The reason for the state

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PEDROSO, Nilda Da Conceição [1]

PEDROSO, Nilda Da Conceição. The reason for the state. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 10, Vol. 15, 18-33. October 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link:, DOI: 10.32749/


With this work we intend to study the Folders of the historical collection of the national archive. They contain the Captainular Acts of the Meetings of the National Assumption Lobby in the period 1805 and 1806. Our intention is to demonstrate, through these demands, and to expose an insipient and colonized Assumption, but hardworking, politicized and developing. Demonstrate the same, the activity of a state apparatus that in the past played an important role together with the people: the Cabildo. On the other hand we intend to contribute to clarify points of questions taken to centuries and that with this monographic work are alls of the past and brought to the historical present.

Key words: Folders, chapter minutes, lobbying, Assumption.


To the team of students of the ONE Master's Course, it was given to present a work, that of doing a study of the Chapter Acts contained in a folder corresponding to the period of a full decade: from 1801 to 1811.

These are the years that anticipated the most important event for the Republic of Paraguay: its Independence.From these years it was up to us to do the study of the years 1805 and 1806.


The institution called Cabildo had its background in a still medieval Spain. During the early Middle Ages they had their rise in the Christian kingdoms. Thus, in Castile and León they were Councils; in Aragon and Navarre: Cabildos, but in Catalonia they were called Consells. They had preponderance for the money granted to them by kings since the late 10th century. Over time, they gained autonomy and strength in government, exercising administrative and justice functions. After more than three centuries of frank activity with the people, the Cabildos in Spain were losing their strength as they strengthened the real power. But, being transplanted into America, it arises in most cities full of vigour.

In the cities of Spanish America, in colonial times, the Cabildo represented the administrative and judicial body of the municipality. Asunción, founded in 1537 by Domingo Martínez de Irala and Juan de Salazar y Espinoza, had his Cabildo created on September 16, 1541, by Martínez de Irala himself. "Being Asunción the only base of operations of the conquering company, it was needed to create a legal and administrative institution that would grant city status to the fort." (PARAGUAYAN ACADEMY OF HISTORY, 2010, p. 165).

The Cabildo was in Paraguay a spontaneous creation of the conquistadors on the model of the Castilian municipalities. Although many were appointed in Spain regidors of the lands to be conquered by the Adelantado Don Pedro de Mendoza, he was not authorized to found Cabildos, probably for fear that they would want to renew in the Río de La Plata the struggles of the communities ended in Villalar. (…) But on September 16, 1541, Irala, in consortium with the royal officers, founded the Cabildo de Asunción, composed of five rulers, so that they may understand in all things concerning the good governance of this city. Soon the Cabildo became an important governing body. Not only did he fulfill his own municipal and justice obligations, but he performed various political functions. He sometimes took over the total government of the Province as he did in 1676 following the dismissal of Governor Rexe of Corvalán. During the Revolution of the Comuneros he was the main protagonist of the events and bulwark of the popular cause. (CARDOZO, 2015, p. 66).

The Assumption thing wasn't the only Cabildo created. Thus, every city founded was created a Cabildo. In this way, and from Asunción, Cabildos were created in Ciudad Real de Guairá, Villa Rica, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Concepción de Bermejo, Ciudad de Veras de los Corrientes, Santiago de Jerez.

In the Act of Foundation of the Cabildo de Asunción collected by Mr. Juan Francisco Aguirre in his book "Diario del Capitán de Fragata", it is as follows:

There are and reside in this people five rulers who gather in Cabildo with Justice in the days that were agreed by them so that they may understand in all things concerning the good governance of this city of the Assumption, who make and can do the municipal ordinances that close to the things they saw to be more convenient. […](AGUIRRE, 1949, n.p.).

The Cabildo had among its main functions those of issuing ordinances with force and vigour of law as well as establishing penalties for transgressors. They also soon agreed on the procedure for elections that should be made clean and healthy.

