Perpetuus Motuus And The Independent Entropy In The Same Cycle

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

DIAS, Francisco Valdevan Alves [1]

DIAS, Francisco Valdevan Alves. Perpetuus Motuus And The Independent Entropy In The Same Cycle. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 06, Vol. 08, pp. 82-99. June 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/electrical-engineering/same-cycle

ABSTRACT

The present work aims to show the development of a continuous motion system for the generation of electricity, which receiving an initial force, produces energy for its own work indefinitely: An Infinite energy generator. According to the second law of thermodynamics, a Mechanical Moto-Perpetual, perpetual motion machine, it is impossible to happen in nature. The new proposal is the Perpetuus Motuus; emerged from the initial observations of the equipment analyzed separately and originated the necessary foundation for the experiment, subsidized by some theoretical references. We will present the development of Perpetuus Motuus from the concept called independent entropy in the same cycle, which made us understand that infinite energy is possible rather than being generated, not created out of nothing, but we observe that it can be generated from an existing force to then become independent, with this force applied in the system , the technological equipment will work harmoniously making your final work greater than your initial work, gaining strength, acceleration and power. In view of the above it can be affirmed that generating energy infinitely within the concept of independent entropy in the same cycle, where entropy does not interfere in the results of each other directly is possible according to experiments performed and based on the technical specifications of each equipment, the system receiving an initial force X the final production was 10X.

Keywords: Entropy, Infinite Energy, Perpetuus Motuus, Independent Entropy, Perpetuum Mobile.

1. INTRODUCTION

Entropy is a thermodynamic magnitude that assseeds the degree of disorder or randomness of a physical system, which is associated with the irreversibility of the states of a physical system.A popcorn when heated it turns into popcorn, this process is spontaneous since it is expected this result, but it is not expected that the reverse process will happen naturally, that is, the popcorn turning into corn again. If this were possible, the entropy of the system would decrease and the process would be non-spontaneous (WALKER, 2016).

In the concept of thermodynamics a thermally isolated system, the measurement of entropy should always increase over time, until it reaches its maximum value. Entropy is measured in kelvin (K), and its formula is given by the ratio between the amount of heat transferred during an isothermal process by the temperature at which this process occurred. Formula: ΔS = entropy variation – ΔQ – amount of heat – T – temperature  Entropy Final Entropy Initial during an isothermal process (ΔQ < 0), quando um sistema perde calor, sua entropia diminui. When a system receives heat (ΔQ > 0), its entropy increases. Finally, when a system does not perform heat exchange (ΔQ = 0), its entropy remains constant (YOUNG and FREEDMAN, 2008).

For the proposed system will be taken into account only the resulting final entropy in the system, since from the beginning to the end of the cycle, all thermodynamic processes have already been compensated by the technological components involved. A project more like the law of ideal gases, Carnot cycle. (WALKER, 2016).

According to thermodynamics, if we take a syringe, cover the nozzle and tighten the cable, we realize that it is only possible to close to a certain point, because the pressure will make a contrary force that tends to balance. This contrary force occurs due to increased pressure and decreased entropy inside the syringe. Based on this law a continuous motorcycle (mechanic) also known by its Latin term perpetuum mobile is impossible to happen in nature, as it violates at least the first and second law of thermodynamics (WALKER, 2016).

The system proposed here is more similar to the Carnot machine (1820), the difference is the ability to feed back, as the technological components involved in the system are able to perform the thermal, pressure and speed adjustments. Your ability to function can develop a working in harmony in a precise way, allowing you to make your final work bigger than your initial work. This system is not a perpetual motion (Perpetuum Móbile) but a Perpetuus Motuus (in Portuguese Perpétuo movement). Perpetuus Motuus in Latin with ‘us’ at the end means (We) making a connotation of the need for people working together, applying an initial force, intelligence to ensure its functioning.

2. DEVELOPMENT

To explain the functioning of the proposed system it is very important to understand independent entropy in the same cycle. The system consists of a compressed air pressure power generator, in which the main equipment used are: an Air compressor (figure 1), a pneumatic impact wrench (figure 2) and an energy alternator (figure 3), initially connected in an open cycle to at a given time close the cycle.

Figure 1: Air Compressor.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

Figure 2: Pneumatic wrench.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

Figure 3: Energy alternator.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

To show independent entropy in the same cycle, the air compressor head will be used; the compressor cylinder that stores the air; the pneumatic wrench tank that stores, transforms into work and kinetic energy. The pistons contained in the compressors work similarly to internal combustion pistons. (YOUNG and FREEDMAN, 2008).

