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Study on shelter for victims of domestic violence in Juiz de Fora/MG

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

LEITE, Nádia Gonçalves [1], RIBEIRO, Filipe Leonardo Oliveira [2]

LEITE, Nádia Gonçalves. RIBEIRO, Filipe Leonardo Oliveira. Study on shelter for victims of domestic violence in Juiz de Fora/MG. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 06, Ed. 11, Vol. 06, pp. 94-119. November 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/architecture/shelter-for-victims

ABSTRACT

This work has as problematic the reality and the reception to women in the city of Juiz de Fora – MG who routinely face domestic violence, whether physical, psychological, sexual, moral or patrimonial. Most women who go through this situation, show fear when denouncing, often by financial dependence when dedicating themselves to family and domestic life and, even with the legislation enacted in order to protect them, often not provided adequate support, resulting from the scarcity of reception, there is a need to incorporate these Shelter Houses for more effective support. Its general objective is to discuss, collect information on the reception of victims of domestic violence in Juiz de Fora, research on legislation in relation to the protection of victims of domestic violence and the increase of notifications of occurrences, assisting future studies and projects of Support Centers, and, later, suggest the locality for a reception space in the city of Juiz de Fora. The methodologies used for development were surveys of bibliographic research and case studies on the functioning of shelters already existing in Brazil and in Juiz de Fora. This work, therefore, incorporates the data obtained through research, to foster discussions and the creation of spaces to welcome these women and their children. Initially, data on Brazilian domestic violence, some programs and Shelters already existing on Brazilian soil and the proposal to build a House – Shelter in the central region of Juiz de Fora, where according to the study carried out, its insertion would be fundamental.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Femicide, Support Center, Refuge Architecture, Juiz de Fora.

1. INTRODUCTION

Domestic violence is an intriguing subject that comprises the lives of children, adolescents, the elderly and women worldwide, resulting from the inequality and gender discrimination present in power relations. The most alarming data still falls on women. One of the images most associated with domestic and family violence against them is that of the man – boyfriend, husband or ex-husband – who assaults the partner, motivated by a feeling of ownership about the woman’s life and choices (DOSSIER OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, 2014).

Violence against women in Brazil is a historical and cultural issue, which is still part of the reality of many Brazilian homes. With the entry into force of Law 11.340/2006, also known as Maria da Penha, it is intended that this reality change and women have legal instruments for inhibiting, so that she is not the victim of discrimination, violence and offenses of various types (RIOS, 2013). The Maria da Penha Law, sanctioned on August 7, 2006 by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, is based on the fight against femicide and domestic violence. The Law was named after the violence and attempts of feminicide suffered by Maria da Penha Maia Fernandes, ceará and biochemistry pharmacist, during 23 years of marriage, by her husband Marco Antônio Heredia Viveros (INSTITUTO MARIA DA PENHA, 2018).

Despite this, according to the article published on the Brasil de Fato website in 2018, many women remain unassisted without knowing where to seek help often, and there is no adequate support from people close to them and authorities. Gender violence is transmitted from generations, configuring models of patriarchal social bodies, according to the book Feminismo e Política (MIGUEL; BIROLI 2014). In view of this, the content of the article contributes to the creation of concrete mechanisms that support these women who have suffered or have been suffering from this occurrence, through the research and data presented.

The article has as general objective, to discuss, collect information about the reception of victims of domestic violence in Juiz de Fora, research on the legislation in relation to the protection of victims of domestic violence, the increase of notifications of occurrences, assisting future studies and projects of Support Centers, and, later, suggesting the locality for a reception space in the city of Juiz de Fora.

Its specific objectives are: To investigate the evolution and contribution of the political system to the assistance of women unprotected by domestic violence; Observe in the investigated materials, if the victims receive proper treatment and support, according to the Law; Analyze case studies on women’s support centers in vulnerable situations of violence; Absorb the needs programs offered and presented by shelters already existing on Brazilian soil; Promote discussions and studies on the theme involving domestic violence and on the importance of foster homes; Propose the future construction of a House – Shelter in the central region of Juiz de Fora, where it is the best location for insertion, according to the study presented during the article.

