GAMA, Uberto Afonso Albuquerque da, Paula Rodrigues, Ana. A brief study of the psychoanalytic profile of the bully or aggressor. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 03, Ed. 12, Vol. 06, p. 05-16, December, 2018. ISSN:2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/psychology/psychoanalytic-of-bully, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/psychology/psychoanalytic-of-bully
What are the main factors that lead students and people in general to have a violent profile? What is the environment in which bullying develops? This is the problem of our theme and that leads us to analyze it from the point of view of psychoanalysis.
Keywords: Aggression, Intimidation, Abuse.
The aim of this work is to make a brief psychoanalytic analysis of the set of traits and characteristics of the bully also known as aggressor or quarrelsome in schools and family, and to show how psychoanalysis can collaborate with the reduction of these abuses and intimidation in schools and in society as one all.
Bullying. This is a topic that has been researched and addressed quite frequently in the various environments of our society. Teachers need help in this endeavor, but especially parents need this help. By handing their children over to schools for educational and cultural guidance, parents entrust their children to the teachers and the school’s pedagogical philosophy that they have chosen for a period of the day or throughout the day, and where they will share their experiences, examples and experiences, qualities that will build human beings with moral firmness and civic education. It is desired that the children are in a peaceful and safe environment, with principles and norms that guide their lives in communion with what is taught at home. However, children are not expected to go through vexatious and humiliating situations.
Thus, in this article, we intend to discuss the profile of the bully or the provocateur who harasses and who groups together by the law of attraction other elements with personality traits similar to himself, and who, like him, also seek aggression in relationships. and social manipulation.
The objective is, therefore, to show the main factors that lead some students to have an aggressive or violent temperament, and to suggest, through humanistic psychoanalysis and clinical philosophy, therapeutic sessions of reflection for self-knowledge, seeking to eliminate or, at least, significantly reduce the assaults and harassment by bullies.
Bullying is a phenomenon that is characterized by acts of physical, emotional or verbal violence that occur in a repetitive and intentional way against a person or a group. This is a phenomenon that began to be studied and evaluated in 1970 in Sweden. In the Brazilian scenario, it was mainly in the 1990s that bullying began to be discussed, but it was from 2005 onwards that the topic became the subject of discussion in scientific articles (NETO, 2005). Neto’s (2005) current understanding of bully behavior is correct, and he agrees with Fante (2018) when he says:
O bullying está presente em praticamente todas as escolas do mundo, e seus altos índices de prevalência chamam a atenção. Uma investigação desenvolvida em 28 países constatou que cerca de 40% dos estudantes são intimidados por colegas. No Brasil, a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) demonstrou que 30,8% dos alunos já foram vitimizados por bullying alguma vez (IBGE, 2009).
There seems to be a consensus among the authors that the perception and sensation of the community in general and of the school, in particular, is of an increase in violence and bullying in schools, as well as a significant increase in the severity of these processes CARVALHO, TRUFEM & PAULA , 2009).
Several studies have dealt with the factors that motivate bullying and the profile of those involved (CARVALHO, TRUFEM & PAULA, 2009). Teachers perceive that bullying harms classroom work, mainly because they see a relationship between aggression, indiscipline and learning difficulties (TREVISOL & DRESCH, 2011).
As stated by the authors Trevisol and Dresch (2011), it is necessary to affirm that the absence of data or previous public attention does not allow to conclude if it is a contemporary and new phenomenon, or if it has always existed. However, research on intervention and prevention of bullying at school can be considered recent.
In these studies, Trevisol and Dresch (2011) show that violence cannot be analyzed in a simplified way and that it requires a reflection on social transformations and on how relationships are being built. Thus, for both authors, it is shown that aggressiveness and violence in schools are increasing. This is being observed as a worldwide social problem.
The review of scientific articles published in national and international journals is clearly showing that school bullying is gaining more and more prominence in scientific publications.
