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The importance of training the literary reader to increase the number of cultural consumers

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

REIS, Marynalva Silva Abreu [1]

REIS, Marynalva Silva Abreu. The importance of training the literary reader to increase the number of cultural consumers. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 03, Vol. 12, pp. 16-32. March 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/training-the-literary

ABSTRACT

Encouraging literary reading should be the focus of every society committed to cultural inclusion and the intellectual development of its members, since reading is the main mechanism for the appropriation of knowledge and the perpetuation of culture. Initiatives that promote the promotion of cultural manifestations are essential for the formation of the subject, in this sense, it is emphasized that the well-being of a community is intrinsically related to the democratization of access to reading and to artistic and cultural movements, which are effective for leisure and entertainment, as well as for personal enrichment and appreciation of cultural diversity. The objective of this work is to show the importance of stimulating literary reading inside and outside the school space and the need for the intervention of reading mediators for the formation of competent, autonomous, critical readers and consumers of culture. Given the above, it became necessary to approach through the literature review some theorists who deal with the object of study of this research. In this segment, it is understood that investment in equipment, goods, services and cultural products must be preceded by the formation of cultural consumers, therefore, it is concluded that it is necessary to increase investments in public policies to promote literary reading, books, of literature, literary production, public access libraries and training and enhancement of reading mediators to expand the number of cultural consumers.

Keywords: Mediation of literary reading, literary and cultural consumption, Public policies to encourage reading.

INTRODUCTION

Brazil is far below the ideal in Basic Education, compared to developed countries, and according to data from the survey carried out by the World Bank (2018), which brings to light the reality about education and learning in several countries around the world, it will take Brazilian students 260 years to reach reading proficiency in rich countries.

The result presented by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2015 edition, places Brazil in the 59th position in reading in the world ranking, among 70 countries analyzed, and, despite Brazil investing in educational and cultural policies, we perceive the difficulty of state and municipal governments in implementing the Federal Laws and Programs that determine the democratization of the right to access culture, books, literature and libraries.

Another study that measures reading habits in Brazil and in more than 30 countries, carried out by the NOP World Culture Score Index Agency, finds that Brazil is in the 27th position in the reading ranking, with an average time dedicated to reading books of only 5 hours and 12 minutes a week. India and Thailand rank first, with an average weekly reading of 10 hours and 42 minutes and 9 hours and 24 minutes, respectively.

The survey Portraits of Reading in Brazil, 4th edition/2015, carried out a survey on the per capita reading rate and found that Brazilians read, on average, 2.9 books per year, lagging far behind developed countries, which read up to 7 books a year, as is the case in France. Still on the Portraits survey, 30% of Brazilians have never bought a book and 44% of the population is not in the habit of reading.

With the objective of presenting intervention proposals for the change of the Brazilian educational and cultural scenario, we trace an interdependence between the terms culture and literature, more specifically between culture and literary reading, in order to answer the following question: we are interested in cultural programs when we have access to literary books since childhood or does interest in literary books only happen when we previously access cultural activities?

Regarding the aspects mentioned above, we understand that access to the literary world arouses greater interest in cultural facilities, such as libraries, cinemas, theaters, museums, etc.

To emphasize the importance of the topic addressed in this work, we carried out a bibliographic research in order to know the theoretical and conceptual aspects related to literary reading and the formation of readers and reading mediators and we mentioned some theorists who focus on this subject, in order to to strengthen and support our study, namely: Castro (1992), Abramovich (1993), Anjos (2015), Rösing and Neto (2009) and Carneiro (2003).

In this sense, we start from the assumption that it is necessary to increase investments in public policies to promote literary reading, books, literature, literary production, public access libraries and the training and appreciation of reading mediators to expand the number of cultural consumers and, consequently, improve Brazil’s cultural and educational indicators.

DEVELOPMENT

The connection between the terms literature, literary reading, society and culture is unquestionable, however, what we intend with this study is to show that literary readers are strong consumers of cultural products and frequenters of spaces that diffuse culture, since reading is a social practice that leads to the consumption of other cultural goods.

