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Well-being in the work and non-work context: a correlational study

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

FONTOURA, Aline da Silva [1]

FONTOURA, Aline da Silva. Well-being in the work and non-work context: a correlational study. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 07, Ed. 01, Vol. 06, p. 16-36. January 2022. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link:  https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/psychology/well-being ‎

ABSTRACT

The work is part of the history and movement of changes in society. Studying well-being at work is necessary to accompany the constant changes in the social structure and to understand the impact of work activities on the perception of well-being in the context of work and non-work of individuals who live the contemporary dynamics of narrowing of the ” professional-personal barrier. Problem question: The present research discusses the degree of relationship between job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, work involvement and well-being at work, contextualizing the panorama of diminishing professional and personal “life” dichotomy in society today, in other In other words, the study seeks to answer the degree of correlation of the variables of well-being at work with the perception of well-being in the context of non-work (subjective well-being), that is, with general well-being. Objective: to analyze the well-being in the work context from its superordinate character, composed by the variables: job satisfaction, work involvement and affective organizational commitment; and well-being in the context of non-work (subjective well-being) through the variable subjective happiness. Methodology: The study had the participation of 457 workers who were also university students from a private institution with national coverage, who responded to the Work Involvement Scale, the Job Satisfaction Scale, the Affective Organizational Commitment Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale, in addition to the Socio Demographic Data Questionnaire. The data were analyzed through a correlational study and showed that the variables have a degree of correlation with each other. Main results and conclusions: It is concluded that all variables had correlations, with work involvement and job satisfaction being the weakest result (0.193) compared to the others, but still considerable. This suggests that it is possible that some workers are involved in the work even though they are not so satisfied with it. Job satisfaction with subjective happiness were the variables that expressed the highest correlation (0.552), so it is possible to consider that the level of job satisfaction is closely related to well-being in the non-work context (subjective well-being ).

Keywords: Well-being at work, Job Satisfaction, Work Engagement, Affective Organizational Commitment.

1. INTRODUCTION

According to Pais-Ribeiro (2012) studies on happiness have attracted the attention of scholars, such as the philosophers Democritus, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle since antiquity. However, while philosophers debate the essence of the state of happiness, that is, what is happiness, its ontology; Over the past three decades, researchers have been struggling to find out how happy people consider themselves or to what extent they are able to fully realize their potential. In the declaration of independence of the United States in the 18th century, the concept of happiness already appears. However, in the constitution of the Portuguese Republic, instead of this term, what is observed are the expressions “well-being” and “quality of life”.

Similarly, work is not only part of history, but also of the structure of society, to the point that its transmutations are directly linked. That is, the social dynamics takes place differently in the periods of the artisan, the worker and the contemporary worker. And to keep up with the various social changes, organizations have increasingly turned their attention to the workforce as a strategic focus in competition with competitors (COVACS, 2006).

The importance of studies on well-being at work is indisputable, but both theoretical and empirical models on the phenomenon are scarce. In the organizational psychology literature, there is a significant number of studies on quality of life and stress at work, which represent concepts related to well-being. However, specific analyzes of the well-being at work construct are few, given that general well-being, unrelated to any context, is the focus of the main investigations.

Finally, in these initial comments, a brief analysis was carried out about the current moment of organizations in the face of human possibilities, since the objective of the study is to analyze well-being in the context of work from its superordinate character, composed of the variables: satisfaction at work, work involvement and affective organizational commitment; and well-being in the context of non-work (subjective well-being) through the variable subjective happiness. From this research, the degree of relationship between job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, involvement at work and well-being at work is discussed as problematic, contextualizing the panorama of diminishing professional and personal “life” dichotomy in society today, in other words, the study seeks to answer the degree of correlation of the variables of well-being at work with the perception of well-being in the non-work context (subjective well-being).

The relevance of this study comes from the need for research that contributes to the assistance to workers with regard to the individual’s well-being at work (understood as fundamental to the general well-being). Observing them in a more humanized way and less as human capital.

2. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

2.1 WELL-BEING AT WORK

Fernandes et al. (2007) when researching Well-being at work and the prediction of emotional exhaustion state that well-being at work contains both a cognitive dimension, evaluated by job satisfaction, and an affective one, associated with positive and negative affects directed at work.