One of the first measures taken was the issuance of coins. As there was neither gold nor silver throughout the Province, they agreed to set the following values:

"A mesh hook s 1 m[antigua moneda española]aravedi ; a rescue hook s 5 maravedíes; a scoop of 16 maravedíes; a wedge s 50 maravedíes; an anvil wedge 100 maravedíes" (QUEVEDO; DURAN; DUARTE, 2001, p. 33).

These securities were later applied for the sale of the country's products to foreign trade.Thus, the management of the Cabildo de Asunción paid off, as it showed that the province could be maintained and developed without the circulation of sealed coins.

In the Cabildo the city prison worked and in front, in the Plaza, was the scroll (that's what it was called because it had that format), where the criminals were whipped. The Mayors were like Judges of 1st Instance of the city. The Cabildo de Asunción since its founding exerted remarkable and sustained influence on the formation of the nationality of the Paraguayan people and in the common struggles.


The first decade of the nineteenth century represented for Paraguay years of political-social demonstrations that stirred the stage of the Spanish-Iberian colony. The nineteenth century inaugurates in Spain, the Motherland, great transformations that will extend to its colonies: the House of Bourbon now reigned.

The Habsburg dynasty had left no successor. Political pressures imposed preference on the grandson of the French absolutist King, Louis XIV, who belonged to the Bourbon family. After a long dispute – the war of succession – in which European countries tried to prevent what had happened between Portugal and Spain from happening: the Iberian Union (1580 – 1640), where a single family took over two thrones, after the death of King Sebastian.

Finally, the French prince was accepted, who to represent the Hispanic monarchy was named Philip II. Spain goes on to adopt the French system in its political, economic, social and cultural life. Everything was copied in the Spanish Metropolis: fashion, furniture, architecture, French gardens. He centralized power in the Metropolis and distributes it throughout the colonies. The big political decisions were made personally by the monarch, advised by his ministers. While the Habsburgs focused their administration on their colonial enterprises, the Bourbons focused on people, creating the "overseas provinces." Despite the effort, the House of Bourbon failed to preserve its colonies. American emancipation was coming in the direction that events were taking: from the Independence of North America in 1776 where from the thirteen English colonies was released quite material collected from the representatives of the Enlightenment and also a few years later (1789) from the leaders of the French Revolution, they ended up breaking the foundations of the ancient Spanish absolutist system in Hispanic-America.

External events that influenced the ideas of emancipation were added to the heavy burdens of taxes and raw materials that the colony endured after three hundred years of Spanish domination. Among them the double English invasion on the Río de la Plata (1806 and 1807) and Carlotism. There is a, in the meantime, that seemed to be the impetus for the "domino effect" in Latin America; Bonaparte's invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. This forced the Portuguese imperial family and its entire court to flee to the Brazilian colony (1808). The presence of the dominant element on dominated soil seemed to warm native Americans' moods of independence. After two victories in a row by the colony's military forces ultimately expelling the English from the Río de la Plata, many Paraguayans who acted in the defense realized their ability to fight for independence. That certainty was the "gunpowder scratch" that prompted Latin America to be free of Spanish shackles.

The Cabildo represented Spanish power in America. But, by representing the people well, it became a weapon against Spanish claims, so the Cabildo was always a body of defense of the people. There gathered the men who made politics, casting out the traitors of the independence movement that reached its boom in 1811 with the Independence of Paraguay.


Asunción, center of the Conquest of the Río de la Plata, since its creation, was a "trampoline" that may well have disappeared as soon as they discovered "La Sierra de la Plata" (Potosí, now Bolivian lands). Paraguay's own colonization was the result of an attempt to conquer the Incas to the east, louis Necker asserts.But, at one point in its history, it was also a port of rescue, as the conquerors needed to approach the Carios for their agricultural economy: they planted cassava and cotton and their women knitted to make clothes.