According to Law n. 10,753, of October 30, 2003, Art. 1, Item II, the book is in itself “the main means of disseminating culture and transmitting knowledge, promoting social and scientific research, conserving national heritage, transforming and improving socially and improving the quality of life”.

Thus, if the book has the function of propagating culture and if culture is defined by Fernando Azevedo (1958) as “production, conservation and progress of intellectual values, ideas, sciences and the arts”, it is not to be strange that the literary reader feels the desire to experience the various forms of artistic and cultural manifestations of a given society.

Tracing an association between literature and culture is not a difficult task because, according to Lima (2010, p. 01), “what is generally called literature would be contained in what is understood by culture”. We reinforce Lima’s statement by taking as a basis article 216 of the constitutional text, which says:

Art. 216. Constituem patrimônio cultural brasileiro os bens de natureza material e imaterial, tomados individualmente ou em conjunto, portadores de referência à identidade, à ação, à memória dos diferentes grupos formadores grupos da sociedade brasileira, nos quais se incluem:

I – as formas de expressão;

II – os modos de criar, fazer e viver;

III –  as criações científicas, artísticas e tecnológicas;

IV – as obras, objetos, documentos, edificações e demais espaços destinados às manifestações artísticos-culturais (BRASIL, 1988, p. 112).

Thus, literature is considered a cultural heritage and is divided into material and immaterial. It is immaterial when the subject reads a literary work, in a subjective way, in which there is interaction between the work and the reader. When the literary book assumes its materiality and becomes an object of consumption, literature is a material good, because it is concrete and palpable. Bronckart points out literature as a heritage of debates:

“se a literatura é verdadeiramente um patrimônio, este patrimônio é, antes de mais nada, um patrimônio de debates, de trabalho interpretativo a propósito da pessoa humana, de sua sociabilidade, da diversidade sociocultural, e das possibilidades do uso da língua”. (BRONCKART op. cit., p. 17, apud COLOMER, 2007, p. 29).

In this way, we understand that literature is an artistic manifestation inseparable from other artistic segments, such as: theater, dance, music, cinema, photography, graffiti, circus art, painting, sculpture and electronic games and that, consequently, those who read literary books feels the need to consume other cultural products, because literary reading allows access to the cultural world.

As literature is intrinsically related to society, there is an interest in bringing literary studies closer to cultural studies, for this purpose literature has become the study of the most diverse areas “and the idea of its value as a cultural construction of people”, defended by Colomer (2007, p.28), was indicated by several authors, as stated by Cassarini and Fredericis:

A literatura é sentida como uma das formas em que se auto-organiza e se autorrepresenta o imaginário antropológico e cultural, um dos espaços em que as culturas se formam, se encontram com outras culturas, as absorvem, pretendem confrontar-se ou conquistá-las; ou bem elas desenvolvem, no seu interior, modelos alternativos aos existentes, ou criam modelos e imagens do mundo que, através da retórica da argumentação e da persuasão, tratam de impor-se aos diferentes estratos de público que configuram o tecido social. […] a literatura oferece importantíssimos suportes e modelos para compreender e representar a vida interior, os afetos, as ideias, os ideais, as projeções fantásticas e também, modelos para representarmos nosso passado, o de nossa gente, e o dos povos, a história (CASSARINI and FREDERICIS, 1988, p. 28, apud COLOMER, 2007, p. 29).

If literary reading contributes to the cultural formation of the individual, we cannot consider the act of reading as an isolated activity, since reading develops in a broader cultural scope and, according to Martins (1988, p. 10), despite the concept of reading, it is limited to the “deciphering of writing, its learning, however, is traditionally linked to the process of global formation of the individual, to his/her qualification for social, political, economic and cultural interaction and actions”.