2. METHOD

The methods used to develop the article were bibliographic research, allowing to detail and deepen the theme of domestic violence, as well as issues of patriarchal society and legislation. They are also important for understanding the purpose of all content, measuring and proving, in numbers, clear and direct references on domestic violence.

Materials such as articles, evidential news, monographs, were also part of the collection of research contained in this work, reinforcing and expanding the argumentation necessary for development. The analyses and collections on public opinions made by the Federal Senate in 2017 through telephone interviews with women from 16 years of age with access to mobile and landline telephone, likewise, is responsible for the calculation of concrete answers inducing the proposed theme.

Case studies were also carried out for analysis in order to research the proposals of shelters already existing in Brazil and the functioning of the internal programs of these centers. The two projects that take away women who are victims of domestic violence were: the Casa Abrigo Lar da Mulher and the Casa Abrigo Canto de Dália.

Subsequently, analyses and research on domestic violence associated with the locality were carried out in the municipality of Juiz de Fora for the punctual proposal of insertion of a House – Shelter.

3. DEVELOPMENT

3.1 DATA ON BRAZILIAN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

The greatest fear of women who do not denounce aggression and abuse is the fear of aggressors, whether for revenge, persecution, humiliation, the absence or ineffectiveness of punishment, financial dependence, among other issues, as shown in tables 1, 2 and 3 below, which confers 71% of the justifications, in 1116 respondents of the survey conducted by the Federal Senate (2017). According to Gouveia (2008), the case of women makes it difficult as a result of them being the majority among the unemployed or in informal and precarious work.

Another emphatic reason for non-reporting is the concern with the raising of children with 32% of the total (tables 1, 2 and 3), because as pointed out by Badinter in 1980, the value given to motherhood contributes to the limit on women’s autonomy, as a result of the social patterns of oppression that are hidden, for this reason, both these restrictions and motherhood have positive values, promoting a scenario of conventional genders, conferring dependence on the aggressor.

Table 1 – What drives a woman not to report the assault? (Income, Occupation and Children)

   

 Total

Have you ever suffered any kind of domestic or family violence caused by a man? Income Occupation Do you have children?
Yes No No income Up to 2 S.m. More than 2 S.m. Performs paid work Does not perform paid work Yes No
Be afraid of the aggressor 71% 72% 71% 77% 69% 73% 72% 71% 71% 72%
Worrying about raising children 32% 33% 31% 33% 31% 33% 30% 32% 31% 34%
Financially dependent on the aggressor 29% 32% 27% 33% 24% 38% 27% 30% 29% 30%
There is no punishment 25% 30% 23% 25% 25% 25% 23% 27% 25% 24%
Be ashamed of aggression 20% 23% 19% 20% 18% 26% 18% 21% 18% 26%
To believe that it would be the last time 17% 16% 17% 18% 16% 21% 14% 20% 15% 23%
Not knowing your rights 15% 16% 15% 18% 14% 16% 16% 15% 15% 17%
other 2% 2% 2% 3% 2% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2%
I don’t know or I’d rather not answer 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0%
Weighted base 1116 326 787 289 619 196 521 528 853 262
Number of respondents 1116 298       817 220 501 319 432 629 787 328

Source: Adapted from The Federal Senate (2017)

Table 2 – What drives a woman not to report the assault? (Age and Schooling)

   