Historians of Spanish law in America argue that the settlement of cities was carried out in the form of "Urban Colonization". According to Weber (1910) "the creation of cities was the means of creating local organs of power in distant regions. As was the case with the Cabildos. During the "monarchical" period in America there were no cities without lobbying, as this was the institutional symbol of its existence, whose creation gave birth and life to the city. Cities that served as a defense, political, social and economic center were "fortress and market", government headquarters and cultural center, residence of landowners, encomenderos, public officials and members of the Church. These were the roles played by Asunción since its inception."


The town of Remolinos was born around 1659, when the Cabildo de Asunción decided to found a population of Spaniards south of the capital as a form of protection for the border of the province (the tebicuary fields and their counties). Its full name was Our Lady of the Rosary of the Swirls.

According to Spanish demarcator Juan Francisco Aguirre, the first settlers of Remolinos were 14 Portuguese and 72 Spaniards under the protection of a military garrison. (This presence of Spaniards and Portuguese conspired against the peaceful coexistence of the locals and against the consolidation of the people.)

To defend this and the other riverside populations on the left bank, during the rule of France several forts were founded in the Chaco: Borbon, Orange, Formoso (present-day city of Formosa), Monte Claro and Santa Elena. To support them, the Dictator founded several rooms, including Remolinos, in Moñaicuaré, near present-day Alberdi. But, a growing river in 1786 forced the village to move a little further southeast. A new river rising in 1825 forced a new transfer from the village to the so-called place of the Plasters, and has since been renamed Villa Franca, in homage to the ruler.




The constant documents of the Folders are Chapter Acts of the meetings of El Cabildo in a period from 1801 to 1811. But, they're not the originals. They are copies, with sheets on wood paper, some handwritten, with paleographic letters at the tip of the pen and others mecanographic.

The documents to which we were responsible for working are addressed to the Governor Intendent Lázaro de Rivera and Bernardo de Velazco in the period of 1805 and 1806 respectively, being that of this last year there was no reference in the folder.

The folders were created by the paleographer Hannibal Solís in 1911, and since then they received no form of restoration, nor were they digitized to this day. Having used sheets of paper- wood (cellulose) and not paper-cotton, which has more durability, today they are very affected. Its leaves are largely broken in the extremities, making it difficult to read and understand the text, at least in the period already mentioned.

The sheets we consult for this this work do not contain combination. Thus, someone wrote down a sequential numbering, which we took advantage of to identify/locate the documents. As for dates, only some contain dates built into the texts.

We also note that the National File uses an abbreviation system to report to the sections where the folders are stored. Thus: N.E. means Section New Binding and S.H., History Section.

The study of the Chapter Acts contained in the National File Folder leads us to the analysis of some points regarding the city of Asunción in the past, its public works, security policy and the economic system governed by the Cabildos in the decade before paraguayan Independence.

4.1.2 1st ACTA:

(a) Date: Assumption, 9 February 1805;

b) Appearances: Bernardo Jovellanos, Bernardo de Arguela, José de Arta, among others;

c) Entrance: Construction of the Chapter Houses, Prisons and a Muralha;

d) Process: Communities of the peoples of this Intendency to the Upper Board of the Cavildo;

e) Product: Mr. Governor has commanded the publication by Bando, the contribution of the neighbors and residents, in addition to the auction of the Ramos del Erba.

Text of the Minutes:

[…] Communities of the Peoples of this Yntendencia contribute free of charge with some Amount that is well and without prejudice to their interests and without prejudice to their interests, taking into account the public need that is experienced, in which every citizen must cooperate gladly. Finally it is known this Cavildo that Don Alexandro Garcia Diez neighbor of this has offered up to five hundred pesos of silver for the Work and construction of a Wall that must necessarily rise in the deep immediate Sanja these Chapter Houses without whose Work the other cannot be emprehendered; and Mr. Regidor, Don José de Astigarraga, appointed by this town hall to run with her; to which[la obra], although at the same time as the beginning of the Wall, the other of the Houses can also be worked on and the two finished in a time, being also dicto in being precise the aforementioned Wall for the subsistence and consistency of the Houses and Carceles. And your Honor signed, that I give fee.

