The Reality Experienced by Physical Education Professionals Within Schools

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MOTA, Amanda Cristina Silva [1]

AMARO, Diogo Alves [2]

MOTA, Amanda Cristina Silva; AMARO, Diogo Alves. The Reality Experienced by Physical Education Professionals Within Schools Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal Núcleo do Conhecimento, Ano 01. Vol. 10, Pp. 281-290. November 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959

SUMMARY

The challenge of the 21st century teacher is to transmit more and more knowledge needed to develop the skills of the future. The main difficulties cited by many teachers in many literatures are the inadequacy of space, lack of materials, students’ resistance to “new” practices and lack of interest in Physical Education. This study aims to analyze the reality and difficulties encountered in the teaching of the physical education professional within the school environment. This study is a review of specialized literature, conducted between February and October 2016, in which a consultation was carried out on published books; To scientific articles and theses, selected through search in the scielo and bireme database. It is concluded that education is going through great crises, beginning with the low quality of education, disregard for teachers and the lack of respect of politicians towards the population emphasizes one of the worst phases faced by education. It is up to the Physical Education teacher to orient and lead this process using all his knowledge and intelligence, because the more intelligent the teacher, the more he makes his students capable of acting with intelligence.

Keywords: Reality, Difficulties, Teachers, Physical Education.

1. INTRODUCTION

It is known that the reality of physical education classes in state and municipal schools is characterized by the lack of motivation to the practice of physical activity, the difficulties that Physical Education teachers face in their daily classroom: lack of materials, Inadequate physical structure, excessive numbers of students, lack of student willingness and sometimes even the teacher for disregarding discipline, and lack of knowledge of the importance of Physical Education in the overall development of students.

Education has been characterized as the area that most faces conflicts and challenges before an ever-changing society. Teachers demonstrate that they should not select students, choose only one sport modality, have authoritarian attitudes and neglect the playful dimension. However, they still have difficulties in knowing which content to approach and which teaching methodologies to use. In some cases, this fact turns the classes into unsystematic ones, in which the student chooses what he wants to do.

It is noteworthy that, even with all the difficulties encountered by Physical Education teachers, it is at school that many children in the initial years of elementary school have their first contact with planned physical activities, hence their importance as a promoter of development and improvement ” Cognitive, motor, and auditory spheres, “this planned contact enables the children involved to understand and / or adapt their skills not only in the school environment but also in all others that they have access to, improving physical and mental health, Propitiating the development of useful life skills, creating cultural hygiene habits (RODRIGUES, 2013).

In order for a positive revolution to occur in most nations, it is necessary that the process begins in education and in this sense the teacher becomes one of the main agents of this process. Education has been characterized as the area that most faces conflicts and challenges before an ever-changing society. The purpose of this literature review is to analyze the reality and difficulties encountered in the teaching of the physical education professional within the school environment.

In order to select the sources, bibliographies that deal with the reality experienced by physical education teachers within schools were considered as criteria. This study consisted of a review of the specialized literature, conducted between February and October 2016, in which scientific articles, theses, selected through search in the SCIELO and BIREME database were consulted. Also used the google academic search platform for researches theses, dissertations, municipal policies of waste management, etc. No filter was performed regarding the date of the publications used in this research.

The search in the databases was done using the terminologies registered in the databases, which allows the use of common terminology in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The key phrases used in the searches were: Reality, Difficulties, Teachers, Physical Education.

2. PHYSICAL EDUCATION

2.1. HISTORY

The introduction of Physical Education officially in school occurred in Brazil in 1851 with the reform Couto Ferraz, although the concern with the inclusion of physical exercises in Europe goes back to the eighteenth century, with Guths Muths, J. J. Rosseau, Pestalozzi and others. In 1882, Rui Barbosa, recommended that gymnastics be compulsory, for both sexes and that it be offered to the Normal Schools. However, the implementation of these laws occurred only in Rio de Janeiro (capital of the Republic at the time) and military schools. However, it is only from the 1920s that several states of the federation begin to carry out educational reforms and include Physical Education, with the most frequent name of gymnastics. (BETTI, 1991).

