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Literary literacy in the Pandemic

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SOUZA, Cynthia Almeida de [1]

SOUZA, Cynthia Almeida de. Literary literacy in the Pandemic. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 12, Vol. 03, pp. 26-37. December 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access Link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/lyrics/literary-in-pandemic

SUMMARY

Because of the Pandemic, the students had the routine completely changed. How to protect them in this atypical situation? This article proposes to know school initiatives to favor literary literacy in the context of pandemic. For this, a bibliographic research was carried out based on theorists such as: Rildo Cosson, Roxane Rojo and Marisa Lajolo, Rubem Alves, among others, as well as a survey of Projects that were reconfigured through remote education, from May to August 2020. Forty projects were selected, whose proposals were described and analyzed. The result of such analysis showed that, despite education presuping touch, the melee must be found ways to reach students and recognize technology as an ally in this process.

Keywords: literary literacy, education, technology, pandemic.

INTRODUCTION

Let’s make the interruption a new path (Fernando Sabino)

Created by Graça Paulino, the term literary literacy is defined by Cosson (2014) as the process of appropriation of literature as language, that is, it is not something static, but continuous and permanent. One can begin the coexistence with the literary universe from an early childhood when they sing lullabies. From there, what people hear, read and/or watch, is internalized and began to apply these experiences in life situations.

Rildo Cosson points out that literary literacy needs the school to come to fruition. In fact, this is clear in authors such as Magda Soares and Roxane Rojo, they claim that the school is a literacy agency.

This article addresses literary literacy, highlighting some school projects that had to adapt to the remote teaching situation caused by the new Coronavirus (COVID-19), so that they continued fulfilling the mission of motivating reading and literacy practices, this time at home. Thus, from May to August 2020, 04 projects were selected that are in line with the theoretical assumptions that guide the research.

All information about the projects was obtained by verbal information in lives and interviews. The first three Projects are initiatives of master’s students, guided by Professor Flávia Aninger de Barros, from the State University of Feira de Santana (Bahia), of the Professional Master’s degree in Letters. The students, who would apply the Projects as intervention in schools, reconfigured the proposals to virtual. The fourth project belongs to the Frei Elias Zulian School, Ponta Grossa (PR), coordinated by Professor Jacqueline Machado, aimed at elementary school students, from 1st to 5th grade; emerged in 2016 and, with the stoppage of face-to-face classes, it had to be rethought.

DESIGN: THE TURN AND VOICE OF CORDEL LITERATURE

We propose to promote the expansion of the readers’ competence of students, using the literary genre Cordel as a contribution to the development of their cultural repertoire, through the promotion of virtual literacy practices and events. In this new scenario, discussions in the field of Education are based on words or expressions such as: hybrid teaching, new normal, reinventing, adaptation, remote activity, a complex situation, even for those already inserted in this new format of teaching-learning. (This is Professor Simônica Neves apud BARROS, 2020)

Therefore, the first idea of intervention in schools that would be the elaboration of a pedagogical session, with activities to provoke autonomy and curiosity of the student, changed to the current formatting:

  • Creation of a virtual environment on the Distance education Platform, in modules.
  • Emphasis on the cordelitarian space.

With this new format, it was possible to continue the work with the string, a good example of literature that promotes literary literacy, because

… the presence of the string poem, as a strategy to form the literary reader, represents an artistic form of saying and being in the world closest to their reality and signals as a pertinent artifact in the context of the lag of the reading competence presented by the students. (SANTOS, 2016, p.14)

Due to this characteristic of the string, Professor Simônica Neves, states that literary literacy can occur anywhere, including at home, as long as it provides reading. Thus, the redesigned objectives of this project include:

  • Socialize multimodal activities for the development of reading practices of the student;
  • Enable the expansion of the cultural repertoire of the student, as well as contribute to his formation as a critical-reflective reader, through cords;
  • Promote the integration between the student and literary reading through the dynamic of technological resources;
  • Create a link between the student and the reading;
  • Technology at the service of pedagogy.

As for the aforementioned multimodality, Rojo (2013, p.7) warns that “it is necessary that the school institution prepares the population for an increasingly digital functioning of society and also to seek in cyberspace a place to find, critically, with multiple differences and identities”. In this sense, the project recognizes the possibility of multimodal texts, which integrate several languages (images, sounds, movement, colors…).

As for the reading proposal, it harmonizes with Freire’s words (1989, p. 13) in which “the reading of the word is not only preceded by reading the world, but by a certain way of ‘writing it’ or of ‘rewriting it’, that is, of transforming it through our conscious practice.” Thus, it is considered that

Critical reading generates meanings, in which when reading, the reader agrees or disagrees with the main idea. This makes it differentiated from signal decoding, mechanical reproduction of information that has long been considered as textual interpretation. “[…] as a constitutive activity of subjects capable of connecting the world and acting as citizens in it” (BRANDÃO; MICHELITTI, 1998, p. 22).

Equally, Barros (verbal information, 2020) conceptualizes literary literacy as “every teaching practice that is directed to a practice of reading mediated, conscious, to validate the meanings of the text, so that reading is not mere decoding and that we can work for the formation of readers”. This position of the teacher demonstrates the effort to train critical readers, capable of arguing and being citizens.

In this sense, it is important to highlight that literacy is not literacy. According to Rojo (2009), literacy comprises the process of reading and writing in relation to social practices, while literacy is a time in school life where students learn to read and write. “The focus of literacy is to make this literate student have the ability to make a social use of this domain. It is a ‘literacy within literacy’. Literary literacy is one of the facets of literacy” (RIBEIRO, 2012, p.02).

Nevertheless, according to Rojo (2009), as a large part of the population does not participate in certain literate practices, it is up to the school to compensate for this deficit and present students to different textual genres produced in different discursive domains, resulting from two versions of literacy: a weak one – aimed only at adapting the individual to an increasingly complex society; and another strong – focused on critical literacies and citizens.

Following this perspective, Simônica Neves (verbal information) admits, quite rightly, that “the book is not something of the daily life of our students, but we can find ways to get to them. So I think the string is a way to get to other readings.” This statement reinforces the conviction that learning has many contours, so teaching is challenging and the teacher needs to be prepared.

PROJECT: READING CHEST – TALES

We propose that, once the schools are closed, create a virtual learning environment, with the advantage of expanding to various topics, with the particularity that are orphanage students. Students from the periphery need access to the power to transform (Speech of Prof. Katia Bispo Brandão Santos apud BARROS 2020).

In this way, the project had the following purposes:

  • Integrate digital technology from the development of student competence;
  • Enable the democratization of reading;
  • Propose inferential activities in the exploration of the books read.

All these objectives allied to the particularities of the students refer to reading as a restorative resource, and in this context it is appropriate to mention Michèle Petit. The anthropologist argues, in an interview with O Globo newspaper, that the work of people like the librarians of Medellín has nothing naïve:

They know that literature will not repair the violence or inequalities of the world, but note that it offers remarkable support to put thought into action, to provoke self-questioning, to arouse a desire, a search for something else…

Shared reading experiences can facilitate […] the appropriation of texts, as long as they are not perceived as something imposed.

… Add to this the economic difficulties and distance from the places where written supports can be found. In these families, if children or adults end up reading, and even living reading with joy, it is thanks to a meeting, to the warm accompaniment of a mediator (teacher, librarian, friend, social worker…) who has a taste for books and knows how to make these objects desirable, which is an art.

Professor Kátia Bispo Brandão Santos points out that, according to Antônio Cândido, literature is a human right, is an indispensable good for humanization, and guarantees (verbal information):

we cannot deny this right to our students, literature cannot be just for a specific group, an elitist group. The students of the public school, and in my case the students of the suburbs, the periphery, they need access, they have already been expropriated from so many things, of so many cultural goods… they need to have access to this new world, they can dive in and get to know new realities. Literature has the power to transform, bring new perspectives to the subject. Barthes says that if all disciplines needed to be extinguished, that literature should remain because in literature all other sciences fit.

This attitude of Professor Katia is in line with one of the greatest promoters of current literature, the literary critic Tzvetan Todorov, who in his work “A literatura em perigo” defends the polysemy of literary texts: “the way literary works are being treated is endangering them, is mortifying art. This is due to the erroneous view that literature is for the few, when in fact it is for everyone” according to the author.

We must understand that literary literacy is a social practice and, as such, the responsibility of the school. The question to be faced is not whether or not the school should school the literature, as Magda Soares warns us, but how to do this schooling without mischaracterizing it, without transforming it into a simulacrum of itself that denies it more than confirms its power of humanization (COSSON, 2009, p.23)

From this perspective, Professor Kátia reveals (verbal information):

As a measure of protection for the greater good that is life, face-to-face classes are suspended, but since we cannot fail to guarantee the right to access to literature, we adaptour Project. Reading survives through digital resources. It’s an instrument of empowerment. May our students have a turn and voice in the society we are living in!

It is noted that the aforementioned issue of humanization is a function of literature, as it offers the subject beyond pleasure, knowledge and a critical view of the events around him.

 DESIGN: JOURNEY THROUGH THE SHORT – FOR AN INTERPRETATION BEYOND WORDS

A proposal of pedagogical intervention that seeks to explore the semiotic and multimodal aspects of texts through film readings in a digital learning platform.

To bring music classes Portuguese to technology and entertainment. A way to lure them in with film, popcorn… (This is Prof. Eliene Ramos da Silva apud BARROS 2020).

The main focuses of this proposal were:

  • Expansion of the ability to understand and interpret texts;
  • Provide multimedia literacy experience;
  • Guide on the use of audiovisual resources as textual tools;
  • Improve language skills.

Therefore, the starting point was motivation, according to Professor Eliene (verbal information):

I chose the short films because they bring themes of interest to students … space beyond the short s with other genres, text and reflection, dialoguing with the theme through links, works with the same theme (a bait for other readings). In the face of the Pandemic, education has been resonated, other paradigms in the approaches of school content are urgent. Now more than ever, “new challenges to language teaching are beginning to loom.”

In fact, the teacher’s speech is in tune with Cosson (2014, p. 55) when she speaks of the choice of “baits”, according to the author the motivation is related to the cognition system of each “includes personal values, and is influenced by the physical and social environment. The objective is to establish a connection with the work that will be read, integrating reading, writing and orality into the activity.” On the selection of works, “literary literacy will always work with the current, whether contemporary or not” (idem); he understands by current the work that presents a meaning to his reader in his time.

Thus, Cosson (2014, p 34.) highlights that the teacher has the obligation to work the reading of literary schools, because literature has the ability to show through fiction the representation of social reality, with themes that transcend over the years. The teacher is the mediator, and through his methodology, students will learn to have a taste for reading and realize the importance of literary texts.

Therefore, Barros (2020) stresses the importance of Reading as being “retouching our world model, an education in which the student’s speech is welcomed, why does the student not read? It depends on strategies, on how we drive…”. In this respect Lajolo (verbal information, 2018) teaches that “The teacher approaches the student when he reads the things that the student likes or that the teacher intended to take to a certain sense the student takes in another completely different sense.” With this, the aforementioned teachers bring a huge contribution to the need for motivation.

PROJECT “READ TO LIKE, LIKE TO READ”

Unlike previous projects, a specific virtual environment was not created, however, the project also had to be adjusted by maintaining communication with parents via the Internet, by mobile phone. Considering the health issue, the school’s collection of books was made available as follows: on a day in the week (Monday), books are exchanged for parents at school. According to the coordinating teacher, with this there is not only the valorization of reading for the formation of the reader, but also the exercise of being responsible for something public. And explains the new configuration of the project (verbal information):

With remote education, parents support the process of reading mediation, such as bridges.

The child interacts with the literary world, comicbooks, short stories, fables, finally, collection with various literary genres.

Parents stand out on two fronts: first parents choose and also take to school the desire to read their children.

Parents feel the importance of encouraging their children to read, forward videos and photos spontaneously, there is a record of this impact. (This is Prof. Jacqueline Machado apud BARROS 2020).

This mediation of parents is harmonized with what Rubem Alves says:

All learning begins with a request. If there is no request, learning does not happen. There’s that old saying: It’s easy to take the mare to the middle of the stream. The hard part is convincing the mare to drink. Translated by Adélia Prado: I don’t want a knife or cheese. I want it to be hungry. Metaphor for the teacher.

(…) And it will happen with reading the same as music: after we have been touched by its beauty, it is impossible to forget. Reading is a dangerous drug: addictive… If young people don’t like to read, it’s not just their fault.

I think that schools will only have accomplished their mission if they are able to develop in students the pleasure of reading. The pleasure of reading is the presupposition of everything else… (ALVES, Rubem, 2004)

The development of the reading of the classics ends up contributing a lot to the formation of the literary reader. Cosson, when addressing the selection of texts for the literary literacy process, ratifies the importance of these texts in the formation of the reader, stating:

Those who say that one cannot think of literary literacy by abandoning the canon are right, because it brings prejudices, yes, but also holds part of our cultural identity and there is no way to reach the maturity of the reader without dialoguing with this heritage, either to refuse it, or to reform it or to expand it. (COSSON, 2010, p. 33-34)

On the other hand, Marisa Lajolo says that teachers have an obligation to allow the student to have a certain choice in what they will read. Ribeiro (2012, p.01) also agrees when he says that:

Readings considered unpretentious form versible writers with multiple language skills, in view of Chomsky’s notion of linguistic competence which is the innate ability of the individual to produce, understand and recognize the structure of all the phrases of his language.

Therefore, Professor Jacqueline points out that (verbal information): “reports that come by parents that my son embraced the book and did not want to return, show how much Projects like this are a encouragement in times of Pandemic.” Therefore, Literary Literacy can be defined, in general terms, as a set of practices and social events that involve reader and writer interaction, through the reading of canonical texts or not (COSSON, 2009).

In pedagogical practice, according to Cosson (2014) literary literacy can be effected in several ways, but there are four fundamental characteristics: 1st it is necessary direct contact of the reader with the work, it is necessary to interact; 2nd shared space of readings and respect for interest and degree of difficulty; 3rd expand the repertoire, recognize in addition to written texts, other many supports and means and 4th systematized and continuous activities.

The aforementioned author proposes at least two methodological strategies based on the autonomous model of literature teaching: the Basic (Motivation, Introduction, Reading and Interpretation) and Expanded Sequences:

The use of the expanded sequence of literary literacy is based on the formation of a reader whose competence goes beyond the mere decoding of texts, of a reader who appropriates autonomously the works and the process of reading itself, of a literary reader (COSSON, 2014, p. 120)

Given the above, Cosson’s proposal can greatly help the teacher to favor literary literacy in the current context.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

This work began with the thought of Fernando Sabino especially because at this moment of Pandemic, in which the school had to support students remotely to promote literary literacy, it is necessary that the teacher reinvent sums and recompose didactically and literally to effect this purpose, because the more literature is used as a pretext, for example, for summaries and grammatical analyses , the more students learn to hate literature.

The report of the projects was based on reflections about the effort of teachers, before the Pandemic, to favor the reading competence of the students, in an educational process, using different strategies of literary literacy: string, short stories, short films, in virtual environments; and children’s classics, with video recording and cell phone messages, which corroborates the idea that the teacher does not have only one way to reach the student.

From these considerations, it is understood that technology can be allied and not competitor. If, on the one hand, it brings immediacy, on the other hand it has been enabling access to works, creating new forms of communication and involvement between teachers and students.

An important finding to be made is the motivation for reading, which varies from individual to individual. Every age, a reading. Create ways of approximation, even if they are not physical, but that provide the valorization of literature – indispensable to the intellectual growth of the individual and development of society.

This research represents a show of how virtual learning environments can be important resources to assist in the creation of the literary universe, to connect, interact and record the impact caused by reading, not as something imposed, but cultivated day by day, even on such fickle days.

REFERENCES

______________. A leitura e o ensino da literatura. São Paulo: Contexto, 1988.

 ALVES, R. O prazer da leitura. 2015. Disponível em: http://tatiana alfabetizacao.blogspot.com/2015/03/o-prazer-da-leitura-rubem-alves.html. Acesso em:

BARROS, F. A. de B. Letramento Literário em Tempos de Pandemia. Feira de Santana-BA. Publicado pelo canal TV Olhos D’Água – TV Uefs, 29 jul. 2020. 1 vídeo (1h:29min). [Live]. Disponível em: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BlR_OirSG7c.  Acesso em: 08/08/2020. Participação de Simônica Neves, Kátia Bispo Brandão Santos e Eliene Ramos da Silva.

BRANDÃO, H.; MICHELITTI, G. (Coord.). Aprender e ensinar com textos didáticos e paradidáticos. 3 vol. 2ª ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 1997.

COSSON, R. Letramento Literário: teoria e prática. 2. ed. São Paulo: Contexto, 2014.

______________. Cultivando Leitores e Marisa Lajolo. Vídeo para Educadores FTD. Youtube, 25 out. 2018. Disponível em:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PA561_Pzau0. Acesso em: 20/06/2020.

FREIRE, P. A importância do ato de ler: em três artigos que se completam. 23. ed. São Paulo: Autores Associados, Cortez, 1989.

LAJOLO, M. O Que é Literatura. São Paulo, Ed. Brasiliense, 17ª ed. 1995.

______________. Letramento literário: teoria e prática. São Paulo: Contexto, 2009.

_______________. Letramentos múltiplos, escola e inclusão social. São Paulo: Parábola Editorial, 2009.

MACHADO, J. Projeto incentiva leitura para crianças na pandemia. Entrevista concedida a André Bida. Ponta Grossa-PR. Publicado no Portal aRede.info, 29 jul. 2020. 1 vídeo (14min). Disponível em:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CN7Ex3K8JzM. Acesso em: 22/08/2020.

RIBEIRO, R. Promovendo o letramento literário no ensino médio (Promoting the literary literacy on high school). Universidade Federal de Brasília. 2012 Disponível em: https://bdm.unb.br/bitstream/10483/5441/1/2012_RicardoRibeiro.pdf. Acesso em:

ROJO, R. (Org.). Escola conectada: os multiletramentos e as TICS. São Paulo: Parábola, 2013.

SANTOS, C. J. de M. A literatura popular na sala de aula: uma proposta para o ensino de literatura literária. 2016. 127f. Dissertação (Mestrado Profissional em Letras em Rede Nacional – PROFLETRAS). Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Currais Novos, 2016.

SEGABINAZI, D. M. (orgs). Língua literatura e ensino concepções diálogos e convergências. João Pessoa: Editora da UFPB, 2015.

[1] Specialization in Methodology of Portuguese and Foreign Language Teaching, by the International Faculty of Curitiba; Degree in Letters/Portuguese Language from the Federal University of Pará.

Submitted: November, 2020.

Approved: December, 2020.

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