THE BULLY PROFILE
The World Health Organization defines violence as the use of physical force or actual power or threat against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, and which either results in or has any possibility of resulting in or likely to result in harm. , death, psychological harm, developmental disability or deprivation (WHO, 2013).
It is observed in the authors Fischer-Lorenzi (2010) that the aggressor hurts the victims in the bathrooms, corridors, canteen, in the patio, reserving his actions during the absence of the adults. In some cases, the aggression goes beyond the walls of the school, becoming telephone and even the use of electronic mail and social media called cyberbullying (MEDINA, 2004).
In private schools and public schools in several Brazilian municipalities, aggressive and malicious students are seen, and their relentless action on others, whether newbies or veterans (YOGI, 2014).
Both authors, Medina (2004) and Yogi (2014) agree that victims are approached during the absence or distancing of adults. It is understood, therefore, that if there is an inspector during the break between classes, students are able to stay under control. The term bullying can be used to explain all kinds of aggressive, cruel, purposeful and systematic behavior inherent to interpersonal relationships” (SILVA, 2015).
Being an aggressor or a victim of bullying is not just a school problem that should be minimized. On the contrary, it is a problem that can have serious consequences for both victims and perpetrators, such as depression, for example, for victims, and criminality or antisocial behavior for perpetrators, even into adulthood. (TTOFI-FARRINGTON, 2011).
In Brazil, in 2010, a study with a sample of 5,168 students from the fifth to eighth grades of public and private schools in the five regions of the country characterized bullying by aggressions with a frequency of more than one year and identified 12.5% of victims (FISCHER-LORENZI, 2010). ).
According to Medina (2004):
Observa-se que o agressor tem um comportamento provocador e de intimidação permanente. Ele possui uma ação agressiva na resolução de seus conflitos ou dos conflitos que se identifica, e apresenta dificuldade de colocar-se no lugar do outro vivendo uma relação familiar pouco afetiva, além do que tem muito pouca empatia. Especialistas, criminalistas e psicólogos, uma criança pode ser autor de bullying quando só espera e quer que façam sempre sua vontade, quando gosta de provar da sensação de poder, quando não se sente bem ou não desfruta com outras crianças, se sofre intimidações ou algum tipo de abuso em casa, na escola ou na família, quando é frequentemente humilhado por adultos, ou quando vive sob constante pressão para que tenha êxito em suas atividades.
Profiling the bully is an exhaustive and thorough study. Many indicators must be evaluated. Bullying assessment addresses both the bully and the victim. Many authors are currently working tirelessly on this topic.
The family and social aspects of adolescents and pre-adolescents are also very important factors and addressed by several authors. According to Yogi (2014, p. 24):
Observa-se que desequilíbrio emocional de uma família, a falta de afeto, de respeito, de diálogo e de espiritualidade levará o adolescente e pré-adolescente ao isolamento e alienação e, consequentemente, ao consumo de drogas, jogos de azar, manipulação sexual, comportamentos antiéticos e antissociais e toda eventualidade de ações. Tudo isso são fatores de risco para a sociedade. Enquanto o Estado não assumir a responsabilidade constitucional de instruir e a família de educar, quaisquer outras ações mais agressivas não auxiliarão no processo de preparar e aperfeiçoar o cidadão.
Zych (2017) states that current research on bullying in schools is presenting force-based approaches to containing this growing epidemic.
Undoubtedly, it can be seen that bullying is becoming a serious public health problem and the constituted authorities will have to act more quickly and forcefully, in several cases, to put an end to this issue.
The psychoanalytic community has its eyes on the bullying phenomenon. It’s not something new, but quite complex and with many variables to work with. Crises and conflicts in schools and families are increasing.
