you encourage, at the same time, the recognition of employee efforts and the development of an attitude of constructive group established goals. “An important decision is to determine when the evaluation must be individual-group or corporate divisional” (VILAS BOAS, ANDRADE, 2009, p. 166). On one end it’s all about the individual performance; on the other, the individual almost disappears and only measure the corporate goals. A critical selection thing to do in most assessment systems and reward is to determine the weight of aspects such as performance of the individual, the Group and the company in your set, such that if you encourage, at the same time, the recognition of the efforts the employee and the development of an attitude of constructive group established goals.

For this development to occur it is necessary to give a return to evaluated the prospects obtained eat the assessment, it’s called “feedback”, this must be so impersonal, structured and based on real events, thus producing different information, substantially enriching the evaluation process for a glimpse of the various demands that the evaluated receives from your desktop and do not earn subjective character to the process.

Gramigna (2007) makes a reflection on evaluation and performance management, in which the action to evaluate the human being takes to face a paradox between the eternal search for evolution and, consequently, the need to change what can and must be changed, and the difficulty of accept criticism and navigate with tranquility in the midst of the changes.

2.1 OBJECTIVES of the PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

The primary goal of the performance evaluation is to improve the results of the organization. According Vilas Boas and Andrade (2009) on the other hand, the specific objectives are listed in: 1) improvement in interpersonal relationships; 2) improvement in communication; 3) Self-development; 4) career plan/promotion/remuneration; 5) increasing productivity; 6) training of talents; 7) need for training; 8) dissemination of guidelines and company policies; 9) Relocation or shutdown of people and professional suitability for the post.

2.2 METHODS for PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

To start the performance evaluation program you must first choose the method best suited to the company’s reality. This adjustment is only need when you have a clear definition of the descriptions of positions, performance standards, a diagnosis of the company, the rules and procedures of the program and definition of performance indicators.

The classification of methods, according to Bergamini (1988, p. 169) are divided into two: direct or absolute and relative evaluation or comparison. “In the first method are identified the individual performance characteristics in a given work, however in the second method is made a comparison with relation to other employees or working group”.

According to a survey in several authors, most methods is based on forms that have a part (header) with the ID of your industry, and your main function in the body of the form there is other information that the person responsible for find it necessary to review. At the end, leave a space to identify the evaluator. So, one of the traditional methods are:

  1. Graphic Scales;
  2. Checklists;
  3. Forced choice;
  4. Critical Incidents method;
  5. Field research;

The above methods can be used individually or combined in the company in order to meet the needs of each method. In the case of self-evaluation, Vilas Boas and Andrade (2009, p. 169) state that: “the official shall fill in the form with the positive and negative points to the implementation of its activities. However, in this case the methods mentioned above do not apply, but serve as a reference “.

2.3 RESPONSIBILITIES for PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

Despite the relevant contribution proposed by the implementation of a method of performance evaluation, there are some precautions that should be considered in the planning phase. It can be perceived as a reward or punishment for past performance, and this may generate discontent of the people. When evaluating the performance employee, the company must seek to recognize his work. This is the main purpose of the evaluation, namely, serve as subsidies to reward or guide you in your development.

The evaluation should be a regular and steady process for employees, their bosses and managers have conditions to assess the evolutionary process of working conditions. The performance evaluation aims to improve the performance of officials at different levels, but she is more effective in operating levels (VILAS BOAS and ANDRADE, 2009).

Finally, another important measure to achieve success is the realization of a pilot project can help predict the difficulties that may appear. Second Gramigna (2007) is recommended to institutionalize the process only after performing some tests.

3. WHAT IS COMPETENCY MANAGEMENT

This form of management is an advancement of the performance assessment studies and training and development programes, as influences on strategic management of organizations.

It is a strategic practice that aims to improve the overall performance of the Organization, through the increase of employees ‘ individual performance. In general terms, one can say that someone or some company is competent when it has the ability, skill, fitness, suitability to perform something. Under a broader perspective, competence can be set to know Act responsible and recognized, that means mobilizing, integrating and transferring knowledge. In addition, be competent means mobilizing resources and abilities that aggregate economic value to the Organization and social value (VILAS BOAS and ANDRADE, 2009, p. 183).