Figure 4: Represents the inner part of the head.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

The images in Figure 5 represent the stages in which the compression chamber is during its work; S0, engine off; Si, initial entropy where the intake valve is open and the expansion valve is closed; S2, the two valves closed and the piston compressed the air; S3, the closed intake valve the piston is compressing and the expansion valve opens at the right time in a rapid motion, (YOUNG and FREEDMAN, 2008).

Figure 5: Compression chamber states.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

For compressor operation (figure 1), a compressed air compressor working with a 5 HP electric motor connected to an external power force will be used (figure 6).

Figure 6: Compressor connected to an external force.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

The work is started with the valves closed and the piston closed, when starting the engine the piston descends making a vacuum, the intake valve opens and the air is sucked into the chamber, in which it finds a certain entropy; then the piston starts to rise, the intake valve closes and the air is compressed strongly, increasing the pressure and decreasing entropy, in the exact time during compression the expansion valve opens and the air is pushed into the system. All this happens very quickly causing many phenomena such as heating, cooling, pressure increase, pressure drop, acceleration and condensation. However, for this to happen and the air reaches the compressor cylinder, all the work is carried out by the technological equipment contained in the compressor. A compressor is a well-known tool in the market, so we will not go into detail scans of how these compensations are made, continuing from the ready gas, in ideal conditions to be used. The air enters the cylinder of the compressor already treated, finds a different entropy compared to the previous one, in which it decreases according to the amount of air that enters, the valves prevent the air from coming back and the cylinder only receives load, when the compressor cylinder reaches 12 Newtons, 175 psi and 250 liters , reaches its maximum capacity and automatically shuts down the engine that powers it, this process takes on average 8 minutes. At this point the compressor is ready to provide the ideal air for the pneumatic wrench. The pneumatic wrench upon receiving air pressure begins to accumulate, waiting for the force necessary for its operation, the wrench has a gas-powered pump mechanism that continuously forces the air into a steel tank until the air becomes pressurized, high pressure range and low entropy; After being triggered the trigger which can be manual or automatic, the air makes a force, rotating the mechanisms at high speed and high torque capacity; The key can reach 3,900 rpm and 2,400 N.m, 244.8 Kgfm of torque. With the generator coupled to the pneumatic wrench rotor, which can be through pulleys, belts, gears or even direct to the shaft, the work carried out by the pneumatic wrench rotates the axis of the power generator. The pneumatic wrench will be very torque and low rotation;  as the key strength is too high, the alternator will start generating power; as the rotation increases the alternator begins to make a counter force; the key to compensate for this resistance throws its impact hammers – components that are part of the internal equipment – the compressor at that time will be working only with the air of your tank, disconnected from the electrical force and providing the air for the pneumatic switch; after a given period, which on average takes one minute according to experiments performed, the generator reaches its maximum rotation, 1800 rpm, while the pneumatic wrench will be making a lower force compared to the initial force, due to the speed of the rotor and multiplier boxes. The pneumatic wrench starts working below its capacity to save as much air as possible, but with enough rpm for the alternator that will be producing up to 12,900 Watts of power and current of 58.4 / 33.9 A. With the loss of pressure the engine will be activated automatically when the compressor cylinder is below 90 psi, pressure used by the pneumatic wrench, but for the reconnection of the compressor engine, the energy will come from the alternator itself, closing the cycle to perform the work independently, thus being able to continue working indefinitely.

Figure 7: Cycle of the Perpetuus Mótuus.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

To relate entropy with work and energy, experiments were carried out, it is worth mentioning that the experiments in Figure 8 are didactic examples to have a better understanding of how entropy works within the proposed system and how independent entropy in the same cycle varies according to the applied strategic sequence. In image 1 of Figure 8, a person is with a weight raised with both arms stretched, although it does not seem to be performing work, in reality it is, but internally by the system of the person’s body, where the cells are stretching and contracting performing work at the microscopic level. With each time that passes the arm goes down because of tiredness. The body system works in harmony to compensate for energy changes in the process, thus making noticeable the oscillation of temperature, destabilization of the arms and change in skin color. In the example of image 1, figure 8, it was possible to keep the weight erected for 2 minutes (WALKER, 2016).

In images 2 and 3 of Figure 8, the mass and height remained the same as in the previous example, but he holds the weight by lifting only one of the arms, while the other is lowered; when he begins to lower his arm by the tiredness caused in the internal work, he raises the other arm and changes the weight of hands as shown in image 3, keeping the weight in the same range of height and lowers the tired arm to rest; thus, while resting, the entropy inside the system changes by making the pressure and temperature adjustments. This process is repeated until you can no longer hold the weight, and can repeat the movement of the arm change, as many times as necessary. In this last example the result was 10 times higher, keeping the weight lifted for 20 minutes. Despite being the same system, weight and equal height the system performed work differently, where the work of the arm performed in the displacement from bottom to top and from top to bottom in the exchange of arms, was smaller than the work with the two arms raised, due to the thermal compensations made by the system , which provided a much greater gain when performing the work in a strategic and intelligent way (WALKER, 2016).

