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The importance of Psychomotricity in Children with Childhood Paralysis

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PAULA, Gustavo Henrique Moreira de [1]

MACIEL, Rosana Mendes [2]

PAULA, Gustavo Henrique Moreira de; MACIEL, Rosana Mendes. The importance of Psychomotricity in Children with Childhood Paralysis. Scientific Journal Multidisciplinary Nucleus of Knowledge, Year 01. Vol. 10, Pp. 291-304. November 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959

SUMMARY

Through this work, which was carried out through bibliographical references, where Physical Education classes and psychomotor practice are the main aid tool in learning, where the objective of contributing to the integral development of students, using psychomotricity and the possibilities of Intervention of the complaints of learning difficulties through the psychomotor practice, which explores the bodily functions. The influence of motor activity and manipulation on global learning was supported by the perspective that active movement is important for perceptual development but can not be replaced by passive movements. On the other hand, psychomotor activity is considered the internalization of movement, and the relationship of the body to space. Learning is a global process that involves the whole body, so the physical aspects and the cognitive, affective-emotional and motor link in the actions and in the school learning process are observed in Physical Education classes. There are suggestions of exercises, games and games as a contribution to the motor, social and emotional development of the body movements in the promotion of the totality of the human being. When the issue is faced with disadvantaged children, especially with special educational needs of motor character, as is the case of cerebral palsy, the tonic can gain particular expression. Psychomotor and social experiences are sometimes hampered by conditions that deprive children of autonomously and spontaneously occurring experiences, typically resulting from global development. In this text we will review studies of the impact of motorized experience on development and learning, especially the role of active exploration in the early years. This approach and its discussion, with emphasis on the learning and development of children with special needs and how motorized special education programs.

Keywords: Educational needs, Cerebral Palsy, Perception and psychomotor development.

INTRODUCTION

From a pioneering work with the current theories of cognition (known, theoretical and with strong deviations shown in mind-body duality. If the experience was conceived by the body and development is processed from the act of thought or based on independent levels Of bodily experience.

It has always been a controversial issue, the relations between space operations and the ability to move. Some current trends, however, always point to a defense with the support of action in perception. This debate was recorded discussion between supporters of philosophy and defenders of traditional Western philosophy. From new concepts of mind-body relationship.

Based on the arguments of cognitive science and neuroscience, it is confirmed that reason is based on the body, in that even language itself (ie the use of metaphor). The interpretation of the world from sensory-motor experiments the special characteristics of the human body, the details of the neural structure and the special characteristics of everyday experience.

There is consensus that planning and operational capabilities based on motorized sensory experiences of each child are progressive and later integrated into future learning. In fact, it is not always the importance of movement, active exploitation and development promotion. The normal psychomotor development with the illustrated approach, the internalization of movement and the relation with the body in space by the motor activity and the conquest of stages.

Human learning is created and developed after this perspective as a result of motor experience, later strengthened in the organization of the brain by reflective experience.

In defense of the neuro-motor base of human learning, and from a body-mind and verse discussion, the mind is often found in this text, rather than the form of the body. We are convinced that the study of the experience that is about the children of typical development, brings contribution to the understanding and intervention in children that, for various reasons, among them of the mental, social or motor development nature (to which we will give special relevance ) These experiences are not so accessible.

1. PSYCHOMOTRICITY AND ITS EVOLUTION

The emergence of the word psychomotricity emerged in 1920, with Dupré in his office, he devoted himself from 1909 to observe his patients regarding psychomotor thinking and balance.

According to Aristotle, the function of aptitude and development is directed towards the development of the spirit.

To date the diversity of opinions on the conceptualization of the subject. Aristotle stated that the beginnings of thought under analysis and its role of appropriateness for a better development of the spirit, further affirms that man is composed of body and soul, and that it should command. In procreation, the body is placed first and must obey the spirit of emotional intelligence and reason.

But psychomotricity was the science that seeks to study man through his body in motion, this same man in relation to the world in his ability to perceive, act and act with himself, with others and with objects, are related to the process Of maturing in which the body is the source of cognitive, emotional and organic acquisitions. They support three basic: movement, intellect and affection.

Psychomotricity, therefore, is a term used for an organized and integrated project, based on the experiences of the subject whose action is the result of his individuality, his language and the psychomotor and its socialization. It understands the interaction between thinking, conscious movement or not, and movement affected by muscles with the help of the nervous system.

Therefore, the brain and muscles are influenced and educated, leading them to evolve individually, progress in terms of thinking and motor skills.

1.1 Historical development of psychomotor studies

During the nineteenth century, there was a great appreciation of the movement as an important step in the construction of the “I”. Therefore according to Freud: the body plays a central role in the formation of the unconscious. It provides all units is the center of the relationship with the mother figure.

