SILVEIRA, Karla De Lourdes 
SILVEIRA, Karla De Lourdes. Between the rhymes of cordel. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 07, Vol. 01, pp. 71-86. July 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/lyrics/rhymes-of-cordel
The National Curricular Parameters (PCN’s-1998) suggest a contextualized teaching, which enhances the dialogue that runs through popular culture and the erudite, improving the students, in a multicultural society. There are many forms of popular culture that are maintained over time, as is the case with Cordel Literature, a genre that supports a strong collection of aspects and worldviews that deserves to be observed and deepened critically in the classroom. In this perspective, this article aims to analyze the importance of including Cordel as a classroom tool in the teaching-learning process and how this genre can help the teacher to work new skills and new knowledge with students, creatively and in connection. The applied methodology was through a basic, bibliographic research of qualitative nature, bringing the most significant elements of this genre and translating to teaching the most relevant aspects, based on theoretical studies by Bakhtin and Marchushi. Considering the approach taken, the Cordel is a typically multicultural genre in its formation, it goes through several areas within the teaching of the Portuguese Language, promoting to students a critical reflection, which can be raised with the reading of the leaflets, expanding the knowledge of the world, generating awareness about the contradictions that exist in society and the possible relations between the popular and the scholar , in addition to developing the student’s linguistic ability, making him a full citizen in a literate society.
Keywords: Teaching, gender, Cordel literature.
Popular culture arises from customs and traditions transmitted from generation to generation, it has gone through several phases of misunderstanding in the past and remains still largely unknown and often implicitly or explicitly denied, because of the humble origin that generated divergent conceptions and views among researchers and scholars. Over time there were great social transformations to begin a process of valuing art without a diploma.
In its different manifestations, Cordel is the only recognized and disseminated in the literate world and today is the scene of great research at the national and international level, which aims to preserve and give greater recognition to popular culture, including among these investigations some studies, has as discussion the importance of string in the teaching-learning process.
From this perspective, this article aims to analyze the importance of including Cordel Literature, as a tool in the classroom, in the teaching-learning process and how this genre can help the teacher to work new skills and new knowledge with students, in a creative and related way.
Cordel is a genre that explores characteristics of oral language, which enables the development of communicative skills, can expand students’ world knowledge, since in this type of genre there is a variety of themes relevant to society. It can awaken the student’s critical capacity through the possible relationships of historical and social meaning contextualized in the discourses, from the reading of the leaflets, which implies reflecting and encouraging students to think about the complexity of the relations between the human being and society.
Therefore, when working on string literature, the teacher will be promoting to students a rich universe of popular culture, in addition to promoting the valorization of cultural historical heritage and the particular trajectory of the groups that make up society.
The National Curricular Parameters (PCN’s-1998) suggest a contextualized teaching, which enhances the dialogue that runs through popular culture and the erudite, improving the students, in a multicultural society.
In this sense, this study is justified because of the relevance of expanding the knowledge of Cordel Literature, because it is a genre that is loaded with expressiveness and historicity related to the popular culture and representative of the identity of the Northeast. It is a genre that sustains a strong collection of aspects and worldviews that deserves to be observed and deepened critically in the classroom.
The methodology applied was through a basic, bibliographical research, with a look at the PCN (1998), of qualitative nature, since this type of research is widely used for studies of social groups.
To talk about Cordel is to bring the most significant elements that people give it and translate for teaching the most relevant aspects of this genre. To walk these paths is to arrive at the active to deepen the discussion about the importance of textual genres. Although there are great theoretical bases for gender research, a brief record of the studies by Bakhtin and Marchushi was adopted.
To better understand this process, Marchushi points out that an analysis of genders integrates text, discourse, a description of language and vision of society. Thus, for the investigation of the genus Cordel, data collection was exploratory and descriptive, with a theoretical approach, in the studies of Bakhtin (2003), Aesthetics of Verbal Creation, where the author defines language as a constant action mediated by dialogue, in which he describes as “Discursive Genres”. On the other hand, Marchushi (2008) argues that textual genre and textual type are distinct elements that must be observed separately.
The view of Candido (2006), in Literature and society became an emphasis for knowledge constructed through literary art, which enables a transformative action by the mechanisms that literature itself produces in individuals.
