Ethical Culture: The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Duty in the Public Service

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SALOMÃO, Marcos Borba [1]

SALOMÃO, Marcos Borba. Ethical Culture: The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Duty in the Public Service. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 04, Ed. 04, Vol. 06, pp. 25-42. April 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link:


Public management has by a functional nature the daily confrontation of great challenges to improve its processes, its work routines, its relations, the provision of services, the work environment and the quality of life of its employees, in the face of a rigid reality – that of finite resources. In this context, an analysis is carried out with emphasis on the work environment and the quality of life of the employees from the perspective of ethics, considers the public and social actors important with their actions together to combat negative factors in this environment. It identifies risks, aggravating factors, consequences and points out guidelines for the State, public servants and social actors to start the process of change with the application of methods capable of changing the reality existing in the public environment. It highlights the importance of the State as a main actor in the role of promoting agent and modifying all processes to ensure the well-being of public and social actors.

Keywords: Challenges, Guidelines, Ethics, Quality.


¹It is honorable to be a public servant, but not all individuals are prepared for this challenge.

Modern society is complex because it contains several conflicting values and interests and, in most cases, many of these objectives are desired by attitudes incompatible with the values instituted for the common good. In this context, to be ethical is to combat the social malaise caused by these negative actions that cause enormous damage to society. Ethical actions and decisions are practiced by ethical individuals, by choice, by character, by access to knowledge, by the ability to lead oney, and by discernment in knowing how to position themselves alongside norms and moral principles considered valuable, for collective benefit.

This summarized content can be translated as part of the “movement for ethical culture”, despite the emphasis on the public servant, his actions, behavior and his quality of life, highlights that ethical responsibility is of all organizations and individuals regardless of social position and their role within society. Everyone must maintain the effort to develop an “ethical awareness” to contribute to peace, social harmony, the quality of life of individuals, the reduction of social and public costs, the maintenance of the family, social justice, security, education and various other objects of value indispensable in the work environment and the social environment.


Governments need to assume ethics, not as their commitment, but as their duty, so all governments install ethics committees, but at the time the commission works it begins to bother. (Carmen Lúcia Antunes Rocha – Minister of the Supreme Court: XII International Seminar Ethics in Management).

Constantly the individual needs to reflect on his actions and the results obtained, to identify within the society in which he/she lives, if it is evident in his personality, the practice of these two elements, virtue and duty conceptualized by ethics.

The responsibility, punctuality in commitments, emphasis and effort to meet goals, teamwork to go beyond efficiency with a focus on effectiveness (result) and social and individual positioning in the defense of morals, evidences an identity that has the ethics of duty. The positive character, care and zeal for excellence in being and how to live by adding capacities, knowledge to your identity defined in a society as important and valuable and positive self-judgment, shows a strong link to the ethics of virtue.

When individuals aggregate these elements, they can maintain self-control, which extends to knowing how to identify and discern, risk situations, inconsistencies, conflicting relationships and practices against the norms defined in law. And when challenged by any of these and other aggravating factors, it does not innovate or position itself outside the law, but acts in combat by the principle of legality (CF/88 Art. 37). In observation, it disciplines the Code of Ethics (Complementary Law No. 112, of June 1, 2002) in verbis: “Art. 4º […] III – to be probo, straight, loyal and just, demonstrating all the integrity of his character, always choosing, when he is faced with two options, the best and the most advantageous for the common good;”. (Mato Grosso, 2002).

In public service there are great challenges, it is voluminous, constant, requires a lot of dedication of public actors for its correct realization, and has an almost insurmountable characteristic — the growing demand. Due to this variable and, many others, receives updates and changes in various procedures, this whole complex causes wear and tear in both public actors and social actors. Therefore, it is honorable to be a public servant, but not all individuals are prepared for this challenge. To aim for public service only because of stability and remuneration is a gross mistake. Neglect ing the high level of responsibility and dedication that are required, the individual will suffer frustrations, conflicts, emotional exhaustion, stress, failures and various other aggravating factors, in addition to becoming a public actor with low productivity and contribution, doomed to low esteem and uncontrollability. The individual must be prepared, shaped by these two elements, ethics of virtue and the ethics of duty, acquire ethics as clothing for one’s own personality, with the objective of building self-control, and maintaining a productive and coherent positioning within the environment in which it operates. In this observation, it regulates the Code of Ethics (Complementary Law No. 112, of June 1, 2002) in verbis:

Art. 2nd […] II – the public servant can never disregard the ethical element of his conduct. Thus, it will not have to decide only between the legal and the illegal, the just and the unjust, the convenient and the inconvenient, the timely and the inopportune, but mainly between the honest and the dishonest, according to the rules contained in Article 37, caput, and § 4, of the Federal Constitution. (Mato Grosso, 2002).