Therefore, we reinforce that literature, in addition to being directly linked to life in society, also contributes to the promotion of social changes, as Silva explains:

A literatura está vinculada à sociedade em que se origina, assim como todo tipo de arte, pois o artista não consegue ser indiferente à realidade. A obra literária é resultado das relações dinâmicas entre escritor, público e sociedade, porque através de suas obras o artista transmite seus sentimentos e idéias do mundo, levando seu leitor à reflexão e até mesmo à mudança de posição perante a realidade, assim a literatura auxilia no processo de transformação social. (SILVA, 2019, p. 01).

In this regard, we emphasize that literature is related to several fields of knowledge, but we will stick to tracing its direct connection with artistic productions and cultural consumption.

Literature propagates cultural manifestations and art in all its aspects, and the construction of the potential literary reader contributes to the formation of cultural consumers, due to the social function of reading, as Noberto reinforces:

Assim, pode-se perceber que leitura é um dos meios mais eficientes de formar cidadãos, e a literatura, parte intrínseca desta, é uma das mais belas formas da expressividade humana. Sua função social permite o gosto pelas artes, cultura e conhecimento de si mesmo, pois tem o poder de expressar os sentimentos mais especiais do homem, merecendo, desta forma, a importância e os valores sociais enquanto manifestação artística. (NOBERTO, 2011, p. 01).

From this perspective, as the reading of literary books is essential for the social and cultural formation of the subject and provides cultural diversity, we emphasize that the encouragement of literary reading, books and literature should be prioritized in order to increase the number of cultural consumers.

In this case, we start from the assumption that every consumer of literary books is a cultural consumer, and that to be a cultural consumer it is necessary to take into account another very important factor, which is access to schooling, because according to the theorists Silva, Araújo and Souza (2007, p. 106) “the right to culture also implies the development of capacities that come from schooling processes. Being educated is one of the traits that characterize the habitual consumer of cultural goods”.

To expand our knowledge about the formation of the literary reader, we approached three points that we consider important, which are: literary reading, public policies to encourage literary reading and the training of reading mediators.

The first point considered important is to know what literary reading is and what it means to be a literary reader. We explain that literary reading is one in which the text read has an aesthetic and poetic function aimed at the reader’s entertainment. Poems, short stories, novels, fables, legends, chronicles, theater shows, among others, are considered literary texts. On the other hand, non-literary texts have a didactic function, being: scientific articles, textbooks, news, interviews, dictionaries, medicine leaflets, instruction manuals, etc. For the avoidance of doubt, we consider a literary reader to be one who reads literary texts and a non-literary reader to be one who reads only non-literary texts.

We emphasize that reading has an essential social function for the transmission of cultural values ​​from one generation to another. It is indisputable the fact that reading is present everywhere we go and we are convinced that all schools face the arduous mission of instilling an interest in reading in students, however we know that the children’s public even having a blazing interest in the act reading and listening to tales and retellings of children’s stories, when they reach adolescence, generally, reading becomes uninteresting for a large part of this audience.

This kind of disinterest leads us to believe that there are two types of reading: functional reading and cultural reading. The first is what we learn at school, through the deciphering of the linguistic code, done in a mechanized way, and most of the time, it is carried out out of obligation, to fulfill a certain type of school task. Cultural reading, on the other hand, is one in which the individual not only understands what he reads, but also positions himself and interacts with the text read. Assumção (2009, p. 56) reinforces these two types of reading by defining a vital reader as one who practices cultural reading and, mass reader, as one who performs functional reading. In other words, the vital reader is the one who, even in a modern society, in the midst of so many technologies and equipment responsible for the distraction and superficiality of information, manages to get involved with reading in an autonomous and pleasant way, unlike the mass reader, who read superficially, because his “head is full of ideas that are inertly received, heteronomously lived”. Assumção associates the term “mass-reader” with the concept of “mass-man” given by the Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset. For Ortega, the mass man is a passive subject, easily accommodated and not concerned with transforming the reality in which he lives. According to Assumção (2009, p. 47), “Reading – and reading in the broad sense of reading the world, reading images, reading words – imposes on us the need for an active relationship, construction, commitment and responsibility with its own worldview (autonomy)”.