Siqueira and Padovam (2008) explain that there is a multiplicity of perspectives on the understanding of well-being at work (BET)[2], these different views address both positive issues such as job satisfaction, as well as negative ones, such as burnout syndrome or stress. Making a trajectory from the concepts of subjective and psychological well-being, the authors proposed the concept of well-being at work.

Ainda não existem na literatura concepções claras sobre o conceito de bem-estar no trabalho. Quando tratam do assunto, os pesquisadores escolhem conceitos diversos para representá-lo, quer seja um fator positivo como satisfação com o trabalho (Amaral & Siqueira, 2004) quer seja conceitos negativos como burnout (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001) ou estresse (Byrne, 1994). Ademais, bem-estar e saúde são abordados de forma interdependente, especialmente quando os pesquisadores apontam fatores que possam comprometer ambos, tais como perigos do ambiente de trabalho, fatores de personalidade e estresse ocupacional (Danna & Griffin, 1999) ou, ainda, segurança no trabalho, horas trabalhadas, controle do trabalho e estilo gerencial. (SIQUEIRA; PADOVAM, 2008, p. 205-206).

Fernandes et al. (2007, p. 3) understand that “well-being at work can be considered a superordinate construct, composed of a cognitive dimension, associated with job satisfaction, and an affective dimension, manifested in positive and negative affects directed at work”.

These researchers emphasize two approaches to understanding well-being at work: hedonic (affective aspects) and eudaimonic (cognitive/accomplishment aspects), where both include both affective and cognitive aspects. They also emphasize that, operationally, well-being at work is composed of three factors: positive affect, negative affect and personal fulfillment at work.

 O bem-estar no trabalho, deste modo, inclui tanto aspectos afetivos (emoções e humores) quanto cognitivos (percepção de realização) e engloba os pontos centrais da abordagem hedonista e da abordagem eudemonista. Em termos operacionais, o bem-estar no trabalho pode ser organizado em torno de três fatores: afeto positivo, afeto negativo e realização pessoal no trabalho. Os dois primeiros referem-se aos elementos hedônicos do bem-estar no trabalho e o último refere-se aos elementos eudaimônicos. (PASCHOAL; PORTO; TORRES, 2010, p. 1058)

It is noteworthy that while positive affect combines pleasure, enthusiasm and comfort; Negative affect is characterized by displeasure, anxiety, and depression. (PASCHOAL; TORRES; PORTO, 2010)

Despite the plurality of the term, it is observed that there is a consensus in recognizing well-being as a broad, multifaceted concept with a certain stability over time. Just like Paschoal; Torres and Porto (2010) and Siqueira and Padovam (2008) consider well-being at work as a concept with three components that are not positive affect, negative affect and personal fulfillment at work, they are: job satisfaction, involvement with work and organizational commitment.

[…] como se pode reconhecer, os três componentes do modelo teórico constitutivo de bem-estar no trabalho foram escolhidos porque cada um contempla aspectos psicológicos de natureza cognitiva (mental), nos quais estão inseridos crenças e sentimentos estritamente positivos e que emergem no contexto organizacional de trabalho. (SIQUEIRA, Org., 2014, p. 40)

In the present study, well-being at work was considered based on these three components: involvement at work, job satisfaction and organizational affective commitment.

2.2 WORK INVOLVEMENT

Following studies on well-being at work, involvement with work (ENT)[3] has also been taking on more significant proportions in the area of ​​people management, since it can be seen as an important indicator of workers’ motivation in the organizational context.

Contemporary works by Muchinsky (2004) and Csikszentmihalyi (2004) present ENT from two converging perspectives. Muchinsky (2004) describes work involvement not only based on the importance of perceiving a self-image, but also on the person’s degree of psychological identification with their work. Complementing this definition, Csikszentmihalyi (2004) presents work involvement as a flow in which the performed task is able to absorb and keep the worker immersed in its accomplishment. Taking into account the full domain of the function as a factor capable of raising the individual’s level of concentration, the author emphasizes that the so-called flow occurs when work activities require special skills, whose goals and feedback are clear and immediate, but still enable the task accomplishment at the boundary between mastery and challenge.

The Positive Psychology perspective follows the path of studies by Csikszentmihalyi (2004) considering the ENT as the ability of work to involve the worker (BASTOS et al., 2013). Flow presents itself as a viable state when the individual is involved in the task to the point of harmonizing thought, feeling and desire, making the notion of time disappear.