 Total

age Schooling
From 16 to 19 years old From 20 to 29 years old From 30 to 39 years old From 40 to 49 years old From 50 to 59 years old 60 years or older Until complete elementary school Complete high school Complete higher education
Be afraid of the aggressor 71% 81% 74% 70% 71% 71% 66% 73% 68% 75%
Worrying about raising children 32% 45% 33% 33% 34% 22% 31% 31% 32% 34%
Financially dependent on the aggressor 29% 21% 27% 29% 35% 25% 31% 20% 33% 47%
There is no punishment 25% 15% 25% 28% 29% 23% 21% 17% 33% 30%
Be ashamed of aggression 20% 27% 16% 22% 22% 21% 16% 16% 20% 33%
To believe that it would be the last time 17% 34% 20% 21% 11% 13% 10% 14% 17% 27%
Not knowing your rights 15% 17% 15% 15% 15% 18% 13% 14% 15% 19%
other 2% 2% 1% 3% 3% 2% 1% 2% 2% 2%
I don’t know or I’d rather not answer 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1%
Weighted base 1116 76 239 261 177 182 181 542 410 164
Number of respondents 1116 59    280 289 200 150 138 332 492 292

Source: Adapted from The Federal Senate (2017)

Table 3 – What drives a woman not to report the assault? (Region and color/race)

   Total Region Color/Race
Midwest Northeast North Southeast South White Black Brown Other
Be afraid of the aggressor 71% 72% 71% 75% 71% 71% 72% 74% 70% 68%
Worrying about raising children 32% 48% 30% 31% 30% 32% 32% 24% 35% 29%
Financially dependent on the aggressor 29% 23% 24% 28% 33% 26% 29% 32% 28% 29%
There is no punishment 25% 25% 21% 16% 29% 22% 23% 24% 27% 35%
Be ashamed of aggression 20% 21% 14% 20% 23% 18% 22% 21% 17% 21%
To believe that it would be the last time 17% 23% 15% 17% 18% 14% 17% 15% 15% 12%
Not knowing your rights 15% 21% 15% 10% 16% 14% 17% 15% 15% 12%
other 2% 1% 1% 1% 3% 2% 3% 2% 2% 0%
I don’t know or I’d rather not answer 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Weighted base 1116 86 254 67 542 167 488 116 426 50
Number of respondents 1116 87 311 102 457 159 489 118 433 45

Source: Adapted from The Federal Senate (2017)

The Maria da Penha Law classifies psychological violence as also one of the types of abuse, and can occur through threats, embarrassment, humiliation, among other types of conduct that harms and control, as stated by Época Magazine (2019). The following charts that illustrate this information will be presented. Graph 1 shows the growth in the number of victims of psychological violence, from 2,629 notifications in 2009 to 18,219 in 2016.

Graph 1 – Psychological violence by spouse or boyfriend

Source: Adapted from Ministry of Health/SVS – Notifiable Diseases Information System – Sinan Net (2016).

According to graph 2, developed by the Ministry of Health, with data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System, physical violence (beating, suffocation, tightening arms, injuries with sharp objects, torture, burn injuries, among others) by boyfriends or spouses quadrupled between 2009 and 2016 in Brazil, from 4,339 to 33,961.

Graph 2 – Physical violence by spouse or boyfriend

Source: Adapted from Ministry of Health/SVS – Notifiable Diseases Information System – Sinan Net (2016).

As in the previous charts, reports of gun violence have increased significantly, almost quadrupled since the year the survey began, from 1,120 cases to 4,209 in seven years (graph 3).

Graph 3 – Violence by firearm against women

Source: Adapted from Ministry of Health/SVS – Notifiable Diseases Information System – Sinan Net (2016).

Notifications of rapes by spouses or boyfriends grew seven-fold (from 73 to 890) from 2009 to 2016 (graph 4), the year in which Law 10,015 recognized marital rape, which is configured when sexual intercourse occurs against one of the partners, even within a relationship, according to Art. 213 of the Penal Code, according to Nunes (2015), before that, there was the possibility that the rapist would not be punished if he was the victim’s spouse.

Figure 4 – Rapes by spouses or boyfriend

Source: Adapted from Ministry of Health/SVS – Notifiable Diseases Information System – Sinan Net (2016).