The works of Professor Silvio Elias and Thelma Guimarães on linguistic studies were the basis for analyzing the levels of oral and written language, which often holds the individual to a restricted space generating discrimination. To know how to reflect on the language and its functioning is to understand the phenomena Portuguese spoken and written in Brazil.
2. HISTORY OF THE STRING: OVERVIEW
Although its recognition is recent, in the literate universe, the Cordel already existed among the ancient European peoples as Saxons, Phoenicians, and Greco-Romans. It began in Portugal and Spain (Iberian Peninsula) in the sixteenth century, being called by the first country “steering wheels” and by the second of “pliegos sueltos” the name “cordel” arose due, in Lusitanian lands, the leaflets were exposed hanging for commercialization in barbers, cords, which were tied from one point to another, as clothesline clothing.
Heirtor of the traditional novel, the Literature of Cordel, was disseminated through stories in verses that were told by popular people on pilgrimage, which contributed in a considerable way to the beginning of popular literature. The oral style stories were written in the form of pamphlets, recounting travel, adventures and fantasies.
Brought by the Portuguese in the eighteenth century, the Cordel had as its cradle the Northeast region of the country, because Salvador was the first Brazilian capital with port and location qualities, which made it a reference for navigators. The stories coming from Portugal gained adaptations, when they reached the Northeast, to the most diverse themes constituted a great repertoire that contemplated the sociocultural, political and economic context of the time, as well as dreams, fantasies and values of a people.
Barroso, (2006, p. 22):
(…) the habit of decorating stories, the corners of work, the songs to pack and all sorts of oral narratives brought by the colonizers are consolidating, in Brazilian culture, the custom of singing and telling stories, of keeping in memory the events of everyday life. Thus, little by little, it was developed with the Brazilian man, more specifically in the northeast region, where the colonization began, an oral poetry with very peculiar characteristics.
Between the imaginary of the Middle Ages, mysticism and the beliefs of the cavaleiresco ideals and the stories of Charlemagne, emerges as a precursor of string literature in Brazil, Leandro Gomes de Barros, with the publication of his books in 1893, the first to publish, edit and sell his poems; model to be followed by several poets of the genre. Among them it is important to mention the poet Patativa do Assaré, one of the main representatives of northeastern popular art of the twentieth century, his books were translated into several languages and his poems became research themes in the chair of Universal Popular Literature at the University of Sorbonne in France.
It is worth remembering the name of João Martins de Athayde, poet, editor and pathfinder of the string brochure industry in the country in 1921, when buying the rights to the works of Leandro Gomes de Barros, in a consolidated way, began the re-publication making its production grow. He became editor of his brochures and also of other cordelists, was responsible for the distribution of the leaflets, going on to be sold in large cities of various States.
It is important to highlight that the greatest spread of Cordel is in the Northeast region, but there are popular poets in other centers such as São Paulo, Northern Paraná, part of Minas Gerais and Goiás, etc.; which results in a vast panorama that allows us to evaluate the greatness of popular poetic contribution.
The leaflets carry on their cover different forms of illustration, but the woodcut deserves  to be highlighted by the simplicity of forms and with great visual expression loaded with imaginaries and feelings that appear in the brochures in the 1940s “and is mainly due to the poverty of poets and editors in finding clichés of reticula or other graphic resources for illustration of their works” (LUYTEM, 1983, p.257).
The Cordel, over time became a genuine Brazilian art, maintaining its essence and adding elements of the cultural richness of the northeast region. In the midst of so many changes and technological renewal, one can also find the electronic Cordel, becoming more visible, nationally and internationally.
However, popular culture in general still despised by the institutions of dominant knowledge, to a great achievement and recognition of Cordel Literature as Brazilian Intangible Cultural Heritage, which received the title on September 19, 2018, for the cultural value that contributed to the dissemination of popular expressions, valorization and protection of knowledge.
Talking about historical literary paths and putting the student with interaction with the great thinkers, poets and the most diverse arts forms, of the most varied cultures of the world is a great challenge for current teaching, is the answer to this challenge is to emphasize how this knowledge was built. At the theoretical point this implies “(re) discovering” and “(re) building new knowledge”. (BECKER, 2012, p.131).