The concept of work involvement can be interpreted from Siqueira’s conceptions, whose degree to which work manages to be important and to involve the worker is seen as the essence of ENT. It is possible to understand involvement with work more contemporaneously as a state of complete absorption and assimilation by work. To understand this approach, it is necessary to understand what flow state means. (SIQUEIRA, 2008, p. 141)

Csikszentmihalyi (2004) presents work involvement as a flow in which the performed task is able to absorb and keep the worker immersed in its accomplishment. It takes into account the full domain of the function as a factor capable of raising the individual’s level of concentration.

A little later, still in accordance with the previous idea, Siqueira and Gomide (2014) take work involvement as a construct of well-being at work, considering work involvement as the degree to which a person’s performance at work affects your self-esteem.

Cavalcante; Siqueira and Kuniyoshi (2014, p. 56) state: to the extent that a worker reports optimism, resilience, hope and effectiveness (psychological capital), he tends to reveal vigor and absorption in the work environment (work engagement). Furthermore,

[…] um indivíduo com elevados índices de bem-estar no trabalho tende também a manter um forte engajamento no trabalho e vice-versa. Desta forma, pode-se afirmar que na medida em que o engajamento no trabalho assumir valores altos crescem proporcionalmente nos profissionais pesquisados os indicadores de bem-estar no trabalho (satisfação, envolvimento e comprometimento organizacional) e vice-versa. (CAVALCANTE; SIQUEIRA; KUNIYOSHI, 2014, p. 57)

The investment of time and energy by the individual can be considered a characteristic aspect of an individual involved and committed to the organization, showing signs of vigor and greater ease of learning. This is possible when the worker perceives the meaning of the activity for himself, as well as his ability to perform it.

We will take the perspective of Siqueira and Gomide (2014) as a basis for this work, taking involvement at work as a construct of well-being at work, in which work involvement is considered as the degree to which work itself manages to be important and engaging for the worker.

2.3 JOB SATISFACTION

Satisfaction with life and work are complex constructs. Part of this complexity stems from the difficulty of establishing a definition of satisfaction, given that it is configured as a subjective state, that is, it varies from person to person, even if in the same situation or event, it also has a multiple nature of circumstance for circumstance, and influences of internal and external forces to the socio-historical-cultural environment.

Satisfaction with life, according to Scorsolini-Comin and Santos (2010), is a construct that refers to the cognitive assessment that the individual makes about their general quality of life or related to domains such as work, health, leisure and relationships. It is worth mentioning that this assessment follows its own criteria, that is, a standard chosen by the individual molded from the comparison between the life circumstances that the individual himself determined for himself.

Regarding the study of satisfaction in the work environment, Siqueira (2008) points out the fact that satisfaction and motivation at work appear together in the first surveys due to the interest in understanding the feelings that affect workers, it is still possible to verify aspects different from study. The measurement of worker satisfaction levels as a strategy to measure the ability to promote health and well-being promoted by organizations to their employees, for example, is based on humanist and social assumptions.

There is a departure from the view that produces the understanding of satisfaction as a factor capable of predicting work behaviors such as productivity, performance, turnover and absenteeism, in contrast, an approximation of the perception of the intrinsic relationship of the work relationship, personal, family and life social status of the individual with their conditions of well-being and even their physical and mental health. As an example, for Leal (2008, p. 39): what satisfies the worker is to discover the procedure that should be adopted in relation to him/her to improve his/her professional performance.

It is worth noting that the expression “job satisfaction” represents the sum of how much the individual who works experiences pleasurable experiences in the context of organizations. That said, each of the dimensions of job satisfaction comprises a factor or a source of such pleasant experiences (SIQUEIRA, 2008). Thus, job satisfaction can also be studied from the perspective of a pleasurable emotional state arising from the individual’s evaluation of his work, at the same time as it is the result of the person’s perception of how it satisfies or allows satisfaction of your values.

Martinez and Paraguay (2003) corroborate the idea above, explaining that there is both a cognitive component and an affective component in the conception of job satisfaction. In which the cognitive component concerns what the individual thinks and their opinions about work, while the affective component concerns how well a person feels about a job. Such an arrangement suggests that job satisfaction is partially based on what the individual thinks and partly on what the individual feels, configuring itself as a feeling experienced by the worker in response to the total work situation.