The dominant conception of Physical Education in its beginning was based on the perspective that many authors called it hygienism. In it, the central concern is with the habits of hygiene and health, valuing the development of the physical and the moral, from the exercise. Due to the need to systematize gymnastics at school, gymnastic methods were developed, where the main ones were proposed by the Swedish Pehr Henrik Ling, the French Francisco Amorós and the German Adolph Spiess, who presented proposals that sought to value the image of gymnastics in the school .

Physical Education in Brazil in the nineteenth century was developed by the military with the aim of forming strong, healthy individuals that were indispensable for the development process of the country. This association between Physical Education, Physical Education and Body Health is due to the military and doctors. Based on the principles of hygienic social medicine, they have proclaimed themselves the most competent professional category to redefine the physical, moral and intellectual standards of the Brazilian family. In order to fulfill their attributions, the hygienists used Physical Education, defining their goal as the creation of a healthy, robust body, as opposed to the relapsed, flaccid and sickly body of the colonial individual (CASTELLANI FILHO, 1989; BETTI, 1991).

On the one hand, Physical Education was to fulfill the function of collaborating in the construction of healthy bodies that would permit an adequate adaptation to the productive process or to a nationalist political perspective; And on the other, by the necessity and advantages of an intervention, legitimized by the medical-scientific knowledge of the body, which referred to these possibilities (BRACHT, 2001).

Both hygienist and militaristic conceptions considered Physical Education as essentially practical discipline, not needing, therefore, a theoretical foundation that would support it. Therefore, there was no obvious distinction between Physical Education and military physical education. To teach Physical Education, it was not necessary to master knowledge, but to have been a former practitioner.

In Brazil, from 1969 to 1979, the rise of sport was observed due to the inclusion of Physical Education / Sports in the strategic planning of the government, even though high-level sport was present within the society since the 1920s and 1930 (BETTI, 1991).

Military governments, which took office in March 1964, began investing in sport in an attempt to make Physical Education an ideological underpinnin as it would participate in promoting the country through success in high-level competitions. In this period, the central idea revolved around Brazil-Power, with the aim of eliminating internal criticism and showing a climate of prosperity and development (BETTI, 1991).

According to Soares et al. (1992), the influence of sport on the educational system is so strong that one can not say the school’s sport, but rather the sport at school.

. This indicates the subordination of physical education to the codes / sense of sports institution: Olympic sport, national and international sports system. These codes can be summarized in Athletic / Athletic Performance Principles; Income comparison; competition; Rigid regulation; Success in sport as a synonym for victory; Rationalization of means and techniques, etc.

3. TEACHING WORK IN SCHOOLS

The challenge of the 21st century teacher is to transmit more and more knowledge needed to develop the skills of the future. These knowledges are the four pillars that support education: learning to know, learning to do; Learn to live, learn to be. This challenge requires the teacher to abandon the position of knowledge holder, since the learning is built in the daily school with the world’s knowledge and the various skills presented by the students. It requires that you be willing to learn, develop skills, and constantly review your teaching methods and adapt them to the class you are working on.

Education is going through great crises and difficulties, starting with the low quality of education, the lack of respect for teachers and the lack of respect from politicians towards the population, emphasizes one of the worst phases of education. Thus, these difficulties faced by education in general, make the situation of Physical Education in schools even more difficult, because it is a matter that does not have “status”, that is, it is not seen as a major discipline that disadvantages teachers. There begins the difficulties faced by Physical Education, which is to try to legitimize itself in school as an important and necessary discipline in the school environment.

Physical Education must be legitimized in school, seek its identity, its raison d’être in the school curriculum, and for this, its importance must be rediscuited in the different spheres of society (DARIDO, 2006, p.116).