The ethics of virtue acts with a focus on valorization and the ethics of duty acts with a focus on the realization in the face of a challenge, such as the right to vote, when virtue does not despise it and, by duty, does not misdirect it, in this case, self-control is put into practice in the fight against corruption, which benefits when it buys this right. Because the right to vote is a power contribution that is conferred by the State, implicitly it is an object of personal law (CF/88 Art. 14), which cannot be sold, nor negotiated, but authenticated through Democracy, the settlement of the exercise of legitimate public power, for the social good.

In the exercise of the public function or in his private life, the public agent does not misstate collective law, individual law, the public good and no moral value. It leads itself, when its own right – it exercises, when collective law – shares, in order to maximize the state’s response to the common good. This concept of exercising and sharing is combative to abuse of power, corruption, appropriation of functions and leadership positions, the formation of formal groups in the public sectors and the acts and attitudes directed to fulfill favors, according to the Code of Ethics (Complementary Law No. 112, june 1, 2002), in verbis:

Art. 4° The fundamental duties of the public servant are:


IX – resist all pressures from hierarchical superiors, contractors, interested parties and others who seek any favors, benefits or undue advantages as a result of immoral, illegal or ethical actions and denounce them;


XIX – exercise, with strict moderation, the functional prerogatives assigned to it, refraining from doing so contrary to the legitimate interests of users of state public services and administrative jurisdictions;


Art. 5° The public servant is sealed:


VI – to allow persecutions, sympathies, dislikes, whims, passions or personal interests to interfere in dealing with the public or with hierarchically superior or inferior colleagues; (Mato Grosso, 2002).

Through an analytical observation, it is evident two variables, the first, that the work environment in the public sector and work relationships are strictly professional (related to the practice of duty ethics), that is, formal and bureaucratic with the purpose of effecting the response of the State in the best way and shortest possible time. The second, requires mental health care, quality of life, specialization and appreciation of public actors, requires continuous action of the State (related to the practice of the ethics of virtue) with actions of analysis and identification of structural inconsistencies in the work environment to apply necessary improvements.


In relation to the ethics of duty, it is recommended to the State through its departments and managers, to devote considerable attention to the quality of life of public servants and the structure of their work environment, to apply public policies consistent with the needs of the public sectors, to reduce aggravating factors harmful to workers’ health such as absenteeism, stress, fatigue, low productivity , suicide and, among others.

There are several relevant researches on the work environment, several highlight the role of leaders and the importance of a healthy environment and relationship. In this context, the Ethics Committee, for detaining sensitive information from the public environment and its working relationships, stands out in the identification of data and its disposition in technical reports, as a management indicator of the sectors in which it operates. This management report may contain information that alerts you to stress, the causes of absenteeism, the incompatible environment, excessive workload, conflicts, and various other aggravating factors. A study conducted by the Mind Organization made it clear that continuous and dedicated analysis is needed with coordinated management actions to combat various aggravating factors, such as stress and absenteeism in the workplace:

Millions of people go through uncontrollable stress at work, and the fact that so many people feel forced to lie about it instead of finding a solution should be a major concern for our business. If employees do not feel honest with the pressures on them, problems that are not addressed can quickly increase morale, low productivity, and high medical leave. We require employers to encourage a culture of openness at work so that they can solve problems now, rather than storing problems for the future. (Paul Farmer, Chief Executive of Mind, our translation)

These factors, professional training, adequate remuneration, a structured work environment and the valorization of the server are indispensable to maximize productivity, and the State to obtain significant gains in the response time of the services provided.

The State is the main actor, has the power to act and perform procedures, in observation, discipline law 7.692, of July 1, 2002, in verbis:

Art. 4° The State Public Administration will obey, among others, the principles of legality, impersonality, morality, publicity, efficiency, motivation, formality, reasonableness, proportionality, broad defense, contradictory and legal certainty.

Art. 5° The administrative rule shall be interpreted and applied in a way that best ensures that the public interest to which it is addressed is realised. (Mato Grosso, 2002).

In observation, it disciplines the Code of Ethics (Complementary Law No. 112, of June 1, 2002) in verbis: “Art. 2nd […] VIII – […]. The State of Mato Grosso cannot grow or stabilize itself on the corrupting power of the habit of error, oppression, or lies, which always annihilates human dignity.” (Mato Grosso, 2002)..

Faced with this challenge, acting with a dedicated ethical awareness, the factors highlighted are only a starting basis to combat demotivation, stress, absenteeism, depression and even suicide. In an analysis of considerations, Bazzo (1997, pp. 41-44):

It is evident that the stress, anguish and depression that manifest themselves so often among public officials are not necessarily consequences only of their relationship with work or the conflicts experienced within it. The work is, in many cases, just the detonator of these disorders. We observed that when the employee was already a conflicting, insecure and neurotic person before entering the public service, it succumbs to the unusual working relationships much more easily and is pushed quickly into the disease. And at this point, what is important to note is that probably, if working relationships, rather than insanas, were rewarding, if people felt pleasure at work, rather than heartbreak, if they could grow professionally, rather than lose their self-esteem, the problematic parts of their personality could even be softened and work to function as something therapeutic. But as they gradually understand that it is impossible to turn work into something rewarding, they run into a stampede for retirement, even knowing that there is also another minefield of need, abandonment and loneliness.

