ROCHA, Luiz Renato da Silva 
ROCHA, Luiz Renato da Silva. Between the secular and the Christian: Discussing the formation of the evangelical musician. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 11, Vol. 04, pp. 136-158. November 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/art/music-evangelico, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/art/music-evangelico
- 1. INTRODUCTION
- 2. JUSTIFICATION
- 3. BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW
- 3.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BRAZILIAN GOSPEL MOVEMENT
- 3.2 PROTESTANT REFORMATION
- 3.2.1 LUTHER
- 3.2.2 THE BEGINNING OF THE CHOIRS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE INSTRUMENTAL AND VOCAL BANDS OF THE PROTESTANT MOVEMENT
- 3.3 MUSICAL WORK IN THE CHURCHES OF THE 20TH CENTURY
- 3.3.1 MOVEMENT 50S, 60S AND 70S WITH THE CHANTS
- 3.4 THE CREATION OF MUSIC SCHOOLS IN EVANGELICAL CHURCHES
- 4. CONCLUSION
This work had as general objective to understand the formation of the evangelical musician evidencing the influence of the evangelical church in their professional careers. The proposal includes a reflection on how Christian and secular music is seen and the possible contributions of this context to also understand more about their differences. The methodology used was qualitative research that seeks to verify a phenomenon through its observation and study. Thus, the specific objectives and characteristics can be classified as exploratory, descriptive, causal and its scope (case study, sample survey and field study). The questionnaire applied to the interviewees brought us questions and reflections, to the extent that it was allowed to understand their initial musical formation until their life as a professional musician. As we analyze, we saw that there is a great opening in the music market for these professional musicians called evangelical Christians that has naturally been growing and contributing by supplying the bands of general formal with professional and competent musicians.
Keywords: Music education, evangelical music, church education, music formation, secular music.
The lack of effective musical education in basic education schools limits both the formation of people and future professional musicians that it promotes the search for musical education offered by evangelical churches through sacred music. Many churches have their own music school, which caters not only to their congregations in various age groups, but also to the people in the community of which they are part. Thus, the consequences and responses of the growth of the number of congregants are very focused on the field of music. To develop these musical activities, churches need people willing to qualify as conductors, pianists, or simply students in the field of music. Churches have sought to keep people musically prepared to lead musical activities. Some have gone on to give this music leader, responsible for conducting and performing ecclesiastical musical activities, the title of “minister of music” or “music director” or “minister of praise”, especially those who have always been seeking an improvement and interest in training in music education and who lead and manage the musical groups of the church.
Protestantism is one of the three main divisions of Christianity, alongside Roman Catholicism and the Orthodox Church, and has in its formation a history of little more than four centuries. It emerged in the 16th century, with the reformers Martin Luther in Germany, Úlrico Zuíngliona German-speaking Switzerland and John Calvin in Geneva. The Protestant churches, seeking the appreciation of music in their cults, place great emphasis on music education, albeit informally. Its musical influence is so great in musicians who seek a formal school of music that awakened us to investigate the influence of this formation and what challenges found by musicians who studied Protestant sacred music in the face of a broader and more secular musical formation (Veras; Medeiros; Mattos, 2011).
The importance of this theme, Between the secular and the Christian: Discussing the formation of the evangelical musician, is justified by realizing that in the labor market there is a presence of several musicians who work in various areas such as wind, strings and percussion that had their musical initiation in the evangelical church.
The history of the evangelical movement reveals that through the musical teaching offered by churches that seek to prepare musicians in a practical way, some instrumentalists and singers also participate in the secular musical labor market. Thus, this research seeks to understand and expand the formation of evangelical musicians and thus contribute to other academic research that addresses issues of music teaching in evangelical churches.
With the growth of evangelical communities, spread even in places of difficult access, the possibility of teaching grows. Possibly, if it were not for the expansion of the respective temples, the music would not arrive in many places as it has arrived. This fact is so significant that the administrative structures of the respective communities have become an official space for music teaching, in some cases becoming even a higher education course in music.
3. BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW
3.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BRAZILIAN GOSPEL MOVEMENT
The origin of the word evangelical comes from gospel English from the ancient language ‘God-spell’ which means good tidings, or good news, in Portuguese, “good news,” referring to the Gospels of the Bible that tell us the good news to the world of the birth of Jesus. So ― music gospel” is equal to gospel music, the good news of salvation and translating into the Portuguese would be linearly: gospel music (CICERO, 2014).
Who brought this style of praise to Brazil were the Baptist and Presbyterian evangelicals coming from the United States in the 19th century in 1882. They introduced this Gospel genre from the American style itself simply translated into Portuguese their hymnals and the famous Christian harp that is still well accepted by many evangelicals (CICERO, 2014). The explosion of evangelical music in Brazil occurred mainly in the 1980s and 1990s and to the present day.
This gospel musical genre brings a sublime mission of expressing a religious faith of salvation in Christ. It has a remote history mainly from the beginning of the colonization of the United States, when there was a great approximation of the old Afro musical styles connecting the gospel. The compositions were called “Black Spirituals” which in Portuguese we could call spiritual songs of black influence. These blacks were slaves from Africa to colonize North America in very difficult and mainly adverse situations of its entire cultural context. They were firm and authentic in creating a new musical style that transcended the contemporary days. There is a great similarity between blacks who came slaves from Africa to Brazil and kept the basis of their culture even with so much persecution (RAMOS – 2009) .
The best known father of gospel music is Thomas A. Dorsey (1899-1993) a great composer of this musical style of the twentieth century. The music harmonious and diverse in various voices (choir), a soloist, piano, organ, guitar, drums, bass, forming a small musical ensemble. This genre derived others such as Rock, Blues, Jazz etc. having as the great representative Elvis Presley (1935-1977) and other representatives of this Christian musical style. Early in his life he was a leading blues pianist known as Georgia Tom. As formulated by Dorsey, gospel music combines with Christian praise with the rhythms of jazz and blues. His conception also deviates from what had been, at this time, the standard hymnal practice, explicitly referring to the self, and the relationship of the self of faith and God, rather than the submissive individual in the group through belief. Dorsey, who was born in Villa Rica, Georgia, was the music director of Pilgrim Baptist Church in Chicago from 1932 until the late 1970s. His best-known composition, “Take My Hand, Precious Lord‟, was performed by Mahalia Jackson (1911-1972) and was a favorite of the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr (ROUTLEDGE, 2002).
According to Cicero (2014), another composer who strongly influenced was George Bernard who was born in the city of Youngstown, Ohio, usa, on February 4, 1873, the son of a father who worked as a miner. As a child, George moved to Iowa state – first to Albia, then to Lucas. At the age of ten, George converts. Since childhood he had the desire to become a Christian evangelist – something that was difficult, since since he was sixteen years old he was already responsible for his mother and his four sisters, because his father had died a short time before. It was difficult for him, that even his own education had to take care at the end of his life, already recognized for his more than three hundred hymns, he retires to the city of Reed City, until he died, at the age of 85, on October 10, 1958. To this day this last city has a museum in his honor.
Cardoso (2011), while researching the evangelical movement, states that around 1912, when George was already living in Michigan, he returned from a series of evangelistic conferences in Michigan and New York. At that moment he begins to go through some DIFFICULTIES. This causes him to begin to study the cross in the context of God’s plan for salvation. In this, he reads a text by Paul in Philippians 3:10, talking about his sufferings. After reading the biblical text, he felt the desire to write a hymn on the subject. The anthem was almost ready, but it was not yet finished. To do so, he went to the church of a friend, Reverend Bostwick, to attend a series of revival services. This was more than enough for him to conclude the hymn, which had been so carefully crafted. On June 7, 1913, he performed the anthem at a conference in Pokagon by a musical group composed of five voices and a guitar (CARDOSO, 2011).
3.2 PROTESTANT REFORMATION
The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement that marked the passage from the medieval to the modern world. Among one of the factors of great relevance that marked this period of transformations we can highlight the new economic context of the period. In the environment of cities, bourgeois merchants were misplaced by the Church. According to the clerics, the practice of usury (borrowing money at interest) undermined God’s sacred control over time.