3.1.1 THE AID OF EXISTING SHELTERS IN BRAZIL

According to the National Council of Justice (2018), Shelters are places where women who are threatened or victims of domestic violence are received, where they shelter for a certain period, receiving the necessary support to achieve stability and conditions to resume life. The address of these houses is confidential for reasons of safety of women and their children, who also receive this treatment and assistance. The shelters have rules of coexistence to be followed, for the well-being of all who take refuge there. Some of these houses are protected and welcome between 5 and 10 women with their children, but there are also places that this number increases, functioning as a kind of hostel.

A primeira Casa Abrigo do País foi fundada em 1986, em São Paulo  (Centro de Convivência para Mulheres Vítimas de Violência Doméstica/ Convida). Em 1992 foram criadas as Casas-Abrigo Viva Maria (Rio Grande do Sul) e a Casa do Caminho (Ceará). O Distrito Federal acolheu a primeira casa abrigo no ano de 1996. Segundo dados da Secretaria de Políticas para as Mulheres, havia um total de 72 Casas- Abrigo no país em 2011 (SENADO FEDERAL, 2016).

In the following information, one can identify the shelters existing in Brazil in 2013 (Graph 5).

Figure 5 – Offer of specialized protection and reception services to battered women is higher in large cities

Source: Municipal Basic Information Survey (Munic), IBGE (2013).

Only 2.5% of the cities in the country present these refuges for women, totaling 155 units in 142 cities, that is, 97.5% of the cities do not have available the offer of this type of support, according to a survey conducted by IBGE (2013) revealing, through the article available on the website O Globo: Sociedade (2019) that there was no progress in welcoming victims of domestic violence.

3.2 ARCHITECTURE OF REFUGE

There is the emergency architecture of refuge for victims of domestic violence (House Shelter Home of the Woman and Shelter Shelter Canto de Dahlia in study in the article), for immigrants and refugees in general, of natural disasters, of wars, among others. There are also some reception homes for the LGBTQI+ population (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, queer, intersex and the “+” encompasses all other types of sexual orientation), as for example, in Brazil is Casa Nem, with three units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, House 1 and the Center for Welcoming Flourish, both in São Paulo, accordance with the news available on the Project Colabora website (2019).

3.2.1 CASA ABRIGO LAR DA MULHER (SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND LEGAL ASSISTANCE FOR WOMEN OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE)

With the objective of protecting and strengthening women, Casa Abrigo Lar da Mulher is located in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), in the Laranjeiras neighborhood and was created in 2007, providing psychological, social, hospital and legal assistance (Figure 1). The work is elaborated and prepared for the sheltered to understand their rights, evolve their awareness about healthy affective relationships and recover their lives safely and inserted in the labor market (CASA ABRIGO LAR DA MULHER, 2014).

Figure 1 – Casa Abrigo Lar da Mulher

Source: Riosolidário – transformando realidades, Casa Abrigo Lar da Mulher (2014).

The Lar da Mulher is located in a secret location in the city of Rio de Janeiro and operates 24 hours a day (Figure 2), as a temporary residence and can accommodate 60 people, including women and children. The house has 15 rooms, activity rooms and a daycare center, featuring an area of 1,300 square meters. Reflective groups, recreational activities, and relaxation activities can help these women rebuild their family and friendship relationships, which are usually broken by the fear of aggressors. They are routed by reference centers for women, shelters, court orders or law enforcement agencies (police stations). Since its creation, the House has welcomed 1,855 people, 713 women and 1,142 children (CASA ABRIGO LAR DA MULHER, 2014).

Figure 2 – Casa Abrigo Lar da Mulher

Source: Riosolidário – transformando realidades, Casa Abrigo Lar da Mulher (2014).

3.2.2 CASA ABRIGO CANTO DE DÁLIA

Casa Abrigo Canto de Dália is an essentially temporary home (Table 4), with a government service that integrates the Secretariat of Policies for Women of Londrina and was created in June 2004. The House operates continuously the care of women at risk of death and in situations of domestic violence in general, accompanied or not by children under 18 years (Table 5), residents of the city of Londrina-PR (LONDRINA, 2016).