According to Neto (2005):
O termo violência escolar diz respeito a todos os comportamentos agressivos e antissociais, incluindo os conflitos interpessoais, danos ao patrimônio, atos criminosos, etc. Muitas dessas situações dependem de fatores externos, cujas intervenções podem estar além da competência e capacidade das entidades de ensino e de seus funcionários. Porém, para um sem número delas, a solução possível pode ser obtida no próprio ambiente escolar. O comportamento violento, que causa tanta preocupação e temor, resulta da interação entre o desenvolvimento individual e os contextos sociais, como a família, a escola e a comunidade. Infelizmente, o modelo do mundo exterior é reproduzido nas escolas, fazendo com que essas instituições deixem de ser ambientes seguros, modulados pela disciplina, amizade e cooperação, e se transformem em espaços onde há violência, sofrimento e medo.
Also according to NETO (2005), the adoption of continuous preventive programs in kindergarten and elementary schools has proved to be one of the most effective measures in the prevention of alcohol and drug consumption and in the reduction of social violence.
Therefore, it is necessary to transmit to students philosophical and spiritual principles and bases that lead them to better reflect on the meaning of life, the reason for human existence and our interrelationships, filling a vacuum that exists in the educational and family process itself.
Thus, FRANKL (2010) confirms that this existential vacuum will only cease to exist when the meaning of existence is found.
Still says Frankl (2010):
Não faz parte da missão do médico dar sentido à vida do paciente, mas pode muito bem ser missão dele, por meio de uma análise existencial, pôr os pacientes em condições de encontrarem um sentido na sua vida. (1986, p. 332)
This work of expansion and awakening of consciousness must be done gradually and the analyst must lead the patient in the search for the individual’s inner peace, giving him tools so that he can extract the “3 I’s” that medical science insists on having in harmony. : euphoria, euthymia and eurythmy. These are fundamental principles for the well-being of every human being in the pursuit of self-fulfillment (YOGI, 2014).
Table 1. Psychoanalytic Profile of Bully.
|PSYCHOANALYTIC PROFILE OF THE BULLY
Adjusted familiar produces:
|A secure individual, with loving parents, siblings and a cooperative family group, and producing good habits, such as:
|An insecure individual, with muscular armor, fears, trauma and aggression. The effects of these psycho-emotional vacuums create bad habits, such as:
Source: Adapted from S. Swami Vyaghra Yogi (2014, pp.24 – 33).
APPROACH OF HUMANIST PSYCHOANALYSIS
What to do then to solve the problem of bullying in Brazil? How can humanistic psychoanalysis work? It is notorious the fact that studies on the issues that guide human behavior have aroused interest in scholars for millennia. Likewise, temperament, personality and character are words used frequently since antiquity (VOLPI, 2002).
Fante (2003) and Neto (2005) define that bullying practitioners are known as perpetrators. The targets, the victimized people, usually suffer the consequences of bullying and, most of the time, are described as not sociable, insecure, with low self-esteem, quiet and who do not react affectively to the acts of aggression suffered.
For some authors such as SILVA (2010) bullying is considered a case of public health. It is therefore necessary to look more broadly and seriously at this aspect that has increased day by day. The tyrannical or bossy students, to be behaving like bullies, suffered from early childhood with the development of their personality.
According to SILVA (2010):
Os agressores são descritos, no livro, da seguinte maneira: “Possuem em sua personalidade traços de desrespeito e maldade […], prescrevendo que, “Em se tratado de bullying, vale a máxima de que é preciso separar a maçã podre para que não contamine todo o cesto.” (SILVA 2015, p. 116).
It is understood that the violence experienced in schools reflects a broader and more serious context than what is exposed. It can be believed that, to a greater or lesser extent, the aggression manifested by bullying is inserted in the family and in the family context. Humanistic psychoanalysis will be able to collaborate in the treatment and education for peace, offering reflection on the case with discussions with students in activities in the schools themselves.