In addition to the merchants, the feudal economic crisis itself also prompted the population to question the dogmas imposed by the Church. Clerics were much closer to material issues involving political power and land tenure than concerned with the ills suffered by the peasant population. One of the clearest reflections of this situation could be noticed with the relaxation of customs that incited priests, bishops and cardinals not to fulfill their religious vows.
According to Palisca (2007), already in the 12th century, the first movements that questioned the beliefs and practices of Catholicism appeared. Among other manifestations, we can highlight the role played by the Catha dems, originating in the southern region of France. In that region the historical cultural distinctions propitiated the ancestry of a Christian faith apart from the dictates of the Catholic Church. Performing their own reading of the text, the Cathtars had very strict moral values that contrasted with the behavior of clerical leaders.
In the later century, seeing the great presence of the religious movement, Pope Innocent III ordered the realization of a crusade that – between 1209 and 1229 – annihilated the Cathar movement. In addition, the accusations of witchcraft were quite commonplace among individuals considered suspicious or unfaithful. In the Middle Ages, the Church created the Tribunal da Santa Inquisition which covered various regions of Europe, repressing those who threatened their religious and ideological might (GROUT; PALISCA, 2007).
Despite the great gospel influence in the Brazilian evangelical environment in the 21st century, the Protestant Reformation movement began with the Founder of Lutheranism, Martin Luther was the major figure of the Protestant reform. His parents, of peasant origin, aspired to give their son an improved education, making him a lawyer. Luther studied in several cities and joined the University of Erfurt in 1501, where he studied Latin classics, with a bachelor’s degree in arts, logic, rhetoric, physics and philosophy. Two years later, he completed his master’s degree in mathematics, metaphysics and ethics (GROUT; PALISCA, 2007).
In 1505, as he prepared for the study of law, he was shaken by two events: the sudden death of a friend and the fact that he was almost struck by lightning. This, according to some, was the decisive factor for his entry into the Monastery of the Augustinian Hermits in Erfurt on July 17, 1505. Luther excelled in monastic life, being ordained a priest in 1507. In 1508 he went to Wittemberg, where he graduated in theology a year later. From late 1510 to early 1511 he remained in Rome to deal with matters of his order, and there he was shocked by the secularism of the Church and the low moral level of the city.
In 1512, again in Wittenberg, where he would spend the rest of his life, he received the title of doctor of theology. He became a teacher on the Bible, and in 1515 he was a director of studies and district vicar in charge of 11 monasteries. From that moment on, he dedicated himself to the study of William of Occam, whom he calls “my master”, Duns Scotus and St Augustine, dedicating himself to this last great predilection, especially for having opened his eyes to him against Aristotle’s dominion in theology.
Luther’s thought centered on some points that would become the principles of protestant reform: the universal priesthood of believers, justification by faith, the bible’s exclusive authority in matters of faith, the saving person of Christ. He only admitted two sacraments – baptism and the Eucharist (GROUT; PALISCA, 2007).
According to Luther, God’s sovereignty is exercised over all phases of existence, including the political order, a fact that led him to the concept that the two kingdoms – that of God and that of the world – although with their own and defined spheres, are subject to the sovereign will of God, and both therefore require the loyal submission of believers. He thus denied the submission of the State to the Church. His doctrine would have thus offered the opportune ideology to the nascent German nationalism, delayed in relation to the national unification already processed in Spain, France and the United Kingdom.
Luther’s other thought is about the intimate relationship between profession and work that would have given rise to or at least favored the process of secularization, a fact that would place the reformer at the base of the great renewal movements of our time, paving the way for the Modern Age (GROUT; PALISCA, 2007).
On the other hand, Luther’s insistence on the idea of the purity of doctrine, as the only infallible criterion for the Church, established an increasing obstacle to the development of new conceptions in the ethical field. The profession, taken as a mission, became absolutizing and alienating. He considered “arrogance” for Christians to change the state and profession in which God had placed him – and this resulted in the maintenance of economic traditionalism.