Until the end of the eighteenth century, the body is in the philosophical perspective, but only since the nineteenth century came to be subjected to systematic and thorough studies in the trial. As object of study, the body aroused interest in various fields of science. Merleau-Ponty had his own vision that went beyond the opposite division between body and mind, possessed a very own vision that went beyond the dualist division between body and mind.

For him, man is a physical reality, which is his body, is a embodied subjectivity, is the body in full analysis of the movement itself should allow us to understand better.

In order to analyze the primitive man saying that his survival was related to the psychomotor development and indicates that the human has natural movements like to run, to jump, to climb, to raise, to load, and to throw.

The Psychomotor History in Brazil, has been following in the footsteps of the French school. Dupré’s studies of Charcot responses originated from the emotional instinct, trying to understand the difficulties also had scientists from South America and Brazil to find in France, the refuge of their questions, but the strong influence of the French school of Psychiatry for Children and Psychology in psychomotricity At the time of the First World War around the world. The French perceived the importance of the corporal gestures and studied exhaustively.

A Brazilian researcher in 1972, he experimented with the Ramain method through specific training to which various specialists from other areas such as education and health. It felt after some time the focus was only re-education of pedagogical character. “In its evolution, psychomotor skills have acquired a technical-practical relationship that values unity at the expense of duality, reductionism and separatism.”

In 1979, Dr. Soubiran and Dr. Costallat gathered 1,500 people to see, hear and learn about psychomotricity in São Paulo. Dr. Giselle Soubiran showed the public her psychomotor technique of relaxation with which she conquered Brazil. From 1980 to 2002, all Latin American national meetings of psychomotricities promoted by the Specialized Activities Group (EAG), which always respected the French School of Psychomotricity.

1.3 Contributions to the study of psychomotricity

According to the cognitive structures and importance of the sensorimotor period and the motor. Thus psychomotor development is related to the importance of play and the pleasure of thinking.

The body debates the proportion of human development, ie the body and mind develops. One of the pioneers of psychomotor study, discusses the importance of the emotional aspect of the child is related to motor skills, affective and with intelligence.

[…] One of the pioneers in the study of motor skills emphasizes the importance of the emotional aspect before any behavior. There is, for him, a tonic body called evolution and body dialogue and that is the prelude to verbal dialogue. This communication of the body is essential in the psychomotor genesis, as the action plays the fundamental role of the cortical structure and is the basis of the representation.

Motility, intellectual and emotional development is interrelated. The study of motor skills does not only refer to the child’s motor performance, laterality, space-time structure or perceptual discrimination can take place. Psychomotor has emerged as a means to combat the lack of psychomotor fitness because it has a purpose to reorganize the learning process of motor gestures, and motor skills, the basic principle is the mind-body unit integrates various techniques on how the body works, Related to affectivity, level of thinking and level of intelligence.

For the psychomotor period it comprises the stage of development between 6 and 10 years of age (mental and psychomotor), before it would be the motor period (0-3 years) and sensorimotor (3-5) years occur. Between the motor initially, the behavior of the children is the active and reflexive, uncoordinated movement. For example, she opens her arms and pays attention to her side, the whole body shrinks, she dependent on the adult for everything and at this stage can get her feet mouth.

At 6 months the child acquires the sitting posture. Between 6 and 8 months you can get up and sit down. At the end of the second year, improvement of gross motor function. As development grows, the child begins to differentiate his / her self. At 8 months the child’s abilities are already more developed and thus increase the number of objects they can know. When completing the test phase at one year, there is a search for novelties. At 2 years the child is able to anticipate and predict a particular situation that has already happened.

2. IMPORTANCE OF THE PSYCHOMOTIVE ACTION

The importance of the psychomotor effect on the organization of the child’s personality is based on intellectual and emotional development. The psychomotor study includes the following aspects: body model, laterality, spatial structure, temporal orientation, sound and motor control. In the present phase, we highlight the structure of the body, generalization and spatial structuring and motor control.

Body image is a way of balance is to be the core of the personality, is organized in a context of the mutual relations of the organism and the environment. The structure of the structure of the body is the organization of the feelings about its body together with the data of the outer world played an essential role in the development of the child, since this organization is the starting point of its possibilities of action, then the Body of the scheme is the organization of feelings about your own body.

In combination with information from the outside world, it is notable that the body schema is not taught, it is acquired with the child’s experience. The child himself perceives the beings and the things that surround him, in the same function. Your personality will develop into the perception of your own body and your being, your possibilities of action and will turn everything around. The scheme of the body is not a learned concept that can teach, it does not depend on training. It is organized through the body of the child

[…] is a mental construction that the child gradually realizes, according to the use he makes of his body.