3. LITERATURE OF CORDEL X ERUDITA LITERATURE
Popular culture arises from customs and traditions transmitted from generation to generation, it has gone through several phases of misunderstanding in the past and remains still largely unknown and often implicitly or explicitly denied, because of the humble origin that generated divergent conceptions and views among researchers and scholars.
The separation between popular culture and classical culture was an invention of European intellectuals, in the second half of the eighteenth century, they demarcated boundaries from the concept folklore, a term created by Willian John Thoms, English archaeologist, indicated to define traditional knowledge, preserved by oral sources among peasants with the meaning of popular antiquities, popular literature. Consequently it triggered the beginning of many folk researches that have strived to discover a primitive culture that is pure and residue of the past. According to these researches, contact with other cultures was condemned to death due to the strong deletery influence of urban centers.
From the twentieth century, after several studies on the popular manifestations that survived, a new term arises in place of restrictive folklore, and studies are elevated to a new category entitled, Popular culture. (BURKE, 1989; CERTEU; JULIA; REVEL, 1989, p.63 apud DOMINGUES)
According to Arantes (1990), the concept of popular culture is far from being defined by the sciences as a function of the extreme points of view among researchers, but it is important to highlight what qualifies popular and scholarly is a treatment of contracting of one and mastery of the other.
It is what has been perceived by several scholars, that these contrasts are always in motion, making inseparable the division between them, we consider the fact that there are both differences and similarities and there is always a discourse that allows us to understand the other, revealing new aspects and new depth of sense .” In this dialogical encounter with two cultures they do not merge or get confused; each one keeps their unity and integrity open, but they enrich each other.” (BAKTHIN, 2003, p.266).
To elucidate, Ariano Suassuna, in “O Auto da Compadecida”, his best known piece, brings elements in his narratives based on the literature of Cordel, which started from the episodes of the pamphlets, Dinheiro (The testament of the dog), The History of the Horse that defecated money, by Leandro Gomes de Barros; The Punishment of The Pride of Sílvio Pirauá de Lima. According to the words of Antônio Candido, Suassuna was able to report the reality of the sertão considering the most relevant social and human aspects of the dry land and a fighting people.
On the other hand, it is perceived that the Cordel also enriches with the great consecrated works of universal literature, because it is a literary genre that appropriates various themes and at the same time inspires several other artistic manifestations. Several popular poets produce the textual recreation of great consecrated novels; The success of O Conde de Monte Cristo can also be proven by the cultural dialogue between the literate and the popular world, where transformations approach simple language and gain adaptations of Portuguese spelling.
Currently popular literature, especially Cordel, reaches the major University centers of Brazil, through various articles and theses, and is the scene of great research at the international level, which has been studied in France, Portugal, Germany and other countries, which aim to preserve and give greater recognition to popular art, including among these studies some studies , which discuss the importance of string as an auxiliary tool in the teaching-learning process.
The Cordelist poets themselves also turned to projects to disseminate their brochures in schools. It is worth mentioning, wakes up cordel in the classroom, from Ceará Arievaldo Viana Lima, which proposes the revitalization of the genre and its use as a paradidactic tool in the literacy of children, young people and adults and also in the classes of elementary and high school. Among many others have adopted this idea declaimed in rhymes, as João Bosco Bezerra Bonfim points out in the brochure: The string is the joyful flame of Brazilian culture:
For over a hundred years fighting
the string of this country
to take the message
but ears are denied
listening to what the string says.
One cannot fail to mention the studies of Ana Cristina Marinho and Hélder Pinheiro, who in his works values the use of Cordel, as a didactic resource in the educational process. The authors consider that: “opening the doors of the school to knowledge and experience with string literature, and popular literature as a whole, is an achievement of the greatest importance”, since: “it is proven that poetic language has the power to provide aesthetic and partner experiences, to allow recognition and differences between individuals and cultures and may even change the course of entire lives” (2012 , p.7 griffins of the author).
Based on these statements, it is possible to observe that poetic discourse broadens the understanding of the world, not as a ready way capable of changing the physical plane, but by the perception that language translates, resulting in a response that leads to behavior (OKAMOTO, 2002).