For Fleury (2001) competence is the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that affect most of the work of one person, and that relate to the job performance; competence can be measured, when compared to the standards established and developed through training.

In your work, Gramigna (2007, p. 43) mean by management skills; […]”a set of tools, instruments and methodological processes geared to the strategic management of people.”

Currently organizations have resorted to the use of various management models for competence, with the purpose of promoting your most valuable asset, your MOD (direct labor), this feature is difficult to be imitated by other companies that may offer a competitive differentiator. To some scholars, this competitive advantage from the management skills should be to mobilize knowledge and experience to meet the demands and requirements of a given context, marked generally by labor relations, culture of company, consequential and limitations of time and resources.

The competency management enables the company to capture of your professional development and assessment of competences necessary for the realization of their goals, either through the selection of appropriate professionals for each position, the formulation of training or strategic decision-making. Any company that wants to capture a slice of a market niche, should develop the skills that will help to meet what the customer perceives as added value.

We can thus define Competencies as the practical intelligence obtained through personal or professional situations that enrich and develop, making the most skilled professional to face the new challenges and achieve better results.

3.1 skills and ITS DIMENSIONS

If competences are subdivided in two dimensions: the core competencies and professional skills or organizational. As to the first, is related to what the company does best, your identity in the marketplace, make up a set of features in the form of knowledge, skills, technology, physical, managerial systems and values that the organization possesses. As to the second dimension, related to the professional competence, which ultimately correspond to a diagnosis of individual skills essential for areas of the company, positions or functions.

3.1.1 CORE COMPETENCIES or ORGANIZATIONAL

To Vilas Boas and Andrade (2009, p. 184, emphasis ad[…]ded) “core competencies (core competence) become difficult to be imitated by competitors, i.e. are inherent skills the Organization as if they were the heart and soul of this[…]”. Soon, these skills create competitive advantages, qualitatively and adding values perceived by customers to the products and services of the organization.

AUTHORS CONCEPTS OF CORE COMPETENCIES EMPHASIS
Fleury e Fleury (2001) Know Act responsible and recognized, which implies mobilising, integrate, transfer knowledge, resources and abilities that aggregate economic value to the Organization and social value to the individual. Key Competence
Hamel e Parahalad (1995) Set of skills and technologies that allows a company to offer a particular benefit to the client. Has three outstanding characteristics: 1st) perceived value by the client; 2nd) differentiation between competitors; 3rd) capacity expansion for the company. Key Competence
Goddard (1997) Set of features that mark the system of beliefs (values), the style of behavior and the structural design of the company. Key Competence
Ulrich (2000) Collective learning in the Organization, especially with regard to how to coordinate diverse production skills and integrate multiple streams of technology. Key Competence
Tampoe (1994) Technical or management subsystem that integrates several technologies, processes, resources and expertise to generate sustainable products and services, value-added and unique competitive advantage to the organization. Key Competence

01-framework approach to organizational skills. Source: Vilas Boas (2007).

3.1.2 INDIVIDUAL SKILLS

Individual or professional competences refer to the characteristics that the employee must have to assist the company in achieving its objectives, since these powers represent the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes (C.H. the) of the individual, which will generate a differential for the organization. According Vilas Boas and Andrade (2009) these competences are not only technical, but also behavioral.

According to Fleury (2001, p. 20) individual competence can be defined as: “a knowing Act responsible and which is recognised by others. Implies knowing mobilizing, integrating and transferring knowledge, resources and skills in a professional context “. So it is important that there should be a sharing of that knowledge and that companies recognize the skills and the importance of your spread.

Such knowledge, important for companies in the current competitive scenario, can be acquired through work experience, education or training. Examples: To be a designer in industry, it is important to have knowledge in AutoCAD software. Have the skills, refer to the proficiency in the use of tools and equipment, and can be acquired in technical courses, readings and studies. Finally, the attitudes refer to how the person acts under the circumstances, your conduct in connection with action to work, situations and people.

3.2 STEPS for IMPLEMENTATION of COMPETENCY MANAGEMENT

Each company to implement the program of management skills can make adjustments to their realities. In the literature, several authors present models with similar steps. We present in this paper an alignment of ideas from various authors.