For the Protestant theologian Ernst Troeltsch (Protestantism and Progress, 1912), there is a need to distinguish between an old Protestantism and a new one. For the so-called old doctrine placed an unrestricted trust in the Bible as the ultimate and definitive source of truth and would lead to the contempt of creative intellectual activity. In the 14th and 15th centuries, some theologians also indicated that the absolute values of the Church no longer had the same strength through the historical transformations experienced. Englishman John Wycliffe (1330–1384) wrote some essays denouncing the church’s corrupt actions and defending spiritual salvation through faith. To some extent, the theories launched by this thinker would influence the works of Martin Luther in the 16th century.
Jan Huss (1370–1415) was a priest who was concerned with translating the biblical text into other languages, because the cults, masses were celebrated in Latin and the people did not understand the biblical and sacred context and denounced the behavior of Catholic clerics. His preaching throughout Bohemia prompted the violent reaction of the Authorities of the Holy Empire germanic who ordered his death by the fire. Huss’s death gave rise to a popular movement known as Hussism. The vast majority of its members were poor peasants dissatisfied with their social, economic and human life condition.
The Renaissance movement also took important steps in questioning the role played by the Catholic Church. Francis Bacon’s empiric theory; the heliocentrism advocated by Nicolau Copernicus; and Newtonian physics decentralized the church’s intellectual monopoly. The knowledge generated by these and other individuals launched the idea that man did not need the seal of an institution, mainly religious, which would grant him the right to know God or the world (CHAMPLIN; BENTES, 1994).
3.2.2 THE BEGINNING OF THE CHOIRS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE INSTRUMENTAL AND VOCAL BANDS OF THE PROTESTANT MOVEMENT
The origin of christian coral dates back to the 4th century. Shortly after the Edict of Milan (313 AD) when persecution of Christians was interrupted. Under Constantine, corals were developed and trained to help in the celebration of the Eucharist. The practice was adopted from the Roman custom of initiating imperial ceremonies with solemn music. Special schools were founded and the choir singers were recognized as the clergy of the “second string[classe]”. The roots of the coral lie in greek pagan dramas and temples.
In the Middle Ages as in ancient Greece, the main dramatic source was in the religious liturgy. The Mass itself was a dramatic spectacle; the sanctuary was a sacred setting; celebrants wore symbolic clothes; the priest and the acolytes promoted dialogues; the antiphonal responses of the priest and choir, and from the choir to the choir, suggested precisely this same dramatic evolution of the dialogue that had generated the sacred work of Dionysus. (DURANT, 1950, p. 1027).
With the advent of the choir in the Christian church, music escaped from the hands of the people into the hands of clerical staff composed of trained singers. This change was partly due to the fact that heretical doctrines spread throughout the song of hymns. The clergy felt that if the act of singing hymns was under their control, it would restrict the expansion of heresy. But this was also rooted in the growing power of the clergy as the main actor in Christian drama.
Thus, in 367 AD, the music of the congregation was completely eliminated. Being replaced by trained corals. Thus, therefore, the professional singer was born in the church. The act of singing in Christian worship was now under the control of the clergy and choir.
Ambrose (339-397 AD) created the first post-apostolic hymns. Such hymns were modeled according to Greek ways and called by Greek names. Ambrose also created a collection of liturgical chants, which are still used in some Catholic churches. The liturgical chant is the direct descendant of the Roman pagan chant, which dates back to the ancient cities of Sumaria.
When Gregory the Great became Pope near the end of the 6th century, he reorganized the ScholaCantorum (school of singers) in Rome. (This school was founded by Pope Sylvester who died in 335 AD.). With this school, Gregory established professional singers who would train Christian choirs throughout the Roman Empire. These singers were trained for nine years. They had to memorize every song — including the famous Gregorian chants. Gregory eliminated the last vestiges of music by the congregation, believing that singing was the exclusive right of trained singers (DURANT, 1913).
He believed that music was a clerical function. Choirs and singers trained along with the impediment of singing by the congregation reflected the cultural posture of the Greeks. Similar to the oratory (professional dialogue), Greek culture was based on artist/auditorium dynamics. This feature was present in the temples of Diana and the Greek dramas and was transported directly to the churches of the early centuries that still had a Greek influence on their liturgy.