To better clarify the concept of the mass reader, Assumção continues comparing it with mass man:

[…] o leitor-massa que ascendeu pelo alçapão da história, passou a intervir em tudo, e violentamente, em tudo e em todos os textos, no século XX. Como o homem-massa, o leitor-massa, com seus gestos e gostos, chega ao palco montado por uma ciência que ele não conhece, iluminado por uma luz que ele não inventou, mas que parece estar aí desde sempre, e, invertebrado em seus valores, passa a dar espaço ao desenvolvimento muito mais intenso e muito mais abrangente do mercado, que é quem dita, no vácuo deixado pela invertebração, o bem e o mal, o verdadeiro e o falso, o belo e o feio, também em termos de literatura. (ASSUMÇÃO, 2015, p. 58).

For Assumção (2009, p.58), the reading practice is no longer valuable, “it has become something abstract, with little vital meaning, incapable of awakening any desire and forming new readers”, and in order to make reading vital for society, it is necessary “a radical reform of the idea of ​​reading practiced at school and university”.

Colomer (2007, p. 50) outlines the profile of the literary reader and classifies the types of readers according to the denomination used in French research, which makes the following division: “the weak” – those who read from zero to four books a year ; “average” – those who read five to nine books; “strong” – those who read more than ten books a year”.

Knowing the reader’s profile is a constant search, however regardless of whether the reader is a mass reader, a weak reader, an average reader or a strong reader, what we actually consider important is that reading is seen as necessary and indispensable for the formation of the individual, for the perpetuation of the culture of a given society and for the diffusion of other cultures. We must propagate the development of positive attitudes towards reading, as the act of reading should not be merely mechanical and meaningless. And even more, we need to involve people who are able to read to practice this act regularly, because according to Cramer & Castle (2001, p. 14) “Literature can be a bigger problem than illiteracy”. For the respective authors, “Alliterature” is the lack of the habit of reading among readers who know how to read, but prefer not to read.

In this regard, we reinforce the importance of the partnership between family and school to ensure the development of the reading habit in children and adolescents, because according to Castro (1992, p. 01), “to guarantee the richness of the narrative experience from the earliest years of life of the child contributes to the development of his logical thinking and also of his imagination”.

Abramovich emphasizes the importance of listening to stories for the formation of the child:

Ah, como é importante para a formação de qualquer criança ouvir muitas, muitas histórias… Escutá-las é o início da aprendizagem para ser um leitor, e ser leitor é ter um caminho absolutamente infinito de descoberta e compreensão de mundo […] é ouvindo histórias que se pode sentir (também) emoções importantes, como a tristeza, a raiva, a irritação, o bem-estar, o medo, a alegria, o pavor, a insegurança, a tranquilidade, e tantas outras mais, e viver profundamente tudo o que as narrativas provocam em quem as ouve – com toda a amplitude, significância e verdade que cada um delas fez (ou não) brotar… Pois é ouvir, sentir e enxergar com os olhos do imaginário! (ABRAMOVICH, 1993, p. 16 and 17).

Children who have access to literary books, whether at home or at school, can develop the habit of reading spontaneously, without the help of others, however, if these children, in addition to having access to literary books, also have adult readers as examples, they will learn to enjoy reading, just as they will also love reading and become assiduous and contagious readers.

On the other hand, children who do not have any contact with literary books and do not live with adults who read will have great chances of staying away from the world of reading, thus reducing the possibilities of becoming adult readers, however we emphasize that if they have access to literature in adulthood it is perfectly possible to develop a taste for reading belatedly.

As we mentioned above, the most effective way to involve children and win them over to the world of reading is through example, whether from parents, older siblings or any adult who lives at home. Another significant way is through reading activities promoted at school, however the school presents a not very favorable issue that is mandatory reading, linked to obtaining grades and filling out reading sheets, which do not always captivate students.

According to Silva (2009, p. 24) “The scientific literature in the area of ​​reading points to the fact that the formation of the reader goes through different stages of development, involving the action of multiple social institutions: family, group of friends, school, libraries […].”