Table 4 – Length of stay in the shelter

Shelter Time Total %
Between 5 and 15 days 17 31,48%
Up to 5 days 14 25,93%
Between 15 and 30 days 10 18,52%
Ignored 5 9,26%
Between 30 and 45 days 3 5,56%
2 months 2 3,70%
3 months 2 3,70%
4 months 1 1,85%

Source: Adapted from Cássia Maria Carloto and Vanusa Ferreira Calão, adapted from Support House “Canto de Dahlia” /SMM/PML (2005).

Table 5 – Number of children

Number of children Total %
1 15 27,78%
2 15 27,78%
3 11 20,37%
4 5 9,26%
5 5 9,26%
0 1 1,85%
8 1 1,85%
11 1 1,85%

Source: Adapted from Cássia Maria Carloto and Vanusa Ferreira Calão, adapted from Support House “Canto de Dahlia” /SMM/PML (2005).

The function of this service is to ensure the safety and protection of women and their children; implement services focused on safety, education and health; indicate partnerships with care networks to help women who have suffered domestic violence; and provide psychosocial and educational assistance to increase the self-esteem of women and their children, rescue family, social and community bonds, so that these women can escape the violence experienced, and use the protective measures provided for in the Maria da Penha Law as a legal institution. There are some management mechanisms, such as administrative meetings, departmental meetings, discussion of cases with the service network, meetings with the sheltered, personal service, seminars on various topics, among others (LONDRINA, 2016).

[…] eu tinha medo de ir na delegacia procurar ajuda. Assim, se ele ficasse sabendo poderia ser mais agressivo. Fiquei sabendo pelos outros que o CAM dava toda a assistência, por uma entrevista na televisão, aí eu procurei. Peguei num telefone e liguei. Liguei primeiro no CAM e depois fui na delegacia. (ANA, 31 anos).

Em 2014, 44 mulheres em situação de violência e risco de morte foram  abrigadas, com seus filhos e filhas, totalizando 63 crianças e adolescentes. No ano anterior, 2013, foram 38 mulheres e 56 crianças e adolescentes. No local, as mulheres e crianças recebem acompanhamento médico, psicológico, de enfermagem, assistentes sociais, além de segurança feita pela Guarda Municipal. Há também equipes de trabalhos para cozinha, com nutricionista e serviços de limpeza (BONDE NEWS, 2015).

4. LOCALITY

4.1 MUNICIPALITY OF JUIZ DE FORA – MG

The location suggested for the support center project is in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Its population was estimated by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) at 564,310 inhabitants in 2018, being the fourth most populous municipality in the state and the 36th in Brazil.The city occupies an area of 1,429,875 km², of which 317,740 km² is in an urban perimeter.

The chosen location was due to the region of Zona da Mata being the third with the highest number of records of domestic violence, according to Sesp, Secretary of State for Public Security (2018), and in a matter made available on the G1 website (2019), according to the Specialized Police Department in Women’s Care (Deam), the city of Juiz de Fora receives, approximately 20 reports of violence by women per day.

In 2018, according to content exposed by the Tribuna de Minas (2018), requests for protective measures in accordance with the Maria da Penha Law in the city of Juiz de Fora, reached 1,056 cases. Graph 6 shows the total number of occurrences in the Casa da Mulher in Juiz de Fora between 2013 and 2018, divided between the types of aggression.

Graph 6 – visits performed by CMJF between 29/05/2013 and 31/08/2018, categorized by total amounts/year and by types of total aggression throughout the reported period

Source: Adapted from CMJF Report, prepared by Glaucy Hellen Herdy Ferreira Gomes (2018).