José Par…….Roa; Bernardo Jovellanos; Bernardo de Arguela; José de Arta, José de Astigarriaga, Francisco Gonzales de Aguero, Julian Gomes de la Fuente, Juan Vicente Rey; Pedro Pablo Martínez Saena; Martin Tomaz de Mendia; Antoni Cabrera; Antonio Manoel Benitez: Scrivano and Notary public of His Majesty, Government and Cavildo.

/… And usefulness of this Republic as they have it of use and custom. And being thus together and gathered together, they were mindful of an office of the Governing Governor Intendent of trinta and one of the last stench in which he inserts the Decree issued by the honourable Member directed, among other things, that this Cavildo without wasting time should proceed to propose referees in order to repair quanto before the yminent Ruyna and these Capitular Houses, Carceles and other public works , in the meantime the Higher Board takes Providence on which for this same reason they have been proposed; for whatever the Lord Gov[decreto]ernador has ordered to publish by Vando and the whole Province has been circulated, taking into account that he does not allow further dileration: on his visit he agrees this Cavildo that without prejudice to the other referees that this City has in advance exhibited for this same purpose and that notice to the honourable Member to have happened. , it is to be felt that the Cavildo asks for a free donation through two Deputies within this City and for the Campaign Parties commissioning Persons who dissimpose equal function with accuracy and activity, who will present the extreme need of the new Work of these Chapter Houses in which the whole Province is interested, whose fact, as notorious , do not hesitate the City Council, contributed gladly all the neighbors and residents to liberally cross in quanto allow their powers. It is also to be felt that this Cavildo are auctioned in public auction (finish) the Ramos de Estanco de la Yerba for a Quinquenio, this is every year, so because this Bouquet will increase further with this determination, because not only will the frauds committed with this Bouquet be prevented in the day, but because the Finisher as a ynteresado will take the necessary precautions by settling his own Benefit so that they are not followed the damage that in the day is felt against the City, with or it is clearly apparent that with short difference from what matters tithes will bring greater advantages. Likewise, this Cavildo should be made the same auction diligence with regard to Roman law with the quality of without prejudice to the consultation made by the Higher Board, under which it can, of course, proceed to its Auction in the terms that on the day is paid, so that the Providences that have been given by this Government in the case are executed and as such past in the authority of things judged , against the quales part of the Commercio has not been presented in time, nor has it been[…] done, to have formalized and improved the appeal, a circumstance truly inductive of any excution. Similarly it seems regular that[…]. (Docum. Constant of the acquis of the National Asunción File). (ESTRAGO, 2014, n.p.).

4.1.3 2nd ACTA

(a) Date: Assumption, 27 September 1805;

b) Appearances: Mr. Bernardo Jovellanos, S.Or. Bishop D. Nicolás Videla among others;

c) Entrance: Lift a shingle reova in the vicinity of the Ruined Building of the Royal Seminary College;

d) Process: The Cavildo agreed that construction should be built in the vicinity of the Seminar;

(e) Product: For the protection of the weather to people who come down from the field with orthoses for public subjugation, it is designated to cross the competent plot.

Text of the Minutes:

This Cavildo is agreed to raise a shingle reov[ techo de teja]a in the vicinity of the Ruined Building of the Royal Seminary College so that all people who leave the field with ortalisas, and other mini-trains for public furrowing can shelter from the weather in this attention begs V.S. Intendente, it is designed to cross the plot competent for the object in which the public good is interested. God guide V.S.Y.m.a. Chapter Room and September, 27 of 1805.

José Fortunato de Roa; Bernardo Jovellanos; Josef de Aran; Julian Gomes de la Fuente, Juan Vicente Rey; Pedro Pablo Martínez Saens, Martin Tomas de Mendia; Antonio S.or. Bishop D. Nicolas Videla (Constant docum of the acquis of the National Assembly of Asunción). (ESTRAGO, 2014, n.p.).