02-frame Steps for implementing the performance management. S
ource: adapted from Gramigna.

The process of implementation of competency management tool occurs in stages as shown above. But for your success is necessary in your initial stage, trying to sensitize employees, through meetings and presentations, as the importance of the program in order to obtain the involvement and participation of all.

4. CASE STUDY ON ESMALTEC S/A COMPANY.

4.1 the company

The company in which the study was conducted is called Esmaltec S/A, private-law legal firm whose name is Esmaltec, has a body of 2,500 employees and operates with four production units: Stove, refrigeration (refrigerators, water fountains and freezer), Clothes washers and LPG containers in an area of approximately 360,000 m2, with 65,000 m2 of constructed area. Located on Av. West Park, 2130, in the Industrial District of Maracanaú-Ceará, postal code: 61939-120. The company is part of a group called Edson Queiroz Group. The Esmaltec S.a.

Figure 01 Esmaltec S/a.
Source: Esmaltec (2004).

4.2 PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ESMALTEC

The Esmaltec started in 2010 1 monitoring system of performance indicators, based on the annual strategic planning, in which are defined the goals of the leading indicators that impact business results. These indicators are used by the HR function as a support tool for the evaluation of model performance. This management system is consolidated in an electronic Panel all the performance indicators used to measure the performance of each sector. These results are collected at the end of each month and presented by supervisors and managers to the Board and finally to CEO named meetings of N2 and N1 respectively.

03-framework performance indicators Panel factory of stoves. So
urce: Esmaltec (2013).

For indicators with negative deviation, supervisors and managers must open an action plan by adopting the quality tools such as; Ishikwa diagram and 5 why, doing the PDCA run to eliminate the problem for good. However, adopting only this model, the company is evaluating only the corporate goals that the Manager is responsible to follow, thus leaving, the behavior of the individual such as leadership and example for teams without measurement.

On the exposed, in 2013 the company started the GMPD programme, this being the Matrix of people Management and development. In this new phase, the Esmaltec initiated the project performance evaluation of managers, associating the results obtained in the evaluation of sectoral indicators to a competency evaluation. In designing the project, admitted that the competency assessment pressed the results of sectoral indicators, namely, the individual’s behavior and your leadership skills are the pillars for the results of the organization.

4.2.1 ASSESSMENT SKILLS

For the implementation of the model, RH management sought support from expert advice to develop something own, an innovative concept, which embraced the skills that the company considers as essential for business. In this initial step was followed the following steps:

      1. And mapping framework: in this initial step, will be defined by the supervision and management core competencies of Esmaltec. Following is a survey of real, in which consists in assessing each of the collaborators involved, identifying what skills and at what level the scale of each behavior fits, pointing out clearly what your strengths and gap’s.
      2. Establishment of S.m.a.r.t. goals: Consists in unfolding the strategic plan of the Esmaltec area indicators, defining clearly the main expected results. For each of the indicators must establish a SMART goal for evaluation of the results. (SMART GOAL: Measurable/Attainable/Specific/Relevant/Overtime).
      3. Follow-up: at the beginning of the year should be defined and redefined the goals and the development plan, based on the established model and the gap’s identified. Each month the Manager and Employee must meet and make the monitoring of goals and competencies, which should be brief and formal. And, at the end of each semester will be given feedback as vacant 05 step.
      4. Calibration: Meeting Between the managers of the various areas of the company, to discuss the performance of each subject straight, in the model of leadership skills. In this moment is collected information on the evaluated, based on the perception of other people. At this meeting you should present the results of the evaluated and calibrate with other managers in that level of the scale of the skills assessed.
      5. Feedback: all employees must receive feedback after the meeting. After the final evaluation feedback from the developer, define a plan of action to address the gap’s individual performances.

4.2.2 COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT TOOLS

The forms used for competency assessment were developed based on the skills that the company considers indispensable for the leadership positions. Then, for each core competency was created a range of behaviors, named Mobile ruler of behaviors, in which behavioural postures parameter as in maturity scale for each jurisdiction. Being thus possible to identify in what scale of development each employee will be sorted, eliminating or minimizing the subjective character that an assessment of behaviors may have.