In this sense, the knowledge constructed through literary art enables the transforming capacity by the mechanisms that literature itself produces in individuals, either by modifying their conduct, in the conception of the world, or reinforcing in them the feeling of social values (CANDIDO, 2006).
To make the critical reader flourish, it is necessary to raise the reading to the condition of an instrument of awareness capable of sharpening the criticism of the learner, enabling him to understand the contradictions existing in society. (LIMA, 1995, p.107).
At this point, I draw special attention to a teacher who, when addressing Cordel Literature in teaching, he has a range of possibilities that can be explored between reading and reality, making it possible to develop the student’s critical sense, leading him to realize that these productions often of a social nature, bring with them not only the voices of the social problems of the Northeast , but accuses problems of the whole country.
Reflecting on the reality in which we are inserted is a way to perceive their contradictions and problems, as well as ways to solve them, becoming a great challenge, contributing to the construction of true citizenship.
4. THE GENDER SETTING
It has already become a consensus that the work with the genres in teaching is relevant, because every verbal manifestation is always through texts performed in some textual genre (MARCUSCHI, 2008). That is why the centrality of the notion of gender in the interactive socio-relationship of language. Due to a variety of textual genres, the sphere of human activity in which language is produced is produced, as you recall (BAKHTIN, 2003).
The author defines language as discursive practice, organized within human activities. In this sense, the genres of discourse as stable forms of utterances elaborated according to the specific conditions of each field of verbal communication. This definition refers to discursive interaction that involves time, space, participants, purpose, means of communication in society. Thus, each sphere produces its own genres which it called “genres of discourse” (2003, p.262, the author’s griffins).
From this perspective, we can understand that genders are defined as relatively stable utterances are flexible, dynamic and fluid. One of the essential differentiations that it allows to make is the classification of genres as to the spheres of use of language. The primary discursives are spontaneous and occur in the context of immediate discursive communication, the language of everyday life. The secondary ones are produced based on more complex and relatively more organized cultural codes predominant in writing.
It is understood then that Cordel Literature is a secondary and plurivocal genre, since it is an artistic, oral manifestation within popular culture. It is worth remembering that when the primary genres become components of the secondary genres, they undergo a transformation and acquire a particular characteristic, what this means is that genres are defined as recurrent configurations of meanings, which, in turn, make possible the social practices of a given culture, whether through oral or written genres, literary or not.
On the other hand, (MARCUSHI, 2008, p. 155) argues that:
Textual genres are the texts that we find in our daily life and that present characteristic sociocommunicative patterns defined by functional compositions, enunciative objectives and styles concretely realized in the integration of historical, social, institutional and technical forces. In opposition to types, genders are empirical entities in communicative situations and are expressed in various designations, constituting in principle open listings.
For the author textual type and textual genre, two meanings, which, should be clearly distinguished. It is understood that textual genres are historical products and cultural partners built for specific objectives. While genres seem to be infinite, the textual types are five: narration, description, injunction, exposure and argumentation without tendency to increase.
As noted, the gender issue involves a set of parameters for observation, considering the complexity of the phenomenon that involves linguistic, discursive, historical, cultural, interactional aspects, which are linked to human activities in all communicative spheres.
It is necessary to consider that the textual genre had its place in teaching from the PCN’s (1998), therefore many texts called popular have achieved their relevance in education. At this point, the school acts as a vehicle capable of providing the student with contact with as many textual genres as possible, making them objects of teaching and learning, since all sediment knowledge is the reference for assimilation of new knowledge. , as proposed by us (VYGOTSKY, 2007).
Thus, the diversity of textual genres gains strength in the classroom, because they put the student in contact with a range of textual options, which consequently will provide various worldviews that led him to understand all the possibilities that this horizon offers.
Linked to this conception, Cordel’s Literature has its essence linked to reality and to social practices that broaden these horizons by favoring the construction of knowledge. This genre is marked by elements that bring with them subsidies and cultural information, since in this type of genre there is a variety of themes relevant to society, ranging from folklore, politics and religion, among others that inhabit the popular imagination, in addition to the poetic nature of their leaflets.