4.1.4 3rd ACTA

a) Date: Not recorded;

b) Appearances: Not included in the Minutes;

c) Entrance: Soldiers are sent to cover the guards on the banks of the river of this city, whose population of Swirls is abandoned;

d) Process: Encourage guards at Fort San Carlos del Río Apa, Fort Borbon and the town of Remolinos;

e) Product: To promote the honorable defense of the insults of the infidel Indians of Chaco and to take into account that the Province is borderline to the Luzitan Nation [Brasil]and we must have the request with just foundation.

Text of the Minutes:

Forts of Borbon and San Carlos del Río Apa are strong that represent the defense of the city. That's where the good Ayres turns pass, and Benefícios de la Yerba, and more than a thousand and five hundred men of the wealthy excepted by Contract with the ………….so that agriculture is abandoned, kept by outsiders, there is no pawn to harvest for the few works, nor soldiers to quote to cover the guards of this City for which V.S. has been seen in the precision of forcing the outsiders to suffer the fatigue of these guards. The town called Remolinos was facing the reductions of Mocovie Indians on the other side of the river in the Gran Chaco.

More than exposed, V.S. dexó. Ancestor of the Costa del Río is in total abandonment, what we know from the visit that V.S. had Captain Antonio Cabrera make from the town of 'mbukú' this: that he gives individual news, as he has practiced diligence effectively and pontually, that all the guards and houses of them, which are located on the River Coast , ……….a soldier, to the ……………….of Each, land and without Guard and this also to the population of Remolinos, and the Reduction of Yndios Mocovies, located on the other side of the River in the Gran Chaco: and we do not know this very is ……………..the Guards of the River Coast and above.

The River, S. Governador, is our antemural, in its growing we hear the insults of the Chaco Ynfidel Indians; It is waning strongly, that a few days will be free passage to all Indes, and I fear rightly, and by experience, that they make a general invasion throughout that Coast and cause the damages of deaths, and thefts, as they have been executed on other occasions, and homelessness, and no shelter, or force that is noticeable on the Coast. And they would have it well observed these ynfidels makes the whalers believe a near danger is iminent.

It is also to depose in V.S.'s consideration that the Province is bordered by the Luzitan Nation an[Brasil]d that we must fear with just foundations, resulting from the present war against England for our Spain, to also declare it against Portugal, as has happened in previous ones, and in this case we will become lords of this Province for the helplessness in which it is seen , without ammunition, and without weapons, without guards, but all this would be the least in the case of the Indians and Portuguese, having an expert chief in the military, as of all his subjects, as is V.S. because with what little there is to do so that the enemy is made honorable and rejected, because no firearms can be put together to them , the neighbors, or you want to be people who know how to dominate the horse would do a lot for our people, or Infantaria agents, even if they are armed with everything. (Docum.constant of the acquis of the National Assembly of Assumption). (ESTRAGO, 2014, n.p.).


Orders placed on the first two demands were eventually taken care of.

The first, through the Vando commanded to publish by the Governor Intendent on January 31, 1805 and in an office in which he orders the Cavildo to: "am[…]ong other things that this Cabildo without wasting time proceed to propose abitriums in order to repair as soon as possible the yminent Ruyna of the Capitulant Houses and Prisons".

The second order was the construction of a roof with shingles to protect settlers from the weather when they came to the city to sell their colonial products. This request was dealt with without further delay by the Cabildo, perhaps because it is a small work. In the meantime, we do not find in this case the Act of the request of the population, only the resolution taken by the members of the Cabildo.

The third demand, of security for the people of Remolinos, will once again be demanded by the Cabildo, as a feedback, that is, the processes not attended, after some time, return to the Cabildo in new orders made by the population in an attempt to draw the attention of the authorities to the problem that continues to burden them.