Despite the changes in its conception, satisfaction is currently seen as a concept that encompasses affectivity and its constructive aspects have not undergone significant changes. In other words, in the early days of its conception, several scholars understood job satisfaction as a concept integrated by several dimensions. However, the factors that remain are five: satisfaction with the salary, with co-workers, with the boss, with promotions and with the work itself.

Apesar de transpor mais de 80 anos de sua existência sofrendo mutações em sua concepção, ora entendida como um aspecto motivacional, ora compreendida como atitude e, contemporaneamente, sendo apontada como um conceito que abarca afetividade, satisfação no trabalho não sofreu grandes alterações em suas dimensões constitutivas. Desde os primeiros anos de sua concepção já existiam proposições, defendidas por diversos estudiosos (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman, 1959; Smith, Kendall & Hulin, 1969) de ser satisfação no trabalho um conceito integrado por várias dimensões. As que conseguiram manter se ao longo de décadas foram cinco: satisfação com o salário, com os colegas de trabalho, com a chefia, com as promoções e com o próprio trabalho (SIQUEIRA, 2008, p. 267).

Based on Locke’s Theory of Job Satisfaction, the researchers Martinez and Paraguay (2003) identify and categorize the causal factors of job satisfaction related to the work environment as events, conditions and agents. Whose events and conditions are: work, pay, promotion, recognition and working conditions/environments; and the agents are: colleagues and subordinates, supervision and management; and the company/organization.

It is worth highlighting the understanding of job satisfaction as a result of the organizational environment on worker health. Identifying it as one of the three psychosocial components of the concept of well-being at work, along with work involvement and affective organizational commitment. (PADOVAM; SIQUEIRA, 2008)

2.4 AFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

Researches that approach commitment at work are part of the shared interests in the organizational field, as they are configured as important measurement tools in the understanding of this environment. Through studies on good performance, efficiency and effectiveness, in addition to interpersonal relationships. Such studies are relevant to look at the dynamics of the link between workers and their organizations and how this link influences the individual’s performance at work (ROWE; BASTOS, 2009).

Rowe and Bastos (2009) present the three-dimensional model initially proposed by Meyer and Allen (1991) formed by three conceptual bases of commitment: affective, normative and instrumental or calculative. They also define each of the three bases of commitment. In which the affective basis refers to: the commitment that results from an affective bond in relation to the organization, with the subject identifying and getting involved with it. In this situation, the worker stays in the organization because he wants to. (ROWE; BASTOS, 2009, p. 2)

While the regulation is configured from a feeling of duty, sometimes, it is also loaded with discomfort and doubts about the fact of continuing in the company.

Quando o comprometimento reflete um sentimento de obrigação do sujeito em permanecer na organização. Este vínculo constitui-se em um conjunto de pensamentos no qual são reconhecidos obrigações e deveres morais para com a organização, que são acompanhados ou revestidos de sentimentos de culpa, incômodo, apreensão e preocupação quando o trabalhador pensa ou planeja se desligar da mesma. (ROWE; BASTOS, 2009, p. 2)

The instrumental basis concerns: the commitment that stems from the recognition of the costs of leaving the organization (ROWE; BASTOS, 2009, p. 2). In other words, the worker maintains the employment relationship, as it is necessary.

Bastos and Rodrigues (2010) focused on the study of the problems of this three-dimensional model of commitment, and then exposed adjustments that take into account the multiplicity of the theme. From the mapping of organizational commitment definitions, they group the data into two basic types of links: active and passive.

[…] há uma grande amplitude de facetas incorporadas ao conceito de comprometimento. Há, ainda, uma clara separação entre dimensões que representam um vínculo ativo, expresso pelo engajamento, intenção de empenho extra, afeto e identificação com a organização e as dimensões que manifestam uma relação passiva, que se resume à permanência e à relação de troca com a organização, onde se enquadra o vínculo instrumental de continuação. Algumas definições de comprometimento formaram a categoria “obrigação”, posicionada no mapa de forma central, uma vez que o indivíduo pode se sentir em obrigação com a organização em função de um vínculo afetivo (ativo), ou se sentir obrigado a cumprir certos procedimentos e regras de trabalho como forma de manter o emprego ou status alcançado (passivo). (BASTOS; RODRIGUES, 2010, p. 133)

In the same year, Bastos and Ribeiro published a study in which they present commitment as a fundamental factor for a cohesive interpersonal relationship, so that they move to achieve the expected results.

