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Educational arrangement in the greater Florianópolis region: A case study

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

BORGES, José Carlos [1], FELICIANO, Felipe Kupka [2], WILLERDING, Inara Antunes Vieira [3], LAPOLLI, Édis Mafra [4]

BORGES, José Carlos. Et al. Educational arrangement in the greater Florianópolis region: A case study. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 09, Vol. 09, p. 35-45. September 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/educational-arrangement

ABSTRACT

The world has been undergoing major transformations, in a matter of days what is innovative becomes obsolete. With educational models it is no different, education has not only the need to change, but the duty. In recent years, education has often been discussed, but it often results in more of the same, more content, theory and educational models, and most of the time, specific models for a particular municipality or even school. It is time to pass on education in an innovative, systemic and cooperative way, seeking solutions together for better equity and quality of education. The Education Development Arrangement emerged from this need, to see education in a given region in a systemic and innovative way, understanding that the result of the parts is part of a whole. In this sense, in 2015, the Greater Florianópolis Education Development Arrangement (ADE-GRANFPOLIS) was created with the aim of leveraging the quality of education at the municipal level and consequently at the regional level. The arrangement was the result of much dialogue between municipalities, the association and a partnership with Instituto Positivo. The Greater Florianópolis region is made up of 22 municipalities, of which 21 are currently engaged in improving the quality of education through the inter-municipal cooperation regime. These actions meet the needs of 431 schools in the municipal education network and directly affect 5,702 teachers and 64,213 students in Early Childhood Education and Elementary School. The actions of the Education Development Arrangements (ADEs) are usually directed to Early Childhood Education and Elementary School in the early years, considering that these stages of education are under the responsibility of the municipal sphere, at least in most cases. The results obtained in these early years of ADE-GRANFPOLIS were very positive. In addition to containing the growing fall in the Basic Education Development Index (IDEB) and correcting the age/year distortion, the municipalities in the region built and revised their educational laws, and had the opportunity to carry out training courses for teachers, managers and staff technique, leveraging the qualification of teachers and, consequently, the education of the region.

Keywords: Education, cooperation regime, education development arrangement.

1. INTRODUCTION

In the last decades, the world has undergone sudden changes in several segments, in a matter of a short time, what was innovative has become obsolete. It is no different with education, that traditional education based on the unicentralism of the teacher or book has become unsustainable, the public of two years ago is no longer the same as it is today, the pace and technological trends dictate the rules, even in the educational context.

Faced with this transformation, in 2016, the Collaborative Education Movement was launched, which aimed to discuss, rethink and understand the reality and conditions necessary to improve learning outcomes, through joint work between federated entities, foundations , institutes, groups and financial institutions in various strategic areas. One of the strategic axes of the movement is the production, management and transmission of knowledge in the educational field, with a view to practical and theoretical experience through a regime of collaboration in education.

The collaboration regime is provided for in the Federal Constitution and follows the principles of the National Education Guidelines and Bases Law of  Brazil (LDB/96), as well as in accordance with the National Education Plan and referenced in state and municipal education plans. This collaboration regime gained more visibility with the creation of the ADEs (Education Development Arrangements).

For Ramos (2010), educational arrangements were conceived as a “network model in which a group of municipalities with geographic proximity and similar social and economic characteristics, seeks to exchange experiences and jointly solve difficulties in the area of ​​education”. In this sense, the ADE can be considered a model of action for basic education in an inter-municipal cooperation regime, which seeks, through joint actions, to increase equity and improve the educational quality of students in that highlighted region.

According to Abrucio (2017), these models began to gain strength in the last decade, and the first experience of a model of a cooperative educational regime in Brazil emerged in 2009. This model brought together 12 municipalities in the Bahian Recôncavo, with the support from the Ministry of Education of Brazil (MEC), Secretary of Education of the State of Bahia (SEE-BA), National Union of Municipal Education Directors of Bahia (UNDIME-BA), State Council of Education of Bahia (CEE-BA), Instituto Votorantim, the All for Education Movement, Municipal Education Departments and the Federal University of Recôncavo Baiano (UFRB). Also in 2009, two other regions implemented similar models, a model on the Carajás Railway Line, in Maranhão, and another in Votuporanga, in the state of São Paulo.

In 2010, the ADEs began to gain greater visibility due to the success of most of the models implemented, the discussions at CONAE-2010 (National Conference on Education of Brazil) and the forwarding of the Bill that deals with the insertion of educational arrangements in the National Plan and in educational legislation. This project was sent to Congress by Deputy Alex Canziani, and its approval was approved the following year, through the approval of Opinion CNE/CEB n. 09/2011, to prepare studies on the implementation of the collaboration regime in the form of ADEs.