Among the institutions cited by Silva, we point out the family and the school as the two most important, but it is worth noting that one does not exempt the other, that is, the school’s mission to train readers does not exempt, nor replaces the participation of the family, as says Antunes:

[…] essa prioridade da escola na formação do leitor não exclui, evidentemente, a atuação da família, na ação diuturna dos pais, que devem assumir a iniciação da criança nesse mundo gráfico (e, por vezes, mágico) das palavras. Não exclui ainda a sociedade, os meios de comunicação – todos: jornais, revistas, TV, páginas da internet – nem exclui (principalmente essas!) as políticas públicas orientadas para a educação e a promoção da cultura letrada (ANTUNES, 2009, p. 202).

The power of influence of the family in the reading formation of its members is unquestionable. The habit of reading, when acquired in the comfort of home, strengthens bonds, strengthens affective relationships and increases interest in the act of reading and the possibility of the child becoming an adult reader, and also:

O leitor formado na família tem um perfil um pouco diferenciado daquele outro que teve o contato com a leitura apenas ao chegar à escola. O leitor que se inicia no âmbito familiar demonstra mais facilidade em lidar com signos, compreende melhor o mundo no qual está inserido, além de desenvolver um senso crítico mais cedo, o que ‘é’ realmente importa na sociedade. (VIEIRA, 2004, p. 06, apud BOTINI e FARAGO, p.02, 2014).

It becomes evident that the probability of an individual becoming a reader is infinitely greater when one has access to literary books in childhood, and also, when one has contact with people who read and who favor access to reading. According to the research Portraits of Reading in Brazil 4, mothers are the main influencers of the reading habit, while teachers occupy the second place in the influence of the taste for reading.

Therefore, the family, as well as the school, plays an extremely relevant role in the mediation of reading, but we believe that the family is the basis of everything, since if the teacher has not acquired the habit of reading within the family, he will probably have difficulty in encouraging their students to read, as stated by Lajolo (1985, apud SILVA, 2009, p. 25): “if the teacher’s relationship with books is weak, the chances are that his performance in the sphere of teaching reading will leave much to be desired.”

The second point considered important for the formation of the reader is to know the public policies to promote literary reading, and, according to our studies, the starting point of the discussions on the appreciation of the book and reading took place in 2003 with the enactment of the Law 10,753, which established the Brazilian National Book Policy. According to the Law mentioned above, the book is directly linked to culture and collaborates with its perpetuation, as mentioned above.

The main guidelines of Law 10,753 reinforce that the book and reading deserve a prominent place and the public power must:

I – Assegurar ao cidadão o pleno exercício do direito de acesso e uso do livro;

II – […]

III – fomentar e apoiar a produção, a edição, a difusão, a distribuição e a comercialização do livro;

IV – Estimular a produção intelectual dos escritores e autores brasileiros, tanto de obras científicas como culturais;

V – Promover e incentivar o hábito da leitura;

VI – Propiciar os meios para fazer do Brasil um grande centro editorial;

VII – competir no mercado internacional de livros, ampliando a exportação de livros nacionais;

VIII – apoiar a livre circulação do livro no País;

IX – Capacitar a população para o uso do livro como fator fundamental para seu progresso econômico, político, social e promover a justa distribuição do saber e da renda;

X – Instalar e ampliar no País livrarias, bibliotecas e pontos de venda de livro;

XI – propiciar aos autores, editores, distribuidores e livreiros as condições necessárias ao cumprimento do disposto nesta Lei;

XII – assegurar às pessoas com deficiência visual o acesso à leitura. (BRASIL, 2003, p. 01).