Children’s corals date back to the days of Constantine. Most of them were raised in the orphanages. Children’s choirs remained in the church for hundreds of years after its foundation. The Vienna Singing Boys choir, for example, was founded in Vienna, Austria in 1498. The choir sang exclusively for the court, at mass, in private concerts and state events. A little known fact is that boys’ corals are of pagan origin. The pagans believed that the children’s voices possessed special powers.
In many contemporary churches, whether charismatic or not, the choir has been replaced by the recent phenomenon of the praise group which is a church musical group responsible for chanting and temple worship. The building has few religious symbols of the Roman catholic or orthodox church. On the church front there is a platform, a pulpit, some plants and various sound amplifiers and microphones, as well as musical instruments such as guitar, double bass, piano, keyboard, drums and other percussion instruments. Usually, the clothes of the congregants who direct the music is marked by a more current clothing, different from the musicians who participated in the choirs of the Renaissance church. There are fixed chairs or theater chairs replacing the seats. The lyrics of songs sung and played are usually projected onto the wall or on screen by an overhead projector or video projector and their poetry ranges from more traditional to contemporary lyrics.
Beginning with Dublane in 1962 in Scotland, a group of disgruntled English musicians tried to revitalize traditional Christian chants. Influenced by popular musicians, they produced a new kind of music. This reform set the stage for revolutionary musical changes to take root in the Protestant Christian church.
Thus, the guitar replaced the organ as the main instrument directing worship in the Protestant church. The model of musicians who directed the “new songs”, influenced by rock and popular culture, took the place of choirs present since the Middle Ages in Christian churches (DURANT, 1913).
3.3 MUSICAL WORK IN THE CHURCHES OF THE 20TH CENTURY
The twentieth century was a time of various transformations in all areas, so that technological and social factors, for example, were extremely important in the evolution of musical culture (GROUT; PALISCA, 1994). The great truth is that the beginning of the last century was a time of various musical experiences, which influenced too much the directions that the music of the period would take.
It was in the 20th century that trends such as Impressionism, Expressionism, Polytonality, Atonality, Serialism, among others, began to place themselves as opposing forces to the romantic tendencies of the previous century (BENNET, 2007). Jazz influences also played their part, since jazz was beginning with the century and its parents (blues and ragtime) were already known in black American groups. The 20th century experienced a great “boom” of information and this resulted in the great changes that occurred.
It was also in the 20th century that the first recordings began to take place. The gramophone, predecessor of the vitrola and invented at the end of the 19th century, came to be used, so that those who could no longer be present at the big concerts could hear an entire orchestra in their own homes. The way of playing some instruments changed (as in the case of acoustic bass, used in jazz), new instruments were emerging (such as the drums) and the so-called popular style grew in dissemination, since the media began to act in its diffusion. The radio, for example, launched several singers and singers, which were very successful. This all represented a tremendous change in the history of music as a whole, which includes, of course, ecclesiastical music.
Still in the first half of the twentieth century, the piano was widely used in churches, as well as choirs and vocal groups, so that those hymnals (Christian Singer and Harp), translated into the Portuguese were an integral part of the cults. The Christian singer, first published in 1891 and succeeded by several other new editions, was the first official hymnal of the Baptist churches in Brazil. The Christian Harp, in turn, was launched in 1922, being the official hymnal of the Assembly of God Church. The Hymnal Psalms and Hymns, originating from the Evangelical Church fluminense, had been launched in 1861 and served as an influence for both. The musicians who have the most lyrics or translations of the Christian singer, for example, are: Salomão Luiz Gisburg, William Edwin Entzminger, Henry Maxwell Right, Manoel Avelino de Souza and Ricardo Pitrowsky. These men served their generation in such a way that, even today, many of these hymns are still sung and played around the world, especially in more traditional churches in their form of worship (FREITAS; Marcus, 2013).
3.3.1 MOVEMENT 50S, 60S AND 70S WITH THE CHANTS
Charles A. Tindley was the pioneer of the gospel genre. He produced several compositions in the 10’s, but only in the 1920s and 1930s did they achieve popularity. Another important gospel composer in the 1930s was Hebert W. Brewster (Baptist pastor). Most of his songs were composed exclusively for the choir “Brewster’s Singers“.