The insertion of educational arrangements took place only on June 25, 2014, through § 7 of Article 7 of Law n. 13.005, which approves the National Education Plan: “The strengthening of the collaboration regime between the Municipalities will also take place through the adoption of educational development arrangements” (BRASIL, 2014, p. 46).

In July 2015, the MEC published the final report of the working group that was responsible for studying the implementation and monitoring of ADEs, presenting many points that should be reviewed, including the lack of transparency or non-existence of the ADEs. financing mechanisms, improvement of promotion among federated entities, testing, developing and improving inter-municipal cooperation devices, and finally, working on the possibility of transferring the education fund, taking into account the adherence and results of the ADEs.

2. ADE – GRANFPOLIS

ADE-GRANFOLIS was consolidated in 2015, however, the region’s collaboration regime existed even before the creation of ADE – GRANFPOLIS. The municipalities, through the Association of Municipalities of GRANFPOLIS, met periodically to discuss administrative and pedagogical actions aimed at improving the quality of education in the region.

ADE-GRANFOLIS was the result of a lot of dialogue between municipalities, the association and possible collaborators, and after some meetings the municipalities signed a partnership with Instituto Positivo, which continues to act directly in the actions and strategies listed by the group.

The Greater Florianópolis region is made up of 22 municipalities, of which 21 are currently engaged in improving the quality of education through the inter-municipal cooperation regime. These actions are aimed at 431 schools in the municipal education network and directly affect 5,702 teachers and 64,213 students in Early Childhood Education and Elementary School. The actions of ADEs are usually directed to Early Childhood Education and Elementary School Early Years, considering that these stages of education are under the responsibility of the municipal sphere, at least for the most part.

3. ADE ACTION PLAN – GRANFPOLIS

According to data from the ADEGRANFOLIS and Instituto Positivo report, published in Revista de Resultados (2017), during the discussions of the arrangement, in 2015, four goals were listed that should be studied and consolidated until the end of the first phase of the ADE, in this case, the end of 2017. These goals were based on the National Education Plan and the Municipal Education Plans. The Municipal Education Plan has already been built in a line of cooperation by the municipalities of Greater Florianópolis.

The first goal was to institute, implement and consolidate a large-scale evaluation process covering 100% of the municipalities that make up the ADE of GRANFPOLIS, the main objective of this evaluation is to understand the real reasons for non-learning, retention and school dropout during elementary school. It was developed based on the results of a diagnosis carried out with the participation of the municipalities of Grande Florianópolis, Associação da GRANFPOLIS and Instituto Positivo. The diagnosis showed that 19% of the Education Systems lowered the 2013 grade in relation to the 2011 grade; 91% of the Education Systems that have a grade in the IDEB of the Final Years did not reach the target in 2013; 70% of the Teaching Systems that offer the Final Years have a failure rate greater than 15%, together with the 6th grade; 86.3% of the Teaching Systems that offer the Final Years register failure in all classes of this teaching stage; 63.5% of the GRANFPOLIS ADE Teaching Systems register the highest failure rate of the Initial Years of Elementary School in the 3rd grade.

In this sense, an evaluation subsidized by Instituto Positivo was created, to measure and diagnose not only the students, but also the didactics and methodology of the professors.

The second goal was to improve the school flow among all Elementary School classes in the ADE-GRANFPOLIS region, reducing, by the year 2017, the current general average rate of age/year distortion and through a curricular reorganization and didactic-pedagogical, to solve the learning difficulties. The diagnosis of this goal presented the following results: 100% of the Education Systems record age/grade distortion reaching, in 2014, approximately 13,700 students in the territory of the ADE of GRANFPOLIS, according to data from the School Census/2014 released by Inep. The average age/grade distortion rate in the 9th grade in the rural area is 45.5 and in the urban area it is 36.8. The average rate of age/grade distortion of the final years is 160% higher than that of the initial years of Elementary School; 70% of the Teaching Systems that offer the Final Years have a failure rate greater than 15, along with the 6th grade classes and 86.3% of the Teaching Systems that offer the Final Years register failure in all classes of this teaching stage.

It is important to clarify that, for the consolidation of the second goal, ADEGRANFOLIS had the partnership of Instituto Positivo and the important support of Instituto Ayrton Senna, which offered us literacy and flow correction programs.