The child discovers his body through the movements that are normally imposed by society, from an initial activity the ability to acquire dissociated movements due to the maturation process. It is worth mentioning the three different stages of the development phases of the body schema.

1 phase of the body (up to 3 years) . This is not already the names of the different parts of the body, but feel free to move well at will. All spontaneous manifestations of the child at this stage are not intended. Therefore, it is necessary for the adult to encourage these experiences by awakening situations because they will be supporting the following steps.

Phase 2 of the body supposed or discovered (3 to 7 years). In this phase, it takes experience into account so far. The child already knows the space and time to distinguish directly from his own body, this step is to help the body structure of an organization due to the maturation of the “internalization function,” “acquisition is extremely important because it helps the child develop a Consciousness centered on the body itself … The end of this phase […] the level of motor behavior as well as the intellectual level can be characterized as a preoperative as it is perceived in space part, but is still centered on body.

Three-phase body (7 to 12). It is characterized by the structure of the body pattern at this age, as the child can mentally represent his body before initiating a sequence of movements and voluntarily controlling his movements. But only for 10 and 12 years is that child has a true and mental representation of the body. “This means that the points of reference are no longer centered on themselves but are based on the external theme, even if they can create the points of reference that guide them.”

2.1 Laterality and structural space

According to some authors defines the child during the growth of the page area: may be stronger, more agile on the right or left side. We should not interfere in the child’s choice because he has to know which side he wants to use.

Laterality is the trend, the man’s preferred use is the other side of the body than the other on three levels. This means that there is a predominance of the motor, or rather a predominance of one side. The dominant side has more muscular strength, more precision and more speed, it starts and performs the most important measures. The other side supports this action and is equally important. In fact, the two do not work in isolation, but complementary.

Both laterality and spatial awareness are important factors for structuring the body schema. In fact, lateralization is performed in the spatiality sequence of the child or after each step: place within the body itself, the projection of the body’s reference points and then organization of the space independent of the body. The discussion seems to have no way out: If laterality has a physiological basis? For many current psychoanalysts, because of cultural imperatives they are the only determinants, there is no such foundation. It is true that lateralization and spatial structuring are an important element of psychomotor adaptation.

Four types are defined by lateralization:

True Adhesiveness – Brain dominance is on the left side. All driving performances are key on the right side. In fact, it is the statistically more frequent case: the left hemisphere commanded the right hemisphere, which leads the individual to a preferential use of this hemisphere in practical implementation.< True claims - cerebral dominance translates a specialization on the law of the hemispheres. Broca (1869), brought this cerebral origin of the most sinister to the light. Recent research on symbolic functions shows that the Sinister in reality does not exactly correspond to an absolute inverse of the destríssimos. In most cases, it is wrong to think that the southpaw is systematically organized in the reverse direction relative to the right handed. False accident - In most cases, it is an accident that very sinistríssimo (also called mechanism) leads to paralysis, amputation, which made it impossible to use the right arm. The individual who was originally right-handed was to be materially forbidden to do so. False insanity - The organization is reversed by that of false claims. The reality is much more complex than he suspects of this physiological approach, and the cases that can be observed are very diverse: school, cultural, psychological, family, and affective learning methods multiply the ranks. In addition, interdependencies are the only physiological point of view, the two cerebral hemispheres, so that the dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other is not complete or absolute. Instead of speaking of the dominant hemisphere, it seems appropriate to speak of a large hemisphere and a secondary hemisphere. The two hemispheres work and are not completely isolated, one of which has a relatively stronger role of the other. Therefore, it is difficult, if not illusory, to say that a kind of lateralization is pure and normal. But it is also the result of a learning process, meaning that if the child has organically adapted the appropriate structures to acquire sufficient laterality. This should be an educational approach for the child to go, an implicit pedagogy, at least that gives priority to the affective relationship and experience. The mother puts the hand of the child's spoon, use it to eat to learn, or their graphic games. This motor learning is carried out while personal hygiene, gait and strength are performed; In contact with the objects of her environment, she explores the child's likes of opportunities to continually employ a choice of page: door handle, scissors, locks and household appliances buttons, etc., because it is true that our world is made for rights. Behind points of the basic references of lateralization in children. The first is the hand that the child acquires from everyday experiences about what is in his life is emerging. Then comes the right-left acknowledgment, it's the way the child will prove his domain. With it comes the right and left differentiation, the development of dexterity and complete decentering. The child's hand is confronted with the increasing complexity of experiences. There is also talk of lateralization and gesture, which is part of the connections with the set of motor functions. The first point that shows is the lateralization and development of the child each of his steps that I followed you mentioned in your body, but it is also the result of motor learning, while personal hygiene. It is also the result of learning; that means; If the child has organically appropriate structures, a sufficient laterality will adapt these structures are not enough to acquire, but to make the adjustment. This should involve the child of an implicit pedagogy, at least a pedagogical contact, that gives priority and affective relation. Organization time is time, especially, memory: as I read, time passes. Thus, there are two main components of time organization: order and organization that gain momentum. The order determines the order that exists between events that some are continuation of others, in a physical and irreversible order. The temporal organization comprises a logical dimension (knowledge of order and length). Aspects will develop and mature with age. In psychological time, we organize the order of events and we can estimate their duration to build our time. When a child has acquired cognitive development, recognize one day a week: 4 years; Morning, afternoon: 5 years; Know the day of the week: 6; Month of birthday: 7 years; The year: 8 years; Day of the month: 8-9 years; To evaluate the duration of a call: 12; Acknowledge the time until the next 20 minutes: 12; His personal memories and a more or less realistic image of his future with the worries, hopes and fears associated with him: in about 13 to 14 years. It is notable that during the motor development of the child there are two processes that complement each other and are related: differentiation and integration; And it happens in both mutual and simultaneous modes, which leads to normal psychomotor development, which leads to greater strength, speed, accuracy and ease of movement. Example: Jump to the right and left feet. CONCLUSION