In order to promote the book, reading, writing, literature and public libraries, on July 12, 2018, Law nº 13.696 was published in the Federal Official Gazette, which establishes the Brazilian National Policy on Reading and Writing/PNLE, with objectives that reinforce the relevance of public policies for this sector and for the training of reading mediators, specified in their Article 3, items I, II and III:

I – Democratizar o acesso ao livro e aos diversos suportes à leitura por meio de bibliotecas de acesso público, entre outros espaços de incentivo à leitura, de forma a ampliar os acervos físicos e digitais e as condições de acessibilidade;

II – Fomentar a formação de mediadores de leitura e fortalecer ações de estímulo à leitura, por meio da formação continuada em práticas de leitura para professores, bibliotecários e agentes de leitura, entre outros agentes educativos, culturais e sociais;

III – Valorizar a leitura e o incremento de seu valor simbólico e institucional por meio de campanhas, premiações e eventos de difusão cultural do livro, da leitura, da literatura e das bibliotecas. (BRASIL, 2018, p. 02).

The orientation given by Law nº 13.696 is that the process of democratization of reading be promoted by the Union, through the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Education, in collaboration with the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities and with the contribution of civil society and private institutions, however, we emphasize that, in order to guarantee the implementation of federal laws and programs at the state and municipal levels, the Federal Government must invest in monitoring all stages of implementation of these programs, with continuous monitoring to ensure compliance with the laws that govern the book, especially with regard to the creation of state and municipal plans for books and reading.

The third and last relevant point for the formation of the reader is the formation of reading mediators and as we have already mentioned above, it is notorious to know that parents or guardians play a significant role in the lives of children in relation to encouraging reading, however when not there is this stimulus in childhood, is the child able to develop a taste for reading at another time in his/her life? To answer this question, we deal with the important figure of the reading mediator, because “just circulating in the midst of diversified reading materials does not develop the taste for the act of reading. It is essential to live with one or more people who are eventually or permanently involved with these materials, meaning them”. (SANTOS, NETO and RÖSING, 2009, p. 13).

In this segment, if the intervention of mediators is necessary to develop a taste for reading, we consider it essential that the formation of readers is a top priority, both for families, schools and Social Institutions. These entities must get involved with the democratization of reading, considering that the transformation of a non-reading community into a reader will bring positive results and, consequently, will contribute to the formation of a more just and egalitarian society.

As a strategy to increase the number of readers, we suggest the availability of favorable environments for the development of reading, accessible to all, regardless of social class or age.

The act of reading when it is not stimulated through example, should be encouraged with mediation activities based on literary collections, and, for this, we count on the important participation of reading mediators, also known as reading agents.

We consider the role of the reading mediator to be fundamental, as the mediator introduces the “cultural, hermeneutic dimension of reading, as a complement to the utilitarian, pragmatic instrumental reading, which can only occur from a new, more plenary idea of ​​reason, and from a vital illustration”. (ASSUMÇÃO, 2009, p. 58).

In general terms, we aim to list the importance of the reading mediator for the formation of readers, therefore, we highlight the fundamental characteristics to be a reading mediator:

Para ser um agente de leitura a pessoa tem primeiro que gostar de ler, ter vontade e compromisso social de compartilhar esse gosto e sua experiência de leitura com um outro tanto de gente, formando leitores em ambientes diversos como bibliotecas públicas municipais, escolas, fábricas, empresas, associações, comunidades e dentro das casas, no seio de famílias que abrem portas para que os livros e leitura possam entrar em suas vidas.” (SANTOS, 2009, p. 40 e 41).

Thus, being a reader precedes the act of being a reading mediator. This proposition is so evident when we start from the premise that one does not teach what one does not know, however, we emphasize that it is possible to train reading mediators among people who have not developed the habit of literary reading in a timely manner continuing education capable of transforming non-literary readers into reading agents/mediators.

In order to collaborate with discussions on this topic, we present below the six main points that should be taken into account in policies for the training of reading mediators, according to Neto:

      1. Formar mediadores de leitura é prioridade; 2. Há locais e instituições fundamentais para a atuação de mediadores, mas eles devem estar em todos os lugares; 3. Não é vergonha ou subordinação intelectual repetir práticas simples e óbvias; 4. Em qualquer programa de formação de mediadores é importante dedicar a maior parte do tempo à leitura; 5. Os programas de formação de mediadores do sistema público devem ser integrados às iniciativas do terceiro setor e do setor privado; 6. Os programas de formação de mediadores de leitura são para todos. (NETO, 2009, p. 66 a 69).