Figure 8: experiment performed.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

Although observation seems simple, understanding ends up being very complex without understanding the associated entropy. In Perpetuus Motuus it happens similar to the experiment in Figure 8, where the valves, cooling system, pressure controls and speed adjustments make the compensations, causing the stages to not have a direct connection and work independently, that is, the entropy in each chamber does not directly influence the results of each other , making the initial work less than their final work, thus providing a much higher gain at the end of the cycle, because of the independent entropy snares despite being in the same cycle.

Symbols such as references and technical specifications:

S – entropy;

S0 – entropy 0, compression chamber state with motor off

Si – initial entropy, state of the compression chamber with the intake valve open and the expansion valve closed

S2 – entropy 2, state of the compression chamber with the two valves closed and the piston compressing the air;

S3 – entropy 3, state of the compression chamber with the intake valve closed and the expansion valve open;

S4-state compression chamber, compressor cylinder;

S5 – pneumatic wrench compression chamber state;

F6 – electric energy generated by the alternator;

Fi – initial force;

FF- final force;

∉ – not part of the same group;

W – work;

K – Kelvin;

ΔQ – amount of heat;

ΔS – Entropy variation;

ΔSs – sum of entropy variations;

J – Joules;

| S1<S0 | S2<S1 | S3>S2 |S3∉S1| S3<S4 | S4>S5 | S5∉S1 | S5∉S2 | S5∉S3 | S5<S1|;

Figure 9: Air Compressor Specifications: Figure 1.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

Compressed air compressor – PSI: 175, – BAR: 12: Reservoir: 250 Liters: Filling time: 8 minutes: Number of cylinders: 2: Number of stages: 2: dB: 76: Head block RPM: 1050: Engine RPM: 3450: Electric motor CV: 5 = 3,677,495 W/ 3,750 W: Number of poles: 2: Steering wheel diameter: 422: Belt.

Figure 10: Specifications of the pneumatic wrench: figure 2.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

Pneumatic wrench: – Pneumatic screwdriver, has a trigger inside the handle, ideal for working in tire shops, workshops, trucks, buses, tractors, etc. Soft action operator safety trigger that allows for better speed control. Easy maintenance, precision in work, professional use, technical specifications: Shaft: 1″ Free speed: 3900 RPM, maximum torque: 2400 Nm, 244.8 Kgfm, screw capacity: 38mm, – air inlet: 1/2″, – hose recommended: 1/2″, – recommended air pressure: 8-10 kg/cm², 90 PSI.

Figure 11: Power alternator specifications: Figure 3.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

Alternator / Power Generator: Compound Type, Power 12.9 kVA, 12900W, Number of Three Phase, Voltage 127 V / 220 V, Frequency 60 Hz, Maximum Current 58.4 / 33.9 A, Rotation 1800 rpm, Housing 180 mm, IP21 degree of protection.

3. CONCLUSION

Conversions of the energies used and generated by the system:

-90 pounds = 40.82 kilograms

Formula: Multiply the value in pounds by the conversion factor ‘0.4536’.

Therefore, 90 pounds = 90 × 0.4536 = 40.8233133 kilograms.

-244.8 (244.8) kg-force meter = 66690 Watt-hour (Wh)

Formula: Multiply the value in kilograms-force meter by the conversion factor ‘273.3’.

Therefore, 244.8 kg-force meter = 244.8 × 273.3 = 66685.2199999 Watts-hour (Wh).

-Initial work = 3677,495 (3677,495) kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 1,3239 × 1010 Joules (J)

Formula: Multiply the value in kilowatt-hour (kWh) by the conversion factor ‘3.6005 × 106′. Therefore, 3677,495 kilowatt hours (kWh) = 3677,495 × 3,6005 × 106 = 1.3238982 × 1010 or 13238982000 Joules (J).

-Final work = 12900 kilowatt hours (kWh) = 4,644 × 1010 Joules (J)

Formula: Multiply the value in kilowatt-hours (kWh) by the conversion factor ‘3.6 × 106′. Therefore, 12900 kilowatt hours (kWh) = 12900 × 3.6 × 106 = 4,644 ×1010 or 46440000000 Joules (J).

Calculations of entropy variation in the system

Figure 12: ΔS1 = Variation of entropy in stage 1.

Figure 13: ΔS2 = Variation of entropy in stage 2.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

Figure 14: ΔS3 = Variation of entropy in stage 3.

Source: own elaboration, 2021.