It is interesting to reiterate that these informative, circumstantial, biographical, documentary, and other characteristics are known by researchers by Cordel Thematic Cycles, for the diversity of the themes found in the leaflets. These studies not only focus on the proposal of systematization of the string literature, but by the paths it connects with the social taking into account the events of the time. An important classification that can help the teacher choose a theme, especially the current ones, because interest increases from the moment students can see the importance and applicability of what is being spent in the classroom in their life.
5. THE SOUND PLAN
Orality is understood as a verbal activity present in the most different social situations in which the individual can insert himself throughout his life. It is the oral transmission of knowledge stored in human memory. On the one hand, there is a consensus that speech is learned spontaneously and does not need to be taught, on the other hand there are theses that argue that it is necessary to train students for the different ways of speaking, proper to the discourses of the various social spheres.
In fact, orality has not occupied a very large space in the classrooms, for the development of communicative skills, which require oral interaction. As seen earlier, Bakhtin’s (2003) thoughts favored a more reflective look at oral texts, arousing the interest of researchers who seek to understand the new proposals for the teaching of the Portuguese language presented PCN’s. It is good to add that:
The genres of discourse organize our speech in the same way that they organize the grammatical (sintactic) forms. We learn to shape our speech to the forms of the genre and, when listening to the other’s speech, we know immediately, well in the first words, to feel them the genre, to guess the volume (the approximate extent of the whole discursive), the given compositional structure, to predict the end of it […]. If the genres of discourse did not exist and if we did not dot them, if we had to create them for the first time in the speech process, if we had to build each of our utterances, verbal communication would be almost impossible (BAKHTIN, 2003, p. 283)
Considering orality, as discursive and formative practices of social insertion, the literature of string emerges is an interesting proposal for the development of oral skills in the classroom, since orality is a very unique characteristic of this genre full of expressiveness, rhythm and musicality.
The cordelist, when he writes the Cordel, he intended for the listening public and all these cultural manifestations gain support from the printed leaflets which is “a physical or virtual locus with a specific format that serves as a basis or environment for fixing the genre materialized as text” and pass through the field of reading (MARCUSHI, 2008, p. 174). At this moment it is important to remember that the physical text is in the content plane and the orality in the expression plane.
In the poem the rhythm is given by the alternation of the tonic syllables, antins and metrics forming musicality, tools that allied to teaching can help the student to work with intonation of the voice; low, high and directional. It must be remembered that the emphasis and duration of vowels in the act of speech is also an important resource in assertive communication, currently one of the main requirements to act in the labor market and in the same way can be explored through Cordel.
Bakhtin draws attention to the importance of intonation, which through this feature are assimilated the utterances, because it is between the contact of the speaker with the listener. It can be inferred that “intonation is social par excellence” because it is directly linked with discursive practices (2003, p.449 griffins of the author).
Speaking well does not mean having a learned vocabulary, but involves the whole process of communication and clarity, so as not to generate misunderstanding. In this sense, the simple language of Cordel helps in the correct diction of words. This leads the student to self-confidence and to decrease anxiety when speaking in public.
6. LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE
When reflecting on speaking well, it leads to a reflection on linguistic varieties and how these varieties are often broken down by the traits that mark speech.
Languages are the result of a historical evolution in time and space. This transformation occurred with the impact of the cultural renewal of the 15th and 16th centuries, under the influence of the Italian Renaissance, of contact with Greek and Latin cultures and with the overseas expansion that allowed the portuguese language to approach several languages of the world.
Thus, throughout the sixteenth century was a decisive moment for the expansion of the Portuguese language in its space of origin and the empires conquered, intensifying the contacts of the language, with speakers of geographical areas of the most diverse peoples and other cultures, no longer belonging only to Portugal and becoming a communication connection between distant and diverse nations.
With the growth and installation of trade in various regions of the East and opening of ports made possible the formation of the “Creole languages”, overlapping the native languages, native, autochthonous, and the constitution of Portuguese-based Creoles. In this way Portuguese is enriched and differentiated from its continental matrix, favoring the development of the variety of its unity, in other words the multiple possibilities of using the Language. For Professor Sílvio Elias in his work “The Portuguese language in the world, ” these geolinguistic spaces, He calls “Lusitânia” (1989, p. 17).