In this context, the Physical Education teacher ends up facing many difficulties in the teaching-learning process, mainly in public schools. Difficulties that often end up discouraging this professional. An analysis of the reality of Physical Education in the school points to the need for an urgent confrontation in order to plan renewal proposals and new alternatives that can meet the needs of both professionals and students who also need to be motivated and understand the importance of education Physics for the body and mind.

The main difficulties cited by many teachers in many literatures are the inadequacy of space, lack of materials, students’ resistance to “new” practices and lack of interest in Physical Education.

  1. A) Lack of space: It is undeniable to assume that the school space is a preponderant factor in the development of Physical Education classes, since it modulates content and may eventually prevent certain practices from being performed. In order to adapt the activities to the spaces available, the teachers eventually also move the practices to other spaces (including in public squares near the school), which is the least used, being the use of “theoretical” classes instead of Practices, developing the content with students in class “classroom”, the most common practice.
  2. B) Lack of adequate materials in number and quality for students’ body practices: in public schools, it is the most serious of all difficulties, but also in private schools, A certain devaluation of Physical Education in the context of these educational institutions. In order to adapt the classes to the lack of material, the teachers acquire the material themselves or ask the students to bring the necessary materials for the lessons. In addition, various materials are made in the classroom context itself.
  3. C) The resistance of students to Physical Education activities: In this context, teachers have a great difficulty in constructing alternatives to circumvent this situation and, in general, end up restricting their practices to those activities that To the students’ “taste” to teach their classes, are usually the ones they are accustomed to, related to sports.
  4. D) The students’ lack of interest in Physical Education classes: Teachers point out the application of more playful methodologies, which seek to motivate students to participate more effectively, and also the evaluation As a coercive tool, forcing the students to participate in the class to obtain a certain score, since the lack of interest generates indiscipline, contributing to the deficit in the learning, thus the disciplined students suffer prejudice, due to indiscipline, and the contents are out of date .

The teachers of Physical Education in the face of so many difficulties still lack elements that allow them to reflect and implement proposals that replace the exclusively “sportsman” or “recreationist” models, in such a way that it is possible that Physical Education within the school can fulfill The difficult task of introducing and integrating the student in the sphere of Movement Body Culture, forming the citizen to produce it, to reproduce it and also to transform it, if necessary. In this sense, the student should be instructed to take advantage of corporal practices in benefit of the critical exercise of citizenship and the improvement of the quality of life.

One point to be addressed shows a great concern, because in the area of ​​Physical Education there are many professionals committed and dedicated to make their classes special moments and rich in knowledge, but it can not be said that all professionals are so, since one A portion of professionals who have no interest in reflecting on the importance of Physical Education in School, and often has no argument to convince their students of the importance of Physical Education. These professionals are due to lack of time or interest they fail to desire in Physical Education classes which corroborates by disqualifying the discipline from the other components of the school and even from society itself.

The Physical Education teacher himself may or may not contribute to overcoming this problem and to show the true importance of this discipline of the school curriculum in the life and training of its students. In order for this situation to begin to change, it is necessary for the teacher himself to face the reality and to begin to make some modifications in his own behavior before the other teachers and in the planning and development of the classes, allowing the students themselves to be aware of the real objective of the Classes, and the importance that Physical Education has for life and their development in society.

These difficulties end up affecting the work of many teachers inside the school, because they end up seeing themselves bound hands and feet when trying to change the situation of Physical Education in school, it can be said that not only Physical Education but education in general 2006).

3.1. DISPENSES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION LESSONS

Throughout the history of Physical Education at school, laws were passed in the 1960s and 1970s, which allowed a number of possibilities for students to request class dismissals. They allowed students with health problems who served in the army to have children (offspring), work and were more than thirty years old to be released from school Physical Education classes.

In the first Law on the Guidelines and Bases of National Education – Law No. 4024 of December 20, 1961 – Physical Education is contemplated in Article 22, the text of which is written as follows: “Physical education will be compulsory in primary courses And medium, until the age of 18 years “(BRASIL, 1961). The character of Physical Education present in this legislation was directly related to the physical training of the student, aiming to train the future worker with health that would be fundamental for the process of industrialization lived by the country in that period. The very limitation with respect to the 18 years of age made it clear that physical exercises could cause wear and tear or exhaustion in the period in which individuals would supposedly need a greater energy input due to their insertion in the job market.