[…] o comprometimento é uma das forças relevantes que compõe a vitalidade competitiva da organização […] é o atributo único e exclusivo de uma equipe de determinada organização que não pode ser clonado por outros competidores e que propicia constância e vigor ao seu ânimo competitivo […] e é por isso que todas as empresas aspiram ter empregados comprometidos com seus valores, crenças, estratégias e resultados. (BASTOS; RIBEIRO, 2010, p. 6).

The researchers Traldi and Demo (2012) in convergence with previous studies take the commitment to work as a construct arising from psychological contracts between the organization and employees. They state that a better understanding of organizational commitment is feasible when the analysis takes into account the multiple bases and focuses of the construct.

Siqueira (2008) exposes four bases of commitment, attitudinal/affective commitment, instrumental commitment, normative commitment and behavioral commitment.

Martins; Costa and Siqueira (2015) note that organizational commitment is closely related to work involvement in the study of organizational citizenship behaviors.

there is a perceptible conceptual overlap between the various models proposed to demarcate the semantic field of organizational commitment.

The present work will be guided from the research of Medeiros et al. (2003) in which the validation of the model for the bases of organizational commitment took into account the Brazilian cultural context, whose affective dimension is defined as the internalization of organizational values ​​and objectives.

2.5 SUBJECTIVE HAPPINESS/SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING

Lyubomirsky and Lepper (1999) study subjective happiness based on its validation as an indicator of subjective well-being. According to Pais-Ribeiro (2012), the view on the ontology of happiness has undergone transmutations. Since initially the philosopher Democritus took happiness as an indicator of a happy life built, perceived from the individual’s reaction to the circumstances of his daily life. A posteriori, with the eudaimonic conception of happiness, this perspective was put aside.

For Diener and Lucas (2000) most of the self-reports of happiness have evidence of significant internal consistency. In other words, it is necessary to consider each individual’s assessment of his or her life as an important indicator of such a construct.

Keyes; Shimotkin and Ryff (2002) understand that the emotional composition of the concept of subjective well-being includes a dynamic between positive and negative affects. As in a game of forces, for there to be subjective well-being, a positive relationship between the affects is necessary, that is, the perception of more positive than negative affects. In view of this, this dimension of subjective well-being is strongly related to the hedonic view of happiness, as it emphasizes the affective aspects of life.

It is possible to notice a convergence of the studies of Diener and Lucas (2000) and Keyes; Shimotkin and Ryff (2002) in Pais-Ribeiro’s (2012) national survey of cross-cultural validation of the Lyubomirsky and Lepper subjective happiness scale, where life satisfaction (cognitive dimension) and the presence of positive affect and the absence of negative affect (affective dimension) are presented as variables of subjective well-being.

What can be seen is that over the years there has been an increasing interest in the topic of happiness. However, it is still difficult to define in the literature a consensus on the issue, and it is possible to say that it is a complex issue and that well-being is often addressed. It is also worth mentioning the scarcity of national research on this construct compared to the others discussed above.

2.6 PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING

Araújo and Oliveira (2008) support their studies on psychological well-being (BEP)[4] by adopting the vision of happiness, and consequently of well-being, centered on the experience of personal expressiveness and self-fulfillment. In other words, the concept of psychological well-being is organized by understandings of a psychological nature about human development and its capacities to resolve everyday adversities.

[…] enquanto bem-estar subjetivo está permeado por avaliações da satisfação com a vida e os afetos positivos e negativos que revelam a felicidade, bem-estar psicológico é consistentemente estruturado por formulações psicológicas sobre o desenvolvimento humano e suas capacidades em enfrentar os desafios da vida (ARAÚJO; OLIVEIRA, 2008, p. 11).

Keyes and Ryff (1995) studied the BEP taking into account the complexity of its multiplicity of dimensions, organizing them into six: autonomy; self-acceptance; personal growth; life purpose; positive relationship with other people and mastery of the environment. The indices of these dimensions are able to measure the degree of psychological well-being of an individual in an empirical way.

It is worth mentioning that the main difference between the conception of subjective well-being and psychological well-being is the way that happiness is understood. Considering that while subjective well-being is supported, typically in assessments of life satisfaction and a balance between positive and negative affects; the conceptions of the specialists involved in the studies of psychological well-being present psychological formulations about human development not only capacities to face the challenges of life.