4.2 DOWNTOWN NEIGHBORHOOD

An important data to be analyzed on domestic violence, offered by the Casa da Mulher in Juiz de Fora (CMJF), is the origin of women by region and by neighborhood in the city of Juiz de Fora. The mapping (figure 3) carried out by Architect Glaucy Hellen Herdy Ferreira Gomes (2018) points to these notifications of occurrences.

Figure 3 – Maps of the origin of women assisted by the Casa da Mulher in Juiz de Fora in the 1st half of 2018, per hectare in the region

Source: Adapted from CMJF Report, prepared by Glaucy Hellen Herdy Ferreira Gomes (2018).

According to the mapping shown, the Northern region of Juiz de Fora has a total of 296 victims, with 23% of all women welcomed by the Casa da Mulher. The second region with the highest number of victims is the East, with 238, equivalent to 18.5%, but in the second map above, the quantitative surveys for each neighborhood, indicates worrying numbers located in the Central regions, presenting approximately 190 occurrences, West, with 150 and South, accounting for 230 cases.

In accordance with the needs of women victims of domestic violence, according to the regions and neighborhoods of the city of Juiz de Fora, the central region is the best locality, since in addition to presenting alarming numbers of cases, it is connected with the other regions that have the highest number of occurrences, in order to make accessible and visible to all women.

4.3 LOCATION

According to the text above, the location of great potential for future architectural projects of refuge for women, is in the city center of Juiz de Fora, in order to serve the entire city, having an area of approximately 748 square meters (figure 4) and inserted in the street Barão de São João Nepomuceno, near the main avenues, it being one-way, with access through Avenida Independência and Batista de Oliveira street, presenting average flow of vehicles and pedestrians. It is situated between Commercial Zone 1 and Shopping Zone 2 (figure 5).

Figure 4 – Terrain status map

Source: Google Maps (2019).

Figure 5 – Zoning map

Source: Personal collection (2019).

The suggested land (figures 6, 7 and 8), has flat topography, currently being used as the Gran Park parking lot in the city center of Juiz de Fora, with its surroundings having a large density of buildings. In addition to the easy access and visibility of the land, the locality also approaches service and commerce establishments, bringing greater security.

Figure 6 – Terrain Image

Source: Personal collection (2019).

Figure 7 – Terrain image

Source: Personal collection (2019).

Figure 8 – Terrain image

Source: Personal collection (2019).

In its immediate surroundings, it has medium-sized buildings, with commercial uses such as bakeries, pharmacies, restaurants, among other types of service, mixed, with predominant use of residences and shops (figures 9, 10, 11 and 12). In the non-immediate surroundings stands residential buildings, mixed use and institutional and is close to public squares, such as Halfeld Park, being the most imposing, and the station square. It also presents large enterprises such as the municipality of Juiz de fora and Cesama (Municipal Sanitation Company), Catedral de Santo Antônio, Bretas supermarket and Bahamas.

Figure 9 – Study map of the surroundings

Source: Personal collection (2019).

Figure 10 – Image of the immediate surroundings

Source: Personal collection (2019).

Figure 11 – Image of the immediate surroundings

Source: Personal collection (2019).

Figure 12 – Image of the immediate surroundings

Source: Personal collection (2019).

5. RESULTS

Based on data mapped during the article, Brazil is a country where foster homes for women suffering domestic violence are scarce, present in only 2.5% of the country’s cities, according to IBGE (2013), through the article available on the website O Globo: Sociedade (2019). Juiz de Fora presents high numbers in what surrounds domestic violence, so there is a need for more adequate support, since most women raped do not report for addictions, fear and for continuing to contact the aggressor after the complaint, making them not find refuge ensuring protection for them to their children.

As a result of the research and the results obtained, the place of insertion of the project was determined according to the occurrences of the neighborhoods, and with this, it is perceived that there are critical points in almost all regions of the municipality, mainly in the Central, West and South. Other important factors for this choice are the visibility of the Support Center and security, where women can easily access, be cautious, and confident. This safety is due to the considerable flow of people and vehicles in the insertion area, demonstrated above, and also by the locality understanding the commercial and residential uses predominantly. It is interesting that the Support Center has 24-hour operation, for full-time support, and has activities to reinsert these women and children into society, such as vocational courses, dynamic and playful exercises, lectures on the subject, medical and psychological support, among others.