LDB is revised, with the proposed educational reform 10 years after its creation, through Law 5692 of August 11, 1971 (BRASIL, 1971). Castellani Filho (1997) points out that this law no longer refers to the age limit of the practice of Physical Education, opting to regulate the question by another mechanism, which is put into practice in that same year, by the promulgation of Decree nº 69450 of 1º de November, which alluded in the four paragraphs of its article 6 to the conditions that allowed the student to practice Physical Education, based on the following wording:

At any level of all educational systems, it is optional to participate in the scheduled physical activities: a) students of the night course who prove, through a professional or functional portfolio, duly signed, to exercise paid employment in a workday equal to or greater than six hours; B) students over 30 years of age; C) students who are doing military service in the troop; D) to the students covered by Decree-Law 1044 of October 21, 1969, by means of an award from the attending doctor (CASTELLANI FILHO, 1997, p.21).

Thus, throughout the Physical Education trajectory in the school a series of possibilities were opened that allowed the students to request exemptions from the classes. These dispensation practices were or could be backed by the fact that Physical Education is considered in law as an activity and does not discipline, like the other areas that make up the school curriculum. For some authors, this consideration included Physical Education as practice by practice, without the need for structuring of its contents.

On December 1, 2003, the faculty was changed, by means of Law 10793. This Law changed the wording of art. 26, § 3, and art. 92 of Law 9294 of December 20, 1996. Thus, it was determined that the Physical Education classes were optional to the student who, regardless of the period in which he studied, fit into some of the following conditions:

I – That he / she completes a workday equal to or greater than six hours; II – greater than thirty years of age; III – who is performing initial military service or who, in a similar situation, is required to practice physical education; IV – supported by Decree-Law No. 1,044, of October 21, 1969; V – (VETOED) VI – that has offspring (BRASIL, 2003).

Given this law, there is a very exclusionary view of the role of physical education in school, not being an important discipline as well as the others. In fact, the assumptions of an exclusively biological body, homogeneous, tired of work, old or sick, that can not carry out the classes of the school are taken up again.

3.2. BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION PRACTICE

The discipline of Physical Education develops in the student, possibilities of movement and educates to the understanding, relevance, importance and how and where it should be used, being considered as a unique experience because it deals with one of the most precious human resources, which is the human body. Thus Physical Education brings several contributions to the students, being able to be mentioned: The development of the student as a whole; If well applied, it contributes to interdisciplinarity with other disciplines; Opportunity for coexistence, dialogue, companionship and even resolution of problems; Promotes the integral development of the child in the biological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects so that it reaches its autonomy; The socialization with different groups of people living with the victories and defeats that life imposes on the human being.

For Xavier (1986, p. 33), the practice of Physical Education brings to the student the increase of interest; Concentration and motivation for the educational practice; Facilitating the understanding and setting of complementary information; Concrete experimentation of movements and objects related to the programmatic contents; Stimulus to observation, imagination and creativity; Visualization of practical and concrete knowledge from theoretical and abstract notions; Approach to the social reality in which he lives.

According to the National Curricular Parameters, the importance of the practice of Physical Education takes into account the appropriate conditions for its effectiveness as an activity that works the body and movements. Therefore, it emphasizes that Physical Education is understood as an area of ​​knowledge of the body culture of movement. It also emphasizes that Physical School Education is a discipline that must introduce and integrate the student in the body culture of movement, forming the citizen who will produce it, reproduce it and transform it, instrumentalizing it to enjoy games, sports , Dances, fights and gymnastics in benefit of the critical exercise of citizenship and the improvement of the quality of life “(RODRIGUES, 2013).