The third goal was to prepare a document with proposals for the application of FUNDEB resources and appreciation of Education Professionals, with the implementation of 1/3 of an activity hour for all teachers who work in the ADE-GRANFPOLIS region, regardless of the level, stage or teaching modality.

The diagnosis referring to the third goal, showed that 68% of the Education Systems use more than 80% of FUNDEB in the remuneration of the Teaching Professionals in effective exercise; 54.5% of the ADE-GRANFPOLIS Teaching Systems apply less than 10% of FUNDEB resources to other expenses with the maintenance and development of education; 95.4% of the ADE – GRANFPOLIS Teaching Systems have not yet implemented 1/3 of an activity at all levels/stages and teaching modalities, according to data from ADE – GRANFPOLIS itself, with support from Instituto Positivo.

This goal was much discussed by the group, most municipalities that are part of ADEGRANFOLIS created laws regulating the 1/3 of an activity hour, as well as the implementation of the Teaching System and the revision of the Career Plan for the Teaching Professional, however, many are facing budget difficulties in order to comply with the law, given that FUNDEB is not enough to pay professionals and that a very large portion of the municipality’s own resources is destined to pay teachers. It is relevant to say that this goal is still under discussion and actions are often developed to mitigate this financial impact.

The fourth goal aims to create an institutional assessment to diagnose and evaluate the actions of Municipal Education Systems. The diagnosis of this fourth goal shows that 70.54% of the professionals who work in the Municipal Education Departments of the Teaching Systems ADE -GRANFPOLIS in 2015, do not have an effective position in the Departments; 74.4% of the Education Systems do not have criteria for choosing the direction of schools; 96% of the Early Childhood Education schools in the ADE – GRANFPOLIS Teaching Systems do not have a Library or Reading Room.

This fourth goal is one of the broadest, it deals with school management and administration, but with the support of public management to develop joint work between school, public sector and society. In this goal, courses and training were held for managers and technical staff to deal with administrative and pedagogical matters, the highlight was the training course for Managers in Motion.

The four targets detailed above were applied between 2015 and 2017, however, parallel works were carried out between 2013 and 2014, but superficially and without the adhesion of all municipalities in the region.

Therefore, the result of the action of the arrangement in numerical form will be presented only with the results of the IDEB, which will probably be released in the month of September of the current year. However, it is worth mentioning the current importance of the arrangement for the municipalities, through the actions all the municipalities in the region built their specific educational laws, in addition, they had the opportunity to correct the age/year gap and carry out training courses for teachers, managers and technical staff.

4. METHODOLOGY

The present research assumed characteristics of a qualitative study, it was carried out through bibliographic investigation and research and analysis on the IDEB (Basic Education Development Index) database and ADE-GRANFPOLIS indexes. According to Araújo (2003, p. 58), the term “research” refers to a class of activities whose objective is to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.

The bibliographic research presents a theoretical framework based on books, documents and published articles related to the regime of inter-municipal cooperation in the development of Education and by collecting data through tables, graphs and numerical figures, which are the results of the actions and strategies developed by ADE-GRANFOLIS.

To obtain the data and prepare the graphs, tables and indexes, research was carried out in the IDEB (Basic Education Development Index) database, between the years 2007 to 2017 and the ADE-GRANFOLIS indexes were analyzed from its creation in 2015 to 2019, date of the latest indices.

IDEB is an indicator created by the federal government and used to measure the quality of basic education teaching. Its calculation is performed by means of performance (passing and failing), age/grade distortion and assessment of students every two years. The indicator was created in 2007 by INEP (National Institute of Educational Studies and Research Anísio Teixeira) within the scope of the Education Development Plan. It is relevant to clarify that IDEB data were used only until 2017, as the 2019 indicator is not yet available for research.

5. RESULTS OF ACTIONS OF ADE-GRANFPOLIS

When analyzing the indicators presented in Table 1, it is possible to evidence the growth of the Basic Education Development Index of Santa Catarina from 2007 to 2017. However, the indicators after 2013 will be emphasized, since from that date, the region of Greater Florianópolis through the association of municipalities became more active through the inter-municipal cooperation regime.