Of the six points mentioned above, we consider the investment in the time dedicated to reading to be essential for programs aimed at training reading mediators. If programs aimed at training reading mediators include in their agendas the reading of the most varied types of literary texts, even if the future reading agent/mediator has not had prior access to these materials, it is perfectly possible to arouse an interest in reading. literature after contact with these texts.

We emphasize that the reading agent/mediator does not need to have acquired the habit of reading in childhood or adolescence and, at the same time, we reinforce that from the moment he decides to be a reading mediator, this contact with literary texts is necessary, since, for the agent to influence its public to develop a taste for reading, it needs, in addition to knowing the bibliographic collection, to enjoy reading, exchanging reading experiences and having a social commitment.

In order to better explain the attributions of the Reading agent/mediator role, we searched for some theorists who deal with this theme. For Santos (2009, p. 45) reading is a dynamic cultural action and the role of the reading agent is to “awaken the interest and taste for reading in a critical and inventive way, as an infinite pleasure in each person’s life” and not work on merely functional or instrumental reading.

To achieve success, the reading agent/mediator must establish the subject’s interaction with the cultural world that surrounds him. Santos equates reading agents with culture agents by declaring that:

A proposta dos Agentes de Cultura consiste em movimentar relações sociais através de instrumentos e linguagens artísticas e culturais. O agente é aquele que estabelece pontes de comunicação entre os universos que percorre, enfocando esses atores sociais como sujeitos que transitam entre múltiplos polos, mobilizando ideias, estilos de vida, práticas sociais, modos de percepção, objetos, linguagens e universos culturais. Dessa forma, os agentes de cultura – enfatizando aqui os agentes de leitura – não apenas dão movimento a esse trânsito como desempenham o papel de fazer interagir diferentes mundos e experiências por meio da literatura numa interface com outras linguagens artísticas e suportes de leituras. (SANTOS, 2009, p. 39).

On this aspect, Santos (2009, p. 38) also states that the reading agent must act in the perspective of prioritizing access to books and reading training as a “basic right of citizenship, social inclusion and development”. “His cultural action is, par excellence, a social action to transform the reality where he is inserted. In a broader dimension, every reading agent is a cultural and social agent”.

In summary, we believe that if literary reading contributes to the increase in the number of cultural consumers, the need to invest in public policies for the democratization of access to literary books becomes evident, with comprehensive actions capable of including all communities, be they urban or rural, in the world of literature.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

As can be seen, we started this study by presenting the current situation of Brazilian education indicated by national and international external evaluations and when analyzing that the percentage of functional illiteracy in Brazil is 29%, we cannot forget that within this group of functional illiterates are included the absolute illiterates (those who cannot read words and sentences), people with complete secondary education and even people with higher education, that is, the quality of Brazilian basic education needs to be changed and what we intended to build this work was to point out two alternatives to improve educational indicators, namely: the democratization of access to literary books and the offer of cultural products and services.

In order to show that there is a natural relationship between access to literary books and interest in cultural facilities, we seek to trace an association between literature, literary reading, society and culture, however studies on this topic are still scarce, therefore, we understand that the data acquired through this research, despite being relevant, are not enough to prove that there is a relationship between access to literary books and the willingness to practice cultural consumption, however, we emphasize that there is a possibility of advancing the discussions on this subject and we leave as a contribution the proposal of elaborating a specific research to study, during a certain period, the groups of readers and non-readers of a certain community and to compare the cultural consumption of these two publics.

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[1] Teacher of Basic Education in the State of Tocantins. Master’s student in Educational Sciences at Absoulute Christian University. Postgraduate in Portuguese Language and Literature, by the Faculdade de Tecnologia Equipe Darwin, in Neuropsychopedagogy and Special and Inclusive Education, by the Universidade Candido Mendes and in Children’s Literature, by the Faculdade Única de Ipatinga, Graduated in Pedagogy, by the Faculdade da Terra de Brasilia/FTB.

Sent: March, 2020.

Approved: March, 2020.

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