According to the opinion of Voltolini (2004), what is now presented as school inclusion had different origins and evolution. It emerges as a public policy whose aim would be to guarantee the rights of these people to schooling. And this because it was noticed that the social tendency of exclusion of the disabled and the crazy also passed, as it could not be otherwise, by the school institution. The one in which the segregationist vocation regarding the poor had already been pointed out, now also received the impact of the criticism of segregation of the crazy and the different. (VOLTOLINI, 2004).
According to Fante (2005, apud SOUZA and ALMEIDA p. 188), the bullying phenomenon is an undeniable reality in Brazilian schools regardless of the study shift, the school’s location, the size of the school or the city where it is located or whether they are grades finals or initials or whether the school is public or private.
Bullying is not just harassment or aggression in schools. The workplace is also hostile, as recognized by Mishra (2018), in India:
O assédio moral no trabalho é um problema significativo de relações trabalhistas e saúde e segurança ocupacional na Índia, que garante intervenção urgente e holística, apresenta estudos empíricos examinando fatores contextuais, antecedentes, mediadores, moderadores, processos, resultados e soluções, aprofundando assim nossa compreensão. do fenômeno. Os capítulos mostrados no volume enfatizam o paradoxo sociocultural indiano paradoxal, cuja adoção simultânea do humanismo versus relações hierárquicas, personalizadas e baseadas em identidade, materialismo versus espiritualismo e individualismo versus coletivismo, alimentam e reprimem o mau comportamento. As investigações devem envolver paradigmas positivistas e pós-positivistas, basear-se em várias estruturas teóricas e substantivas, as quais utilizam uma variedade de métodos, investigam numerosos focos e abrangem várias regiões geográficas na Índia, uma variedade de setores industriais e todos os níveis da organização.
The authors agree (TEIXEIRA, FERREIRA & BORGES, 2015), who have studied this issue, using different terms, such as: moral harassment (Hirigoyen, 2002; Sá, 2008); mobbing (Carvalho, 2007; Leymann, 1996; Saraiva and Pinto, 2011) and bullying (Araújo, 2009; Borges and Ferreira, 2015; Einarsen et al., 2011; Simons & Mawn, 2010; Townsend, 2012). The concept of violence at work is extensive and complex, hence the numerous definitions, but, despite some particularities between the different terminologies to describe the phenomenon, they emphasize the fact that the behavior is offensive, repeated and continued over time, against one or more people.
Within the limits of the present work, the investigation of the literature referenced in this article showed the importance of identifying and analyzing the traits of the bully as fundamental foundations for understanding the profile of the bully or aggressor in the family, at school and at work.
The numerous authorities researched and the various texts commented throughout this article, allowed us to identify, analyze, evaluate and understand in a precise and undeniable way that provocateurs and aggressors are always individuals who, at some point in their lives, have suffered unpleasant emotional experiences, repeated. and constant, and who, for lack of a positive family behavioral example, registered in their psyche an aggressive and defiant outline with a volatile and rebellious temperament.
It is clear, therefore, but not concluded, that the role of psychoanalysis is fundamental in the process of helping to combat bullying and restore the individual’s balance. It is concluded that in bullying, apparently, physical aggression is more visible. However, psycho-emotional damage is always greater and deeper, commonly brought from childhood and family, awakened in the form of drama, exhibitionism and aggressiveness. Psychoanalysis will help in conflicts, in expanding the individual’s awareness of the problems faced and their resolution.
The topic is vast and still requires that other colleagues delve into the same. Thus, as researchers are increasingly adapting to electronic media in the creation of websites, blogs and other media in the production of scientific articles that address bullying and its impact on world society, it is productive to investigate this area of science more, directly linked to philosophy, psychology, psychoanalysis and psychiatry, with practical applications for society and psychoanalytic communities across continents.
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 Masters in Neuropsychoanalysis, Bachelor of Theology, Licentiate of Philosophy. Psychoanalyst and clinical philosopher, member of the UN international peacekeeping forces.
 Professor, Master in Psychology.
Sent: November, 2018
Approved: December, 2018