According to Bracht (1992, p. 25), “body culture is all cultural manifestation linked to the ludo human motricity”. From the elaborations of Canestraro, Zulai and Kokut (2008, citing XAVIER, 1986, p.33), in the area of ​​Physical School Education, it is possible to point out several benefits for the student, among which concrete experimentation of movements and related objects With the programmatic contents of Physical Education; The stimulus to observation, imagination and creativity; The visualization of practical and concrete knowledge from theoretical and abstract notions; And the student’s approximation to the social reality in which he lives.

Zunino (2008) considers that Physical Education is one of the most efficient ways in which the individual can interact and is also a relevant tool for the acquisition and improvement of new motor and psychomotor skills, since it is a pedagogical practice capable of promoting the ability Physical, the acquisition of consciousness and understanding of reality in a democratic, humanized and diversified way, because at this educational stage Physical Education should be seen as a means of information and training for the generations.

In view of this perspective, the importance of showing activities and possibilities that the child and the adolescent should experience in the school stage are highlighted, so that they can organize their body image, starting point for a full body culture. For physical education, all corporal movement can be pedagogically thematized and developed through the application of cultural contents such as dance, gymnastics, fights, sports and games (RODRIGUES, 2013).

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

In the study carried out through the difficulties encountered by Physical Education teachers in the school, it was observed that many changes must occur, mainly starting from themselves and from the whole class of this area, they must have a more critical conception about their role in school.

The teaching practice is open to renew it, in the words of Paulo Freire (1992, 188): “That who knows can teach to those who do not know is necessary that, first, who knows knows that does not know everything; Second, that whoever does not know, know that he does not ignore everything. ” Thus, in planning their activities, the teacher should consider not only their knowledge but especially that of their students, leading them to perceive themselves as authors of the construction of their own knowledge and modifying agents of the world in which they live. The committed teacher will certainly have committed students and so the teaching-learning process will have its goal achieved. It is up to the Physical Education teacher to guide and lead this process using all his knowledge and intelligence, because the more intelligent the teacher, the more he makes his students capable of acting intelligently.

In the history of Physical Education many transformations have occurred throughout the ages, always seeking to adapt the needs of the current society. These changes occurred unsatisfactorily, and eventually led to problems in their application to the school environment. It should be noted that Physical Education before critical theory is a discipline that seeks to make the student become an autonomous, critical and reflective citizen. Turning this student into a being capable of recognizing himself in the society in which he lives.

5. REFERENCES

BETTI, M. Physical education and society. São Paulo: Movement, 1991.

BRACHT, V. Knowledge and pedagogical: about the legitimacy of physical education as a curricular component. In: CAPARROZ, F.E. (Org.). Physical school education. Victory: Proteoria, 2001. v. 1.

CASTELLANI FILHO, Lino. Physical Education in Brazil: the story that is not told . Campinas (SP): Papirus, 1989.

CASTELLANI FILHO, Lino. The impact of educational reform on Brazilian Physical Education. Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte. V. 19, n. 1, p. 20-33, set. 1997.

DARIDO, Suraya Cristina. Physical Education in school: questions and reflections. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2003.

DARIDO, Suraya Cristina et.al. Reality of physical education teachers in school: their difficulties and suggestions – Revista Mineira de Educação Física, Viçosa, v. 14, n. 1, p. 109-137, 2006.

RODRIGUES, Ingrid Vieira. The Importance of the practice of Physical Education in Primary Education I Education Portal. 2013.

SOUZA JR, O. S .; DARIDO, S. C. Dismissal of physical education classes: pointing ways to minimize the effects of archaic Brazilian legislation. Think Practice Magazine, v. 12, n. 2, 2009.

XAVIER, Telmo Pagana. Teaching Methods in Physical Education. São Paulo: Manole, 1986.

ZUNINO, Ana Paula. Physical education: elementary school, 6th – 9th. Curitiba: Positivo, 2008.

[1] Undergraduate student in Physical Education at Patos de Minas College (FPM).

[2] Teacher of Recreation and Leisure / Supervised Internship / Basketball / History of Physical Education in the Physical Education course at Patos de Minas College. Specialist in Physical Education.

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