In the same folder, later, another Swirl order:

[…] We ask V.Sa. that for no reason, nor disposition, it is not absent from the Province, but that it serves to remain in it, and promptly give active Providence – effect that the coast below and above be defensive with officers and soldiers, even if they are armed with spears because there are no fires, and that it prepares as each one should , with cureña and some gunpowder cartridges to shoot them and give notice as usual when it is noticeable to have passed our side the unfaithful enemy, To have all the people of those adjacent parties come together and follow the mor officer who commands in the respective places and face the enemy by taking away the robberies, who regularly execute and at the same time manufacture the houses of the guards with stakes for the shelter of you officers and soldiers, as they have been around all along[…]. (Constant docum of the acquis of the National Asunción File). (ESTRAGO, 2014, n.p.).

7. YEAR 1806

Since there were no documents in the folder that referred to the year 1806, we tried to look for them in the Catalogue of the Rio Branco Institute, Brazil.

In this Catalogue are related the documents that in the years of the War of the Triple Alliance were looted from the File and brought to Brazil by the Baron of Rio Branco.

With the founding of an Institute on its behalf, in 1943, these documents were "discovered" and restored to the National Assembly Of Assumption.

But not all of them were returned. Those who related to the question of limits never came back.

With this catalogue, we believe there is one question left: were the documents in Spanish when they were taken. Come back as if they were copies, but then, because they're not in Spanish?

Being transcribed for Portuguese, probably by Brazilian army soldiers, with little or no knowledge of Paraguayan history, they considered Swirls to be a Reduction. But Whirlpools was a village on the side of the river here, and the reduction of the Mocovie Indians remained on the other side of the river.

Reviewing Vol. 1 of the Rio Branco Collection Catalogue, we find another request made to the Cabildo de Asunción by the people of Remolinos regarding security for the attacks of the Indians of the Chaco reduction:

a) Order No. 115 – p. 31 – Swirls, Assumption (villa) 1807 – 1808

This Catalogue was transcribed all in Portuguese. Copies were made in Brazil.

Legajo[conjunto] of papers relating to the Reduction of Swirls, in which complaints and representations of the commanders and inhabitants of the downhill appear, exposing to the Government the inumerable thefts and damages made by the Indians of another Reduction, linked to those of the Chaco, who are about to leave them in total misery and destitution, which other infidels did not want to devote themselves to work , but to stay at the expense of the poor neighborhood, which are at first in their pernicious customs and even profit, without even learning Christian doctrine.

b) Originals: 11 documientos – 27 pp.

Sheets of varying sizes. The documientos are signed by Nazario González, Fernando Mesa and others.

In the First Act, there is a public administration problem. The Capitular Houses, such as the Prison, were built on lagland, therefore passable from suffering with the water of the rising river. These growing ones happened in the winter, as they often do today. They were built in what is now called "Chacarita neighborhood" near the Costanera.

Above this asuncene neighborhood, we find a map that shows us exactly the place where the Chapter Houses were.This also shows us that the works were not planned. We also find a chronicle made by Gustavo Laterza Rivarola that describes the neighborhood and talks about the rising river in the winter.


In fact it identifies as Chacarita everything that emerges, from the shore of the bay to the ravine where the historic center began and from the intercession of Juan E street. Olea'ry with the river, to the lows of Knight Park. The proximity of the channel gave it the possibility of fishing, in a triple function: survival, commerce, and entertainment, while the proximity of the microcenter gave them the certainty of the work and the low transfer costs. The subsolan makes it welcoming most of the year and, were it not for river fluctuations, the place should be considered one of the most suitable for residence throughout the city. (ESTRAGO, 2014, n.p.).

In the second Act we note that, around the return of the inícios of the nineteenth century, Asunción had problems with his abasto. The settlers did not have in the city a space to sell their vegetables. With the construction of the shingle roof, the Cabildo made possible a great benefit to the city, as it franked the urban public with the opportunity to stock up on products from the countryside.

This was the beginning of a great work that citizen citizens take use of to this day: the Municipal Market 4.

In our research on the Remolinos population, we find in one of the books of the historian Branislava Susnik the concerns between the Government and the Cabildo caused by depotic attitudes of Governor Felipe Rexe Corvalán.