From Siqueira and Padovam (2008) it is possible to distinguish two components of well-being: the objective and the subjective, where the first is identified by life patterns, while the second is related to the psychological state of the individual.

3. METHOD

3.1 PARTICIPANTS

The study included 457 workers who were also university students from a private institution with national coverage. Of these, 153 (33.5%) were male and 304 (66.5%) were female, with ages ranging from 18 to 58 years (mean 28.19 years; standard deviation 7.623 years). Two hundred and forty-five individuals (53.6%) were single, one hundred and ninety-one individuals (41.8%) were married. Twenty-one individuals (4.6%) identified themselves as “other”. The participants came from different Brazilian states in the five regions of Brazil (North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast).

3.2 INSTRUMENTS

To measure work involvement, the Work Involvement Scale – EET[5] was used, built and validated by Lodahl and Kejner (1965), and adapted by Siqueira (1995). It contains five questions about work engagement and the elements addressed are: (i) the greatest satisfactions in my life come from my work; (ii) the hours I spend working are the best hours of my day; (iii) the most important things that happen in my life involve my work; (iv) I eat, live and respect my work, and (v) I am personally very attached to my work.

Job satisfaction was measured using the Portuguese version of the Job Satisfaction Scale developed by Judge and Klinger (2000). The scale consists of five items, each of which was rated on a five-level scale (1 = Never; 2 = Sometimes; 3 = Regularly; 4 = Quite often; 5 = Always). Judge and Klinger reported a Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient of 0.80 in the original study.

To measure the Affective Organizational Commitment, the ECOA – Affective Organizational Commitment Scale – which refers to the affection nourished by the worker by the company was used. Its reduced version of Siqueira (1995) was used, which has 5 expressions of affection directed towards the company, where the worker must indicate on a five-point Likert scale, corresponding to: 1 nothing; 2 few; 3 more or less; 4 a lot; 5 extremely, the intensity with which you feel these affections.

To measure subjective happiness, the Subjective Happiness Scale was used – developed by Lyubomirsky and Lepper (1999) – which includes four items, which are statements in which, in two, respondents are asked to characterize themselves by comparison with the their peers, either in absolute or relative terms (items two and three). The other two items consist of descriptions of happiness and unhappiness. Respondents are asked to indicate the extent to which the statements characterize them. The answer is given on a visual analogue scale with seven positions, anchored in two antagonistic statements that express the level of happiness or lack thereof.

The sociodemographic data questionnaire was structured with information on age, sex, marital status, whether the individual had children, monthly family income, mother and father education, course and university enrollment number (optional).

3.3 PROCEDURES

The study instruments were made available to participants through the Survey Monkey platform, during the first half of 2018. The Free and Informed Consent Term (TCLE)[6] was made available, simply by clicking on “I accept” to start filling out the questionnaire search.

4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Before starting the analysis of the study data, a confirmatory factor analysis of each instrument was performed, seeking to verify if they had psychometric characteristics that recommended them for carrying out the investigation with the participants of this study.

After verifying the assumptions for the analyses, correlations were made between all the factors surveyed, as shown in Table 1 and Table 2.

Table 1: Descriptive analysis of study variables

Variables Average Median Standard deviation
1. Work Involvement 2,8425 2,8000 0,78798
2. Job Satisfaction 3,6276 3,8000 0,76390
3. Affective Organizational Commitment 3,3527 3,4000 0,95543
4. Subjective Happiness 5,1320 5,3333 1,23794

Source: Prepared by the author.

Table 2: Correlational analysis of study variables

Variables  1 2 3 4
1. Work Involvement 0,193** 0,504** 0,214**
2. Job Satisfaction 0,193** 0,247** 0,552**
3. Affective Organizational Commitment 0,504** 0,247** 0,287**
4. Subjective Happiness 0,214** 0,552** 0,287**

Note. ** Significant at the 0.01 level. Source: Prepared by the author.

The data showed that the variables are correlated with each other. According to Paschoal’s research; Torres and Porto (2010) and Padovam and Siqueira (2008) who understood job satisfaction, work involvement and organizational commitment as constructs that make up well-being at work. Moving away from theories that proposed well-being at work as a set of positive affects, negative affects and personal fulfillment at work.