Interpreted as – secularization of the genre of religious music, the professionalization and sophistication of the gospel created reactions, especially from the more conservative and traditionalist churches.
However, still in the 20th century, in the 1950s, the so-called Electronic Music (BENNET, 2007) emerged in Germany. Microphones (already existed and are even more used) and electronic sound generators are now used in musical making, which transforms the music practiced from there onwards. It is from then on that new instruments are emerging, as well as new ways of playing, singing and composing. There are electric guitars, electronic organs, synthesizers and keyboards today, among several other features that have enabled several changes in sounds.
In the 1960s, Pentecostals broke with the tradition of Protestant hinology: They introduced popular rhythms and styles into the songs, included percussion and wind instruments in the accompaniment, and composed small songs with melodies and simple lyrics to be sung in the cults – something very close to what would later be popularized among evangelicals such as the “corinhos”.
However, in the ecclesiastical environment, these changes suffered, at first, some resistance. In Brazil, for example, many churches rejected the use of instruments such as drums and electric guitar, claiming that these are “devil’s instruments”. This is because such instruments were widely used in secular music, which generated such rejection. Such people, however, did not try to make the piano, until a few decades earlier, an instrument used in pubs, cabarets, among other places that would never be admired by church leaders. O piano se tornara extremamente popular, nos primeiros sambas e choros, e deixara de ser um instrumento apenas ―erudito‖ e muito menos seria um instrumento ―sacro‖, sagrado.
In the United States, the origin of the group called “Worship Praise Team” dates back to the founding of the Calvary Chapel in 1965. Chuck Smith, the founder of the denomination, began a ministry for “hippies and surfers.” Smith invited converted hippies to take their guitars and play their now redeemed music in church.
The new musical form began to be called “praise and worship”. As the Jesus Movement grew, Smith founded MaranathaMusic in 1973. The goal was to disseminate the music of these young artists (CCM, 2007).
Under the influence of musician John Wimber was created a chapel called “The Vineyard” in 1977. This new model of more contemporary church followed with the concept of praise team. Another church that influenced the new model of worship was the Anaheim Vineyard Christian Fellowship, Calvary Chapel. The two models of worship exerted great influence on the Christian family with their teams of praise and worship. The music of the Vineyard was considered more intimate and quiet, while that of the Chapel was best known for its hectic and dancing songs.
Influenced by the young musical movement present in the American churches is that in the 70’s, in Brazil, groups such as Rebanhão, Winners for Christ, Ellus and Logos (young groups of the Baptist Church) emerged. Pioneers in the use of various musical instruments used by young people of the Rock, Hippie and Beatles-influenced movement. The musical groups sought a new technical qualification of the musicians of the congregations scattered throughout Brazil. These young people who led the movement and others who were also appropriating the new musical liturgy faced great opposition for wanting to use electric guitar, drums and electric bass and practice the music of their time, the music of their time, within the churches.
Despite the great opposition coming from the more traditional Christian churches, they did so, being the great responsible for the type of music that today practice the churches mostly. They were the avant-garde musicians in breaking old paradigms, giving us the possibility, like them, to make the music of our time, not being bound by unfounded and historically mistaken traditionalisms. They served their time and generation, leaving great lessons for all of us. It is true that some denominations still resist the use of such instruments and this style of music ―mundane” (so called by these more traditional churches), but the picture is quite changed, is not it?
In the 1980s, the producers of the so-called ̳gospel music (a term originally created to refer to a specific type of American Christian music, but which has been used to refer to current Christian music), began to invest in singers and musicians, at first evangelicals and later also Catholics, contributing significantly to the growth of the music industry of the genre. And with the emergence of neopentecostalism, already in the 90s, the first international successes in Brazilian gospel music emerged. Christian rock is gaining space through various musical bands such as: Oficina G3, Catedral, Fruto Sagrado and other styles are also being presented to the public: samba and pagoda, forró, hip hop and many others, initially rejected, become an integral part of the so-called gospel music, which once again influences the music practiced within the churches. , since its members, for admiring these renowned artists, are influenced by them and intend to practice the music they practice in their own communities (OMENA, 2011).