On 3 July 1675, the Cabildo sent a report to the Viceroy of Peru and Audiencia de Charcas. In the report, the Cabildo directly accuses Governor Rexe Corvalán of "disturbing the political and military peace of the province." And he also accuses Corvalán of "a negligent omission of defense of the province against the "Chaqueños border enemies" adopting a misguided policy in their relations with the Guaicurúes and a carefree stance against the penetration of the northern Mbayá-Guaycurúes in the area of Eastern Paraguay.

Persecuted by the hostilities of the Guaycurú equestrians to the lands of the province, by the political arrogance of the government, by the abuses by the merchants, the Creole encomenderos capitulants raised their protest against the economic competition of the Jesuits.

Faced with the situation, the Cabildo calls for relief from the Royal Audience in arms and ammunition for their defense, since the vassals of the province were very poor, poverty that attributed to the

usurpation of the heritage and benefit of the weed trade on the part of the Jesuits. Weed was considered the economic base of the province… the Jesuits knowing the reality of the province, overused the weed trade and did not give in to the Creole for their service of mita to the Guarani of Itati province, which according to the Cabildo, constituted an open detriment to the active economic heritage. (SUSNIK, 2016, p. 160-161).

It can be inferred from this that if the population of Remolinos were to find leadership such as Antequera and Mompox for the Comuneros, from that unresolved demand, there could be another revolution with the same impetus of the Common Revolution.


With this study we believe we have achieved the objectives that we set out to demonstrate the demands found in the folders where we draw the conclusions of discovering and demonstrating a colonial, worker, political and developing Assumption but very incipient. We also seek to demonstrate the importance of Cabildo as an organ of Spanish culture of the Middle Ages and that in America it has become an important instrument of government policy and justice, playing an important role with the people.

We also hope to have contributed to elucidate some points of the issues presented here and that it serves to "open a door" to future researchers who will be able to enrich our study with a more in-depth work that, consisting of the historical acquis of the National Archive of Assumption – ANA, will be able to assist future students who enter the premises and make use of the folders with the Chapter Acts.


ACADEMIA PARAGUAYA DE LA HISTORIA. Historia Paraguaya. Asunción: Academia Paraguaya de la Historia, 2010.  ISBN 978-99953-806-5-6.

AGUIRRE, Juan Francisco. Diario de un Capitán de Fragata. In: Revista de La Biblioteca Nacional, Buenos Aires, v. 2., 1949. Impr. Del Ministério Educación, Tomo II.

BENDIX, Reinhard. Max Weber: um perfil intelectual. Brasília: UnB, 1986.

CARDOZO, Efraím. Apuntes de Historia Cultural del Paraguay. 3. ed. Asunción: Servilibro, 2015.

ESTRAGÓ, Durán Margarita. Archivo Nacional de Asunción. Primer Acervo Documental del Río de la Plata. Asunción: Servilibro, 2014.

LÓPEZ MOREIRA, Mary Monte. Historia del Paraguay. Servilibro: Asunción, 2015.

MACHAÍN, Ricardo de Lafuente. Los Conquistadores del Río de la Plata. 3. ed. Lumen: Buenos Aires, 2012.

MARQUES, Guida. O Estado do Brasil na União Ibérica. Paris: Ed. Penélope, 2002.

QUEVEDO, Roberto; DURÁN, Margarita; DUARTE, Alberto. (Org.). Actas Capitulares y Documentos del Cabildo de Asunción del Paraguay. Asunción: Academia Paraguaya de la Historia, 2001.

SUSNIK, Branislava. Una Visión socio-antropológica del Paraguay. 2. ed. Asunción: Museo Etnográfico Andrés Barbero, 2016.

WEBER, Max. A Teoria Social e a Organização Econômica. Berlim: Universidade Humboldt, 1910.

[1] Licensiada Professor in History.

Sent: October, 2020.

Approved: October, 2020.

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