In his essays, Guimarães (2012, p.29.30), states that this is because Portuguese and all languages are alive, dynamic and are always in the process of innovation and change. This movement called linguistic variation moves away from its more stable unit by absorbing new words. With regard to this movement that she calls centrifugal force, not only acts on the language, because in this way in a few centuries the Portuguese would turn into another language or each regional speaking would become a dialect or new languages. In view of this in Brazil would no longer Portuguese, but baianês, Gauchês, paulistês … .
The phenomenon related to the use of the Portuguese language is represented by linguistic variation, which occurs in the historical, geographical and sociocultural context and occurs in different societies, since languages are heterogeneous. They vary both from a diachronic and synchronous point of view and receive other designations that depend on specific factors.
All this variation often generates linguistic prejudice, resulting in discrimination. Cordel texts also fulfill the function of intermediate tool, because it contains topics of linguistic analysis that leads the student to reflect how the language in fact is called standard language, cultured language, which often trap individuals to a restricted space generating the exclusion of classes with greater social power.
With the advent of Linguistics his studies point to the various levels of language of both orality and writing. Although there is a correlation between speech and writing, in a literary space it is possible to oral transcription for writing, maintaining its code so that the objectives of the discourse are achieved. An example of this are the cords authored by Patativa do Assaré that brings traces of orality, among some of them to exemplify: “Coisas do Meu Sertão”, which has the voice directed to the most unique elements of the Sertão included linguistic variation:
“Your dotô, who is from the city
It has diproma and position
And studied derne minino
Without losing a lesson,
You know the name of the rivers,
That runs inriba from the ground,”
It should also be evidenced that several aspects of the spoken language are increasingly distancing themselves from normative grammar and that some rules imposed by the standard standard rule are no longer used all the time, even with the most educated people. This is due to the fact that linguistic variations are present in relaxed speech and without formality.
According to Guimarães, there are several situations in academic and professional life in which we need to express ourselves orally in a formal way (2012, p.47).
This linguistic knowledge is one of the ways to bring students closer to the changes that occur in the Portuguese language, through texts that can translate the value of language, besides providing correct use of these variants due to the constant flexibility, according to the social space.
7. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
With the advent of globalization, we are living in an accelerated world, where technology is gaining more and more spaces, considerably increasing access to information and knowledge.
In this scenario, many traditional knowledge is getting lost along the way, among them the cultural values present in the most diverse regions that are part of the identity of our country. In view of this aspect, the school, as a knowledge-forming person, needs to make room more and more for the most diverse cultures, as a way to disseminate and promote the valorization of the Brazilian cultural historical heritage and the particular trajectory of the groups that make up this universe.
In view of the observed aspects, we conclude the importance of popular culture especially the Cordel Literature, for the dissemination of this knowledge and appreciation of the cultural diversity of a country that is typically multicultural in its formation.
The Cordel as a tool in the classroom, as pointed out it goes through several areas within the teaching of the Portuguese Language, promoting to students a critical reflection, which can be raised with the reading of the brochures, expanding knowledge of the world, generating awareness about the contradictions that exist in society and the possible relationships between the popular and the scholar.
Taking into account the communicative skills, this research pointed out that communicative skills can be explored with the Cordel Literature, in order to build a safe student in his speech and with capabilities to use the variants found in the various forms of use of the Portuguese language, according to the social sphere.
In view of these considerations, Cordel Literature is a tool that can help the teacher in the classroom in the construction of students’ knowledge and development of new skills.
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APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE REFERENCES
2. Wood engraving, ancient technique, of Chinese origin, in which the craftsman uses a piece of wood to carve a drawing uses to paint the embossed part. An important detail is that the drawing comes out contrary to what has been carved, which requires a greater work of the craftsman.
3. Ariano Suassuna (1927-2014) was a Brazilian writer, born in the Palace of Redemption, in the city of Nossa Senhora das Neves, today João Pessoa, capital of Paraíba, Founder of the Armorial Movement that began in the 70s, he advocated the junction between the scholar and the elements of northeastern popular culture.
4. French term used in the work of Volochínov, V.N. “The word in life and the word in poetry”
 Graduated in Portuguese Language Letters (Full Degree).
Sent: January, 2020.
Approved: July, 2020.