3.4 THE CREATION OF MUSIC SCHOOLS IN EVANGELICAL CHURCHES
Religion is one of the environments that provides and enables education. Inserted in this environment is the practice of musical teaching. Music is not only taught in schools, but also in community centers, associations, clubs, hospitals, shelters, businesses, non-school institutions and churches, which will be the place addressed in this work.
Formal education is one that refers to structuring, organizing and intentional planning in a systematic way. Thus it can be said that where there is teaching (school or not) there is formal education there (Libâneo, 2007). We can consider that classes in specific rooms of evangelical churches are structured classes, but informally. ―… the term informal is the most appropriate to indicate the modality of education that results from the “climate” in which individuals live, involving all the environment and the sociocultural and political relations that merge into the individual and the group (Libâneo, 2007). Also ―Informal musical learning in the Church is due to common use and the common understanding that is magnified by use” (Kerr, p.5, 2004).
The different educational forms were developed aiming to make teaching more pleasurable and to provide increased interest among students. They are: formal, non-formal and informal education. The elements that differentiate this classification are those related to the organization and structure of the learning process.
Several evangelical churches propose to form their ecclesiastical community and their social community (people belonging to the neighborhood in which the church is installed). It can be seen by the presence of music students present in formal schools of music as an example we mention the Faculty of Music of the Holy Spirit.
This movement of renewal, present in several theologian leaders and musicians since the Middle Ages, influenced the musical formation present in the Protestant Christian church that at first, disconnected from the Catholic Christian Church, began to create its own resources of existence and persistence in the history of the church.
He realizes that the presence of evangelical musicians has changed the scenario of the churches that receive back their faithful with a broader formation than the concept of music. Thus, we saw through this research to analyze the musical influence of evangelical churches in the formation of musicians who study in the formal school of music, that is, in the Bachelor’s degree courses of the Faculty of Music of the Holy Spirit – FAMES.
This research was carried out with bachelor students graduated from the Faculty of Music of Espírito Santo in order to know since they are musicians from evangelical churches what are the difficulties and facilities to be understood within the labor market and also to find out what they think about secular and Christian music and can build a democratic path in this project.
Historically, the teaching of music in evangelical churches has contributed and provided the formation of musicians who work in orchestras, choirs and bands throughout the country, outside the scope of the churches themselves. Many musicians who work on the urban popular music circuit also had their initial formation in the evangelical churches. A portion of the students who attend conservatories, technical courses, bachelor’s degrees and a degree in music, also had their musical initiation in evangelical churches.
Gospel music has peculiarities, is a musical genre produced and composed to express the individual belief of people or a Christian community. Creation, performance, influence and definition vary according to culture and social context. Being music in the evangelical church mediating meanings, it has aesthetic aspects and its basic function is to enable the manifestation to the sacred and religious worship as an expression of worship to a god in which the community has it as the supreme of creation.
We identified in the research that music has been an important part of worship in most evangelical churches, so countless musicians are trained in this context. Precisely because of this training process, it provides people with the development of musical ability and even the possibility of learning an instrument or singing. This phenomenon involuntarily created a market for musical formation in brazilian evangelical churches.
The questionnaire applied to the interviewees brought us questions and reflections, to the extent that it was allowed to understand their initial musical formation until their life as a professional musician. As we analyze, we saw that there is a great opening in the music market for these professional musicians called evangelical Christians that has naturally been growing and contributing by supplying the bands of general formal with professional and competent musicians. Religious and also musical training is considered differential by some professionals who work recruiting musicians for recording, concerts and tours, according to the answers presented. In the postmodern reality, no one lives exempt from the influences of other cultures. Even those who have a lifestyle based on a philosophy that challenges some prevailing standards, as is the case of evangelical Christians, it is important to emphasize and realize that people cannot live in isolation, in only ecclesiastical contexts, especially when it comes to music that has various social functions (MERRIAM, 1964).
It is hoped that this research will help clarify issues related to the understanding of secular and Christian music as well as musical professional life whether it is evangelical Christian or not. Since we need to have an effective and efficient professional musical practice regardless of the context we are inserted to act as musicians.
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 Postgraduate in Music Education from the Center for Advanced Studies in Research – CESAP.
Submitted: October, 2019.
Approved: December, 2018.