Affective organizational commitment showed a positive and moderate to high correlation with work involvement (0.504). According to the studies by Siqueira and Gomide (2014), a characteristic of people involved and committed in their work activities is the investment of time and energy by these individuals.

Job satisfaction with subjective happiness were the variables that expressed the highest correlation (0.552); Pais-Ribeiro (2012) argues that life satisfaction is the cognitive dimension of subjective well-being. Likewise, Fernandes et al. (2007) and Rocha and Porto (2012) who also point to job satisfaction as the cognitive dimension of well-being at work, while positive and negative affects configure an affective dimension.

All variables had significant correlations, with work involvement and job satisfaction being the weakest result (0.193) compared to the others, but still considerable. Considering the performance character of the individual as one of the aspects of work involvement, it is possible that some workers are involved in the work, even if they are not so satisfied with it. However, the data reveal that even if weaker compared to the other variables, work involvement and job satisfaction have a significant correlation so that workers involved in work are also satisfied and vice versa.

5. CONCLUSION

Based on the results of this research and answering the proposed problem question: what is the degree of correlation of the variables of well-being at work (job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, involvement at work) with the perception of well-being in the context of not -work (subjective well-being); it is concluded that the variables of the well-being at work construct are correlated with well-being in the non-work context (well-being/subjective happiness) to different degrees. Job satisfaction stands out among these factors. The well-being in the non-work context was considered from the subjective happiness, this variable is related to a positive feeling towards life.

It appears that for the perception of well-being in life in general (subjective happiness), well-being at work, above all, the variable job satisfaction is configured as an important factor, with a correlation of 0.552, in line with research de Diener and Lucas (2000), Keyes; Shimotkin and Ryff (2002), Fernandes et al. (2007) and Pais-Ribeiro (2012); thus, the results of the present study suggest a significant correlation (0.552), mainly in the cognitive dimension of subjective well-being, where satisfaction with life is considered a variable.

Although the variables involvement at work and commitment at work present a correlation with the variable subjective happiness, the relationship was weaker, respectively, 0.214 and 0.287. Due to the three-dimensional character of the variable commitment at work, proposed by Meyer and Allen (1991), Bastos and Rodrigues (2009), Rowe and Bastos (2009) it is of interest to analyze through future studies that consider, separately, the three bases of commitment at work (affective, normative and instrumental or calculative) in order to observe whether there is a significant difference in the correlation of subjective happiness with each dimension of the variable commitment at work. Understanding, therefore, if the correlation of commitment with subjective happiness is made, primarily, by the affective bond in relation to the organization, with the subject identifying and getting involved with it (commitment from the affective basis), or if there is more strong correlation when commitment is experienced, above all, from the normative dimension (feeling of duty), or even from the instrumental dimension (arising from the recognition of the costs of leaving the organization).

Involvement at work is correlated with job satisfaction, despite not being a high relationship (0.193), as is the relationship between the variable job satisfaction and the variable affective organizational commitment (0.247). The investment of time and energy by the individual can be considered a characteristic aspect of an individual involved and committed to the organization, according to the correlation data of 0.504 between affective commitment at work and involvement at work; this is possible when the worker perceives the meaning of the activity for himself, as well as his ability to perform it. Despite this, the variables work involvement and affective organizational commitment present a weaker degree of correlation with subjective well-being (subjective happiness) when compared to the variable satisfaction at work, respectively, 0.214 and 0.287.

The objective of this study was to analyze well-being in the work context from its superordinate character, composed by the variables: job satisfaction, work involvement and affective organizational commitment; and well-being in the context of non-work (subjective well-being) through the variable subjective happiness. However, even though the study has achieved the proposed objective and has offered contributions to the field of well-being at work, the development of specific future research on the construct of well-being at work and non-work is valid, given the scarcity of studies like this.

The impact of work activities on the individual’s daily life and the reduction of the barrier between work and personal life show the complexity of this construct. In addition, the constant changes in this scenario reveal the importance of monitoring studies on well-being at work and outside of it in this historical-social process.

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APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE

2. Bem-estar no trabalho.

3. Envolvimento com o trabalho.

4. Bem-estar psicológico.

5. Envolvimento com o trabalho.

6. Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido.

[1] Graduated in Psychology. ORCID: 0000-0003-1735-5898.

Sat: August, 2021.

Approved: January, 2022.

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