6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Due to the facts mentioned and exposed in this article, it is highlighted that despite the evolution of the debates around domestic violence, implementation and advancement of legislation in defense of women, together with public policies and social movements, the tolerance of violence and patriarchy in the social environment is still present, being a great barrier to combat. However, it is notorious that with the creation of protection laws and spaces of refuge, there was a significant increase in the number of complaints, as security and support became more effective.

To the detriment of the alarming and worrying numbers of domestic violence in the city of Juiz de Fora, it is concluded that in the municipality a careful and thorough view of this problem is necessary, and the support house, for a more punctual assistance of the victims, of great relevance so that there is greater assistance on their lives.

Studies on historical violence and inequality and the creation of foster homes for women are necessary and of utmost importance, since the more legal support the victims find, the safer they will be to promote complaints.

According to the graphs and data indicated during the article, the number of shelter houses in Brazil is insufficient with the objective of welcoming this type of violence. With this, there was the suggestion of a building with the purpose of ensuring and sheltering women and their children victims of domestic violence in the city of Juiz de Fora. Therefore, the need to increase these refuges and public policies in favor of women’s defense brings great significance.

REFERENCES

BADINTER, Elisabeth. Un Amour en Plus: histoire de l’amour maternel. 1. ed. Paris, Flamarrion: Nova Fronteira, 1980. p. 115-116.

BONDE NEWS. Prefeitura de Londrina vai reformar Casa Abrigo. Disponível em: https://www.bonde.com.br/bondenews/londrina/prefeitura-de-londrina-vai-reformar-casa-abrigo-356289.html. Acesso em: 5 set. 2019.

BRASIL DE FATO. Falta proteção contra violência doméstica nas cidades pequenas, diz Maria da Penha. Disponível em: https://www.brasildefato.com.br/2018/08/07/falta-protecao-contra-violencia-domestica-nas-cidades-pequenas-diz-maria-da-penha/. Acesso em: 10 set. 2019.

CARLOTO, Cássia Maria; CALÃO, Vanusa Ferreira. A Importância e o Significado da Casa Abrigo Para Mulheres em Situação De Violência Conjugal. Emancipação, Londrina, v. 6, n. 1, p. 209-212, 2006. Disponível em: https://www.revistas2.uepg.br/index.php/emancipacao/article/view/79/77. Acesso em: 20 set. 2019.

CONSELHO NACIONAL DE JUSTIÇA. CNJ Serviço: O que são e como funcionam as Casas-Abrigo. Disponível em: https://www.cnj.jus.br/cnj-servico-o-que-sao-e-como-funcionam-as-casas-abrigo/#:~:text=As%20Casas%20abrigo%20s%C3%A3o%20locais,o%20curso%20de%20suas%20vidas. Acesso em: 12 set. 2019.

DOSSIÊ VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA AS MULHERES: Violência Doméstica e Familiar. Disponível em: https://dossies.agenciapatriciagalvao.org.br/violencia/violencias/violencia-domestica-e-familiar-contra-as-mulheres/. Acesso em: 18 set. 2019.

ÉPOCA. A Violência Contra a Mulher no Brasil em Cinco Gráficos. Disponível em: https://epoca.globo.com/a-violencia-contra-mulher-no-brasil-em-cinco-graficos-23506457. Acesso em: 26 set. 2019.

G1: ZONA DA MATA, TV INTEGRAÇÃO. Zona da Mata é a 3ª região com mais registros de violência doméstica em MG. Disponível em: https://g1.globo.com/mg/zona-da-mata/noticia/2019/05/13/zona-da-mata-e-a-3a-regiao-com-mais-registros-de-violencia-domestica-em-mg.ghtml. Acesso em: 25 set. 2019.