Table 1: IDEB 2007, 2013 and 2017 – Municipalities of Greater Florianópolis

MUNICIPALITY IDEB 2007 IDEB 2013 IDEB 2017
Águas Mornas 5.8 6.0 6.7
Alfredo Wagner 4.6 6.0 6.9
Angelina 5.2 6.3 7.7
Anitápolis 4.7 5.4 5.5
Antônio Carlos 5.6 6.9 6.6
Biguaçu 4.2 5.0 5.5
Canelinha 5.0 6.3 6.3
Florianópolis 4.6 5.6 5.8
Garopaba 4.6 6.3 7.1
Governador Celso Ramos 4.5 5.5 6.3
Leoberto Leal 5.9
Major Gercino 6.8
Nova Trento 5.2 6.2 6.7
Palhoça 4.4 5.3 5.7
Paulo Lopes 4.4 4.4 5.7
Rancho Queimado 4.6 6.4
Santo Amaro da Imperatriz 4.8 6.1 6.1
São Bonifácio 4.6 6.1 6.8
São João Batista 5.1 6.3 6.3
São José 4.4 5.3 6.2
São Pedro de Alcântara 5.3 6.8 6.8
Tijucas 4.5 5.6 5.9

Source: Prepared by the authors based on the Basic Education Development Index (IDEB 2017).

In 2013, the Brazilian IDEB average was 5.8 and the Santa Catarina average was 5.9, as well as the average for the Greater Florianópolis region. In 2017, the national average remained at 5.8, however, the state of Santa Catarina advanced to 6.3 and the Greater Florianópolis region had an even better index, 6.4. Since 10 of the 22 municipalities had an IDEB above 6.5, of which 08 municipalities had their indexes greater than or equal to 6.7, an excellent average.

In a statement in the 2017 Revista Resultados, the leader of ADE-GRANFPOLIS Antão Antônio David (2017) highlights the importance of the arrangement of the Greater Florianópolis region. “With the Arrangement, we managed to change all the perspectives of Education: the children, the teachers and the entire management of the Municipal Education Departments are undergoing a great transformation for the better”.

For the year 2019, an even greater expectation is created, referring to the IDEB average for the Greater Florianópolis region, as several strategies and actions were developed, emphasizing the process of literacy, reading and interpretation of texts, in addition to teacher training , technical team, coordinators and managers. These actions met the needs of 21 municipal education secretariats and directly contributed to improving the quality of education for 64,213 students in Early Childhood Education and Elementary Education.

6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Given the various difficulties faced by the current scenario of Brazilian education, the ADEs present collaborative actions, with emphasis on the inter-municipal cooperation model. In this way, by intensifying the quality of relations between partner municipalities, equity and quality of education can be increased.

The inter-municipal cooperation evidenced in ADE-GRANFOLIS, presents us with significant results, all municipalities are strongly engaged in actions that can contribute directly to their own municipality and thus, also contribute with the other municipalities in a joint way.

The expectation becomes even greater, when waiting for the IDEB results for the year 2019, as several strategies and actions were developed, emphasizing the literacy process, reading and interpretation of texts, in addition to the training of teachers, technical staff, coordinators and managers. All these actions will have a positive impact on the index, most likely maintaining or raising the score of the municipalities in the region.

REFERENCES

ABRUCIO, Fernando L; Cooperação Intermunicipal: experiência de Arranjo de Desenvolvimento da Educação no Brasil. 1ª ed. Curitiba: Positivo, 2017. p. 85.

ADE-GRANFPOLIS; Instituto Positivo. Históricos e Metas. Revista de Resultados 2017. Disponível em: <http://institutopositivo.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/ADE-GRANFPOLIS-%E2%80%93-RESULTADOS-2017.pdf> Acesso em:17 de set. 2020.

ARAÚJO, Laís Záu Serpa de. Aspectos éticos da pesquisa científica. Pesquisa Odontológica Brasileira, [S. l.], v. 17, n. 1, p. 57-63, 2003.

BRASIL. Plano Nacional de Educação 2014 – 2024. Disponível em: <http://www.proec.ufpr.br/download/extensao/2016/creditacao/PNE%202014-2024.pdf> Acesso em 06 de jun. de 2020.

INEP (Instituto de Estudo e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira). IDEB- Resultados e Metas. Disponível em: <http://ideb.inep.gov.br/resultado/> Acesso em: 10 jun. 2020.

RAMOS, M. N. Arranjos de Desenvolvimento de Educação. In: ABRUCIO, F. L.; RAMOS, M. N. (Orgs). Regime de colaboração e associativismo territorial: arranjos de desenvolvimento da educação. São Paulo: Fundação Santillana, 2012, p. 67-84.

[1] EAD Management and Tutoring Specialist.

[2] Master in Engineering and Knowledge Management.

[3] PhD in Engineering and Knowledge Management.

[4] PhD in Engineering and Knowledge Management.

Sent: September, 2020.

Approved: September, 2020.

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