Because the public agent dedicates himself a considerable part of his life to public service and, in that time, the work overload, financial problems, actions of corruption of political actors, indications of unprepared leaders, are just some of the many aggravating that wears down the network of servers. Bazzo (1997, pp. 41-44):

[…] The general lack of planning within public institutions, for example: the high turnover of bosses (always appointed in a political and nepotistic way); the lack of link between the training of employees and the work they actually develop; the lack of criteria for appointing or exonerating persons; the brutal asymmetry between some officials and others; the lack of a job and salary plan that equalizes income; the struggle for an imaginary power (phalo) that is unconsciously fostered among employees; the fact that the Human Resources sectors have as their maximum function only the execution of payroll, all this, added to the practice of corruption often present in administrative matters involving money, if on the one hand it makes it impossible for the employee to feel pleasure and accomplishment at work, on the other it functions as a kind of fulminant poison that acts directly on his mental health.

A type of immutable server (relapsing, irresponsible, displicent, and without productivity), which is fixed in the same procedures throughout his career, focusing only on his own interests, does not meet the needs of the public service, because he can not absorb the changes in the sector, opposes the new procedures, is stuck to demotivation, low productivity and his mental health is compromised.

In the context of Bazzo’s statements (1997, pp. 41-44) types of aggravating factors such as political and nepotist appointment, lack of criteria for appointment, brutal difference between servants, struggle for an “imaginary power”, etc., urgent need corrective measures.

To combat the asymmetry (difference, discrepancy, disparity) of superiority, personal interests and the empowerment of commissioned positions among public actors, including, who remains in the position of head of political patronage, formation of groups that take advantage of leadership positions because of paid benefit, seat of power, friendlies and several other aggravating factors. Technical measures should be adopted as a solution, i.e. conduct a profile study, to verify professional training, commitment to time (punctuality), dedication to work (not superfluous or of personal interest), productivity that benefits the sector and the team, quantitative positions of occupied leadership (provided that it has not been by patronage or participation / turnover in informal groups), experiences (professional knowledge, technical, skills, etc.), and several other criteria, in order to identify the intellectual potential of knowledge, competence and functional of each server. Thus, the study should be analyzed and audited by those who did not or participated, in this case, an independent team of bonds – the Compliance team, after this audited conference, it is recommended to apply the following development and valuation metrics: apply the turnover (average of 2 years) of the commissioned positions among the servers (public actors), but among the sector’s own servers (not bringing public actors from another body) , provided that this team is not an informal group, thus eliminating superiority, personal conflicts, lack of cooperation, low productivity, and greed for power and paid positions.

The application of these metrics, in fact, there is an improvement in the equality between the servers, with the opportunity for all, immediately, stabilizes collaboration, teamwork, greater productivity, better organizational climate, because everyone will exercise leadership, so everyone collaborates to receive the same reciprocity when it is leader and evaluated. Cutting political indications as much as possible, in this context, the public environment will gain in the implementation of services and reduce considerable costs. Another aggravating factor that needs to be eliminated in this concept of metric, is not to allow a server to stay more than 10 years in the same sector and function (only if it has productivity and does not accumulate functions), an overwhelming aggravating factor, which accommodates and causes low productivity, the server will make a very great effort due to wear and stress with unprepared bosses, lack of renewal, lack of knowledge expansion and work overload by accumulating functions. Another important metric, do not allow the same server to accumulate gratified functions, distributing these functions to generate more opportunities.

In addition to being an actor, it is recommended that the State act as a promoter (coach: instructor, trainer) of the training and specialized education of its servers, in the use of existing technologies with its flexibility, ceases to be an unattainable challenge, just format them to the necessary model, such as forming classes of servers and using its state university (because the government already invests resources in this unit) , including creating specific courses to form and specialize servers. Another project is to include in the Units Government Schools (in addition to the classroom courses and Training DE) an educational center of the Open University of Brazil – UAB (in which the government also invests resources), however, in the case of uab, distance education (DE), the courses are free, it is not necessary to grant license for training and, in view of an expressive number of undergraduate and specialization courses , it is possible to achieve excellent results. To train leaders, to work as a team, and in the position of leadership, to lead with contribution without departing from the norms, because the public environment is not a competition of positions, obtaining favors and interests, stress, depression, suicide and abuse of power (in logic should not be).

Faced with several aggravating factors existing within the public environment, outsourcing in some operational functions also needs to be considered in this concept of metