The search for partnerships in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals – SDGs

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

CARNEIRO, Dioclécio Salomão [1]

CARNEIRO, Dioclécio Salomão. The search for partnerships in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals – SDGs. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 04, Vol. 05, pp. 76-88. April de 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Acess Link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/law/development-goals

SUMMARY

The research seeks to portray a strand of the Sustainable Development Goals, in its study aimed at instrumentalizing the development of democracy, based on partnerships to strengthen civil society.  The problem of research lies precisely in the hypothesis that guarantees and maintenance of fundamental rights should be used as an activity of the State alongside partnerships.  It aims, therefore, the frank interest in partnerships as a driving force for participatory democracy, in addition to the need for increasingly objective and specific legal mechanisms to serve these organizations.  For this, we used the bibliographical research available in addition to the available electronic resource.  However, it is not intended to exhaust the subject addressed, however it is possible to conclude as a result of this, that the partnerships of the State with the private sector may provide constitutional guarantees for the realization of fundamental social rights.

Keywords: Constitutional law, democracy, partnerships, sustainability.

INTRODUCTION

The proposal highlighted by the Sustainable Development Goals – SDGs seek in essence to deal with issues related to the well-being of people, through instruments that strengthen universal peace in the same way that evidences freedom.  These issues added to the eradication of poverty, with regard to the summit of this social anomaly with the look to the future of which everyone can enjoy the natural riches with balance and without harming each future generation.

The challenge for global development is based on the collaborative and participatory performance of all social entities, both in the planning and execution of this plan engaged in strategic objectives.  In the words of the United Nations, it is seen that the proposal is decided to promote the freedom of human beings from every source of tyrants, poverty, penury, and the search for healing, thus protecting the planet. (UNITED NATIONS, 2019). With this alignment, the SDGs take as a premise the bold and transformative action as an urgency for a better world, collectively and with the feeling that all subjects can and must walk together towards the development participated.

1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ITS OBJECTIVES. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS GUARANTEE AGENDA IN THE SDGS

A brief history to situate the reader that issues related to sustainability are punctuated with the studies provided by the UN, whose organization has the character of directing and stability of the political tensions inherent to the different cultures and thoughts of the countries that form the globe.  What is understood by the sustainability of development, orchestrated by the most different studies of the United Nations portrays in essence the changes caused in the climate, being evidently the result and consequence for humanity along with the crisis of society and the environment experienced in the middle of the twentieth century to the present day. (BARBOSA, 2008).  To this end, the factors that lead to technological advancement and social prosperity are themes of the UN’s approach and concern.

The record that dates the conceptualization of sustainability in development, historically was consummated in Agenda 21, a protocol created at the Rio 92 Conference, and later applied to other global participations in development and human rights.  However, it is worth noting that this concept is perennially under construction as according to most researchers describe the theme, such as Carla Canepa (2007), José Eli da Veiga (2005) and Henri Ascelard (1999).  (BARBOSA, 2008).  The relevance of the subject is so direct and at the same time complex that it is necessary the systemic approach related to the results that one wants to achieve.

It is important to highlight the rejections to some extent of the proposed sustainable objectives, having seen the provocation that is made with the standard definition of sustainable development, whose will be the non-decay of well-being/subject motivated by the evident search for the model of equity between nations and generations.  (BARONI, 1992).  Therefore, it is in this focus that the stability of the system of mutual support between the nations of the globe is sought.

When interpreting and writing about sustainability, one should not put one on an intermediate level, but as a potential principle that denotes actions and future planning.  However, it is a fundamental right, making it possible to unveil sustainability in a dual role.  It is a source, as a guiding, interpretive and pondering character, but also fits as a fundamental norm.  (GOMES AND HENRIQUE, 2018).  The reflexes based on this hermeneutic analysis enable the legal arrangement as beyond the practical and philosophical instrument around the duty to be sustainable, possible and that contains in essence the social well-being without leaving out present and future generations.

The documents and reports generated by the United Nations refer to the process that the goals to develop the millennium were somewhat successful, because they fostered the growth of the economy, political best practices and the committed duty of the globe to develop, to this end a shrinking of extreme poverty, despite having people in the world surviving with less than $1.25 days. (GALLO, 2014). And it is precisely at this point of balance of political, social and economic tensions that the involvement and capacity of articulation with the Organization and countries of which the vast majority of the world population are certainly highlighted.

It is important to highlight the various concepts from which the “background” integrates in order to build and realize the broadest and necessary act of reorganization of space, place of occurrence of social relations, in order to redefine these relations in the political and economic field, whose together generate results of change of governance profiles for the spaces of democracy and properly the function of existing of the State. (CAMPANHOLA, 2000).  With regard to the influence generated and sponsored by the SDGs, there is a clear notion and understanding of such argumentative, expository and influencer capacity of political opinions within a sovereign state, and this is precisely the main objective of the formation of opinion as an element capable of improving social conditions.

The guarantee of peace, well-being and stability in the post-war context, still a historical part for the context, thus depended on a concert between state, market and democratic institutions, including internationally, which was supported by the Bretton Woods agreements and the creation of international institutions.  (NETO AND FISCHER, 2018).  The search for balance focused on State actions complements the alignment of the SDGs at all, since they have enormous congruence for objectives beyond the individual, but collective in which no government can give up on not promoting its implementation.

The participation of the State would have as one of its strong attributions the promotion of full employment, the strengthening of the economy and the well-being of its citizens, while its power was distributed alongside market processes.  (NETO AND FISCHER, 2018).  As much as total economic freedom is guaranteed, it is important to mediate a prosperous market capable of absorbing with quality the human potential in the generation of sustainable wealth for the present and future generations.

Partnerships are envisaged as one of the UN Sustainable Development Goals because it is one of the most relevant instruments in achieving the overall objectives as a whole.  Objective 17 says: to make strong the mechanisms that realize and revitalize partners at the globe level with sustainability towards development.  Specific goals include the areas of finance, technology, training, trade, as well as systemic issues and cooperation in science, technology and innovation. (UNITED NATIONS, 2019).  The Organization aware of the broad need to rely on the fundamental bases with the economy for example, continues to raise the state of this objective as a standard to be followed in the different areas of technical development of the different areas of human knowledge.

2. PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY. FOSTERING AS AN ACTIVITY OF THE STATE.  THIRD SECTOR

To speak of democracy, as a unit of broad participation of organized civil society, in the conduct of decisions to be managed, of which the State is the holder of the public resource collected, but also by encouraging the act of organizing and providing the resource of care the most different needs of humanity, making public managers and their respective public policy councils ensure experiences and expertise in dealing with the participatory democracy of brazil today.  The councils, whose are distributed in the vast majority of Brazilian municipalities, make this articulation from the federal range, being present in the various sectors that structure society, whether issues dealt with in the field of health, education, housing, environment, transportation, culture, among others, thus showing the concreteness of this magnificent Brazilian achievement whose strengthening of democratic entities is present among us.  The main theme will be to bet more and more on the perennial dialogue between government and society in a public channel, plural, from the collective to the individual, in a two-way street thus making the fairest, most supportive and efficient investment of the public resource.  (TATAGIBA, 2005).  And at this level that is expected to advance the more promoted by organizations such as the UN in order to guide the actions of each government, without removing their sovereignty, but guiding them to the right path, since there are no bad societies or communities, but bad leaders.

Only as a way of clarifying to the reader that the democratic system representative through parties, has intrinsically, when serious, respectful and honest, the instruments instituted to serve the popular will when necessary its manifestation.  It should also be worth noting the instrument of excellence when it is feasible is the plebiscite, but also others provided for in the Brazilian Constitution, be it the referendum, the popular initiative, and others.  (BEÇAK, 2008).  These instruments added to the design of clear development objectives not imposed, but convinced, argued and opinion-influenced add up as being the most efficient and fast means for nations, especially those in full development.  to have in the objectives of sustainable development another mechanism made available for the best to be extracted from the idea of inserting everyone in a condition of equal opportunities.

As he points out (EBERHARDT, 2015), the instruments of traditional democracy (parties, ballot boxes and militants) have left room for intervention, surveillance and control of an informed, attentive and increasingly impatient citizenship.  This new actor (impatient and indignant citizenship) occupies not only the largest squares of all cities in the world, monopolizes also every second of radio and television whether from public or private channels.  Therefore, the difference of this new citizenship is that they not only oppose, but also propose.

For this, the importance of the SDGs as being beyond the look at development, but also as an object of measuring statistical data to be made available to populations, since it is the social thermometer in character of social, economic, scientific and cultural development for example.  It is perceived that within a set of different levels or stages of development the consolidation of the participation of councils is shown in an increasing trajectory in the policy of advancement of these universal systems of popular participation, thus strengthening the gradual content of mobilization and organizational of social actors, and consequently, the envisioned way of acting of the subjects of government linked.  Punctual, 2008.  It goes back to noting that there is no point in the mere formality of the creation of representative councils, for example, as instruments of democratic participation, if there are no clear objectives of international standard, not disapserving the home performances, but the experiences of other countries accelerate to some extent the mishaps in the pursuit of sustainability, deviating from negative situations previously suffered by other nations.

One of the main factors of acceleration in the process of transformation of the State is the current context of the great changes that occurred a few years ago throughout the globe, highlighting the countries that excel in accelerating their processes of democratization and development, with regard to globalization policies, the technological advancement of information and the urgent need of organized civil society to accelerate its state of social welfare.  The main functions of this new State are regulation, political representation, justice and solidarity.  Pepper, (1998).  In this way, the State is taking steps away from some actions and contracting others, which culminates in a change of behavior whose movement of the public entity takes place from direct producer of goods and services to a universal institute that is a regulator and inducer of development, or even in a mixed system of actions in the economy to plead through agile action , innovative and democratic of the clear objective of equitable efficiency in front of the most diverse social needs.

The reform proposed by Bresser, portrayed the need to restrict the State in order to limit some attributions, especially with regard to the production of goods and services and another bias, with less amplitude, as a regulatory agent, however would imply the expansion of its financing functions of non-state public organizations.  This resource, on the other hand, demands taxes to permeate the possibility of credit by inserting society as the main actor of economic development and all others as a consequence.  Thus, in order to build actions related to externalities or basic human rights, they are involved, but they lack subsidies and instruments allocated by the State, in order to promote external competitiveness vis-a-vis local industries for example. (BRESSER-PEREIRA, 1997).  This long-standing report demonstrates that the figure of the State is necessary as one of the main articulators of social stability, through quality growth, whether in employment, culture, health, education and other pillars of social reality.

Para (FISCHER, 1998), innovates by saying that government actions make room for non-governmental entities, presenting and applying decentralizing proposals, from which they pass on to municipalities activities that until then were carried out by federal and state agencies or subordinate to them, thus recommending the participation of the community in decisions beyond the incursion of non-profit entities in their operationalization.  Since it is adapted to the reality of Brazilian characteristics in its complexity, size and diversity, in addition to the ability to democratize the provision of public service according to its local needs.  In this way, it ensures the strengthening of third sector organizations as a legitimate agent of local competence.

As we know developing countries suffer from the hotline of income generation, and the center of Brazilian social needs can be reiterated with regard to the labor market, whose cyclically suffers disturbances arising from reasons of structural conjuncture of this country.  It is also perceived the growing and diversified, in addition to the multiplication of the lack of care to society, encompassing others that are not only of the labor market, but in the areas of health, social assistance, education, transportation, leisure, physical and mental care.  (RODRIGUES, 1998).  Many of these negative factors are present not necessarily due to issues tied to the economy, but to issues related to poorly planned government policies.  Therefore, in this scenario, a tool capable of cushioning these influences and still providing quality public service in addition to the generation of continued and adequate income can be applied through the SDG agenda.

3. SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTS ARISING FROM THE SDGS.  MAINTENANCE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL GUARANTEES OF SOCIETY.  PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE SDGS AS A GUARANTOR OF THE FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL ACHIEVEMENTS

Just as every instrument of continuous improvement is necessary to monitor the real efficiency at the tip of social need, for this the controls and diagnoses attributed to the State beyond the organized civil society itself are able to demonstrate and point out the need for adjustments of conduct in the course of the provision of the service.  It is worth mentioning that to become feasible and feasible, the agendas require strategic forms and governance mechanisms, using intersectoriality, capillarity and interscalarity to parameterize territorial actions, quantifiable inputs and evaluation sufficient to produce views of effectiveness in correlation with the sustainability of development. (GALLO, 2014). In addition to the main finalistic, the state prevails as an inducer of public policies, of which are mostly derived from political agendas, this permeability so that organized civil society can act throughout the democratic process of sustainable development of society.

The productive sector in the private sphere follows every day with a clearer role, fully known by social actors, including governments, organized civil society and the citizen himself who builds his interpretation of the practices applied in the economy, by the condition of innovation and technological capacity.  The transformation of the resources of the economy, allied to the ability to transform them through actions of a coordinated order by the related sectors, brings about a real permission for the transformation of the existing mold of development, alba adds in the interview with the United Nations Information Center for Brazil (UNIC Rio). (UNITED NATIONS, 2019).  In this aspect, society matures, concentrating the axis of development in all social actors, and not only seeking as a single and exclusive primary source of state participation in the driving element of social development for all, since it makes this private participation as another instrument to encourage competition of basic, intermediate or even high complexity services , facing the needs of citizens at affordable and affordable costs for the poorest or most unassisted layers.

However, the existence of civil society prior to the State does not imply the need for the State.  We do not want to delegate everything and in any way to deliver to the partnerships the activities considered as exclusive benefital attribution of the State, but instead bring even more the participation of society to in fact make democratic as possible the public resource, for the entire population and not on the contrary to benefit small portions at the pleasure of government policies.

The highlight that (ABBOUD, 2011) brings, is to define that civil society has as a guarantee of effectiveness of its rights the presence of the State together with the legislation produced by its representatives in politics.  In this way, the State presents itself as an instrument for improving the protection of rights, as well as in its delimitation, in addition to security in relation to individual freedoms in the attempt to prevent the conflict of radicalities.  It is therefore ensured that a State does not creator of laws and obligations, but of improvement, improvement and protection of these same fundamental social rights.

Arising from this proposal, in the perspective of democratizing the service provided in partnerships between the State and the private sector, we see a means of strengthening the links between citizens and their State.  Promote cooperatives between the private and the public, limited and marked in conditions and requirements of the circular economy, in order to conduct forms and models aimed at sustainability in development, focusing on less favored regions or areas.  Therefore, it clarifies the (UNITED NATIONS, 2019), that the conducts of reasonableness in the regard of sustainability directly interfere in the condition of inequality, infrastructure and resilience.  As an example, the distribution of political power affects government decisions on infrastructure investments.  Infrastructure resiliency in turn affects people’s resilience.  On the other hand, impaired infrastructure undermines the provision of basic services, changes in productivity and access to goods, services and employment opportunities, all of which result in inequality, whether it is opportunities or discrimination affecting norms, social interactions and resilience.  (UN, 2019).

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The distribution of political power in state management is capable of determining the areas of investment and social development, therefore the political agenda is the appropriate and democratic instrument to raise relevant social demands for the insertion of the public resource.  Because of these choices mostly related to the basic care infrastructure of the population, it causes in a certain way macro and microregional inequalities within the same continental geographic space as the case of Brazil.  Better equipped sectors or regions can deliver greater coverage with quality, thus reducing the deficiency in meeting social demands, otherwise the inequality between populations is added.  Poorly developed infrastructure restricts access to consumer goods, services, job opportunities and income, and therefore inequality is generated in a vicious cycle.

All this unbridled inequality, initially provokes a kind of resilience from which the stagnation of human development is related in such a way as to harm with sequelae of time-consuming reversal in the democratic environment.  For these reasons it is prudent and necessary to fill the public service equally with the help of third sector entities, whose form of partnerships in the sum of efforts capable of changing the reality, whether local, regional or national, in order to accelerate the concreteness of sustainable development goals.  Thus forming a kind of anchor capable of posting income, productivity, efficiency, cost reduction and better distribution of state actions aimed at social welfare.

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[1] Master’s degree in Constitutional Law. Fundamental Rights and Democracy. Bachelor of Law and Accounting.

Posted: September, 2019.

Approved: April, 2020.

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