Each person carries their possibilities and their repertoire of experiences of the tasks that you perform, as the active investigation can promote the performance of recognition that the representation that involve objects.

The results found, however, extend the idea that stimuli are much more abstract, suggesting that manipulative motor experience may be present and facilitate the mental processes and presentation of the other parts of the body with stimuli.

If the issue is put to the disadvantaged with special needs, the emphasis may gain expression, where experiences and social barriers are sometimes hampered by constraints, depriving children of experiences that normally autonomously and spontaneously in contexts in which they relate.

The fact that some children have not developed, which can limit the boundaries of learning development. As is well known, not all children with CP have intellectual difficulties. Many of the difficulties they face, are secondary, though often with primary intellectual disturbances and limited training, as well as limitations in the sensorimotor experience that their condition implies. The specific condition of children with CP, limited to a greater or lesser extent in their autonomous movements, indicates the need to participate in activities that provide global stimulation of development so that they can manage or overcome their deficits in education

A significant part of children’s time to be a privileged space where the school should be the learner’s experience, of a general nature, including psychomotor, visual, auditory, stimulating domains. The sense and development of the necessary psychomotor skills such as learning from the promotion of activities, ensuring the experience and active learning will certainly affect the perception of action and overall development.

This learning is done by observation, but the active experiment plays an important role in children’s perception of action and development, hardly replaced by other sensory experience. Thus, an active experience risking the, active school, no doubt, are fundamental to the construction and operation of this perception-action system.

The motor experience and the promotion of the implementation of programs for the development of the perception as soon as possible, where the psychomotor abilities and the perception of kinesthesia are relevant areas to be considered, where the exploratory motor activities, arbitrary movements and the same concern that the Inhibition of dysfunctional motor patterns are given in therapeutic programs.

Psychomotor skills training, which can be in time, certainly has developed a greater autonomy and independence to ensure that people with special educational needs engine characteristics as well as optimization in the other learnings.

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Piaget, J., & amp; INHELDER, B. L’image mentale chez l’enfant. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

FONSECA, V. School failure : a psychopedagogical approach to learning difficulties. Lisbon: Ancora Editora. 1999.

OLIVEIRA, A. M. & amp; AMORIM, M-A. Mental rotation of hands: Comparing motor able and cerebral palsy subjects. In Monahan, J. S .; Sheffert, S. M. & amp; Townsend, J. T. (Eds) Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of The International Society of Psychophysics, 193-198. 2005.

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MARTINS, I.C., OLIVEIRA, A. M. & AMORIM, M-A. Mental rotation of hands: Comparing motor able and cerebral palsy subjects . In Monahan, J. S .; Sheffert, S. M. & amp; Townsend, J.T. (Eds.). 2005.

PATRICIA, Greici Keller de Oliveira. Inclusive Experience: Prejudice arises from lack of knowledge. In: ROTH, Berenice Wessheimer (org.). Inclusive Educational Experiences. Inclusive Education Program: the right to diversity. Brasília: MEC, SEESP, 2006.

NOÉ, A. Action in Perception. Representation and Mind. Cambridge, MA: The MIT. 2004

AMORIM, Valéria (org.). School Inclusion: points and counterpoints. São Paulo: Summus, 2010.

MEUR, De A; STAES, L. Psychomotricity Education and Reeducation . 1 ed. Barueri: Manole, 1991.

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[1] Graduating from Physical Education Course. Faculty of Patos de Minas.

[2] Teacher of the Physical Education course at FPM. Master in Education, Federal University of Uberlândia.

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