ΔS3 = > S5<S4

The values used to represent the variations of entropies in the system are hypothetical values, because if the real values were placed they would be absurdly high, but the differences that determine which are greater or less than (> <) are correct, (JEARL WALKER, 2016 ).

|Si > S2, S3, S4, S5|S2 < Si, S3, S4 | S4 > S3, S5 | S5 < Si, S2, S3, S4 || ΔS1<ΔS2, ΔS3 | ΔS3<ΔS2 | ΔS2>ΔS1, ΔS3|.

ΔS = Sf – Si

ΔS1 = 15 – 10 = 5

ΔS2 = 25 – 15 = 10

ΔS3 = 5 – 25 = -20

ΔSs = ΔS1 + ΔS2 + ΔS3

ΔSs = 5 + 10 + (-20)

ΔSs = -5

ΔS = Sf – Si

ΔS = -5 – (100) = -105

Sf < Si => Entropy decreased.

Based on the technical specifications and experiments carried out, a satisfactory result of work gain and consequently electrical power was observed, as the compressor motor consumes 3,677,495 whats for its operation while the system produces 12,900 whats; having a surplus of 9,222,505 Whats. It is noteworthy that the system proposed here can be assembled in different sizes, using different equipment that works with compressed air, where the most popular are: pneumatic wrench, pneumatic screwdriver, pneumatic gun, pneumatic crusher, pneumatic beater or mechanisms that perform any type of work to rotate, vibrate, push, lift, lower. Powers and sizes vary according to the needs of each project. Compared with solar, photovoltaic, wind and similar energy, the proposed system has numerous advantages, such as: Reduced physical space, lower deployment cost, practical deployment, does not depend on weather conditions, generates at any time independent of the sun , wind or rain.

According to the first Law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created and does not come out of nowhere; this is indeed a great truth, but one of the advantages of Perpetuus Motuus is that the energy accumulated in the form of compressed air pressure can be stored and taken from one location to another, enabling the initiation of the system at any time depending only on an airflow for its operation.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Through this work we show the development and initial testing of a Perpetuus Motuus, a system that works in an intelligent cycle using compressed air for the production of mechanical/electrical energy, working from an initial force, depending only on an airflow and the life of the equipment to produce energy indefinitely. Independent entropy was evidenced in the same cycle, a physical phenomenon provided by cybernetics in its terminology. We understand how and why energy can be generated, enhanced and transformed, making it possible to produce more than its consumption, thus verifying independent entropy in the same cycle. Thus, this project will bring several benefits to society because it is a renewable source of energy, large production capacity, low cost, able to produce in a small physical space, not vulnerable to climatic conditions and with low levels of environmental impacts. In this way it is impossible for Perpetuus Motuus to happen in nature spontaneously without a person who can create such a system due to technology and associated intelligence.

REFERENCES

WALKER, Jearl. Fundamentos de física, gravitação, ondas e termodinâmica, décima edição. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2016, pág. 643, volume 2, (ISBN 978-85-216-3206-1).

______.  Fundamentos de física, gravitação, ondas e termodinâmica, décima edição. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2016, 552, volume 2, (ISBN 978-85-216-3206-1), (processos Irreversíveis e Entropia Halliday & Resnick).

______.  Fundamentos de física, gravitação, ondas e termodinâmica, décima edição. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2016, 550, 551, volume 2 (ISBN 978-85-216-3206-1) (Entropia e a Segunda Lei da Termodinâmica, Halliday & Resnick).

______.  Fundamentos de física, gravitação, ondas e termodinâmica, décima edição. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2016, 252, volume 2 (ISBN 978-85-216-3206-1) (variação da entropia, Halliday & Resnick).

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______.  Fundamentos de física, gravitação, ondas e termodinâmica, décima edição. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2016, 485,486, volume 2 (ISBN 978-85-216-3206-1), (Halliday & Resnick, a teoria cinética dos gases, o número de avogadro).

______.  Fundamentos de física, gravitação, ondas e termodinâmica, décima edição. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 2016, 182, volume 2 (ISBN 978-85-216-3206-1), (Halliday & Resnick, teorema do trabalho e energia cinética).

YOUNG e FREEDMAN, Física II, termodinâmica e ondas, 12ª edição.São Paulo: Pearson Education do Brasil, 2008, 293 – 302, (ISBN 978-85-88639-33-1), (Sears & Zemansky, entropia).

YOUNG e FREEDMAN, Física II, termodinâmica e ondas, 12ª edição. São Paulo: Pearson Education do Brasil, 2008, 284-292, cap. 20.4, (ISBN 978-85-88639-33-1), (Sears & Zemansky, Refrigeradores).

[1] Municipal Public Servant, High School.

Submitted: April, 201.

Approved: June, 2021.

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