GOMES, G. H. H. F; CURY, M. D. A. Perspectiva De Gênero Como Categoria de Análise Urbana: um Estudo Sobre a Implantação da Casa da Mulher de Juiz De Fora. X Congresso Brasileiro De Direito Urbanístico Grupo Temático 02: Direito À Cidade E O Combate Ao Racismo, Machismo, Lgbtfobia E Outras Formas E Opressão, Juiz de Fora, v. 1, p. 5-9, 2018.

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MIGUEL, Luiz Felipe; BIROLI, Flávia; Feminismo e Política: uma introdução. 1. ed. São Paulo: Boitempo editorial, 2014. p. 94-95 e 115.

NASCIMENTO, Laiane Nunes. Estupro Marital: O Inimigo Silencioso. 2015. 74 p. Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso (Graduação em Direito) – UniRV – Universidade de Rio Verde, Caiapônia – GO, 2015.

O GLOBO: SOCIEDADE. Treze anos após Lei Maria da Penha, só 2,4% das cidades têm casas-abrigo para mulheres. Disponível em: https://oglobo.globo.com/sociedade/celina/treze-anos-apos-lei-maria-da-penha-so-24-das-cidades-tem-casas-abrigo-para-mulheres-23972179. Acesso em: 1 out. 2019.

PROJETO COLABORA. JUNTOS POR UM MUNDO + SUSTENTÁVEL. Conheça 5 casas e uma plataforma que oferecem abrigo para LGBTs. Disponível em: https://projetocolabora.com.br/ods5/casas-dao-abrigo-para-lgbts/. Acesso em: 12 nov. 2019.

RIOSOLIDÁRIO: TRANSFORMANDO REALIDADES. Casa Abrigo Lar da Mulher. Disponível em: http://www.riosolidario.org/programas/mulheres/casa-abrigo-lar-da-mulher. Acesso em: 16 out. 2019.

RIOS, GILMA MARIA. Amor E Violência: (Re) Leitura Dos Caminhos Das Mulheres Araguarinas Perante A Justiça. Natal-RN, Volume, Número, p. 1-2, jul./2018. Disponível em: http://www.snh2013.anpuh.org/resources/anais/27/1364931124_ARQUIVO_AMOREVIOLENCIATEXTOCOMPLETONATAL2013versao2.pdf. Acesso em: 12 set. 2019.

SENADO FEDERAL. Proteção às vítimas ainda é insuficiente. Disponível em: https://www12.senado.leg.br/emdiscussao/edicoes/saneamento-basico/violencia-contra-a-mulher/protecao-as-vitimas-ainda-e-insuficiente. Acesso em: 16 set. 2019.

SENADO FEDERAL. Violência doméstica e familiar contra a mulher: Pesquisa DataSenado. Senado Federal: subtítulo da revista, Local, v. 1, Número, p. 34-36, dez./2005. Disponível em: https://www12.senado.leg.br/institucional/datasenado/arquivos/aumenta-numero-de-mulheres-que-declaram-ter-sofrido-violencia. Acesso em: 14 out. 2019.

TRIBUNA DE MINAS. Mais de mil mulheres pediram medidas protetivas este ano em JF. Disponível em: https://tribunademinas.com.br/noticias/cidade/21-08-2018/mais-de-mil-mulheres-pediram-medidas-protetivas-este-ano-em-jf.html. Acesso em: 24 out. 2019.

[1] Graduate student in Architecture and Cities at College Venda Nova do Imigrante College (FAVENI). Graduated in Architecture and Urbanism from the Doctum Teaching Network.

[2] Master in Built Environment and specialist in Environmental Analysis from the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF) and graduated in Architecture and Urbanism from CES-JF.

Submitted: April, 2021.

Approved: November, 2021.

5/5 - (6 votes)
Nádia Gonçalves Leite

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