The Mobile Ruler of behaviors has the same range of behaviors for the positions of managers, supervisors and leaders what changes are the performance limits for each function. The green bands on the ruler correspond to the level of expected behavior for the position held, the ash tracks indicate a level of maturity to the competence in analysis, underwhelming. Finally, the blue stripes indicate a professional who is exceeding expectations. Check out the example of the ruler to the Innovation Competence as below:

Table 4. Mobile ruler for Innovation competence.
Source: Esmaltec Source (2013).

After the classification of employees in Mobile Ruler, Manager of the evaluated must fill out two forms; the assessment of Sectoral Goals and competency evaluation (see below), the latter, according to the results obtained on the ruler, Powers Mobile closing so the cycle of monthly assessments.

Figure 02. Inspection record for the function
. Source: Own Elaboration (2013).

Completing the above procedures, the step 04 (calibration Meeting) and at the end of each semester the developer will receive a consolidated and structured feedback, step 05 (Feedback). Another important point in managing Human Performance, comes to the PDI-Individual development plan, which will be drawn actions to develop employees in skills that are not yet covered.

5. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS

The study of this article considered as key point for analyzing the results of the implementation of an evaluation model of human performance, the analysis of the overall performance of the company. It can be considered that professionals who receive “feedback”, working in the development of their competencies and seeking qualification generate better results for the company?

In the case of the company, has collected the results of performance indicators of Esmaltec stoves for the years 2013 and 2014. These were the first two years of implementation of the project, in which the leaders, supervisors and managers received four “feedbacks” structured by the results of the competency assessments.

Frame 05-performance indicators Panel factory of stoves. Sou
rce: Esmaltec (2013).

Comparing the overall result of the factory performance indicators for the first year of implementation of the project, in which it was obtained a 91.3% performed with the results of the second year, where was 95.4% from overall result of the indicators. You can see a 4.1% evolution in performance, in which, according to the human resources Department of the company in this period no significant investments that could justify performance indicators growth since, the company was working on developing a new project for a new line of stoves, which would launch the following year, in 2015.

These results may indicate that in the period of two years, with constant behavioral assessments that measure skills, managers began a process of development in order to improve your weaknesses. The consequence of this development may have impacted on the leadership model and finally high performance of teams and results of the company.

6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The consultative approach adopted for the case study, respecting the culture of Esmaltec, sought to promote in each one of the steps proposed for implementation of the program, the development of human capital and leverage operational management results strategy. So that these goals are achieved is needed the expertise of human resources professionals and General Administration of the company.

It is essential, therefore, that the Organization has a follow up skills, in order to support and consistency to planned results. However, the absence of a program for the people management system allowing the integration of the actions of the various areas of HR, regarding the development of people, through training, recruitment of new talent, and career plan of positions and wages are impaired. In this way, the present scientific work aims to offer a reflection on how the development of behavioral skills and techniques can directly impacts the results of the company. For that, the company must evaluate their key managers not only results, but also skills.

Identify what grade of behaviors is your leadership level, making it possible to your development. Also, if you should be careful when implementing the programme, in which, this needs to be accompanied by a well-defined policy of jobs and salaries because those that Excel should be recognized, thereby maintaining the motivation of evaluated and avoiding so the program fall into disrepute.

Finally, although the work present an analysis based on the first two years of project implementation, this signaled a potential financial gain and of resources, however, awareness of those involved still need for follow-up the results, application of feedbacks in the predetermined periods, so that in a second moment, the organization is ready for full deployment of the program to all its employees.

REFERENCES

BERGAMINI, Cecilia & BERALDO, Deobel. Performance evaluation in the company. 4.ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 1988.

CHIAVENATO, Neena. Human resources at the company. São Paulo: Atlas, 1989.

FLEURY, Afonso, FLEURY Maria Tereza. Business strategies and skills Training. São Paulo: Atlas, 2001.

GRAMIGNA, Maria Rita. The Competency model and Talent Management. 2. ed. São Paulo. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.

VILAS BOAS, Ana Alice; ANDRADE, Rui Otavio Bernardes. Strategic management of People. Oxford: Elsevier, 2009.

[1] Mechanical production engineer, Manager of PCP (production planning and control).

Posted: March, 2019.

Approved: March, 2019.

DEIXE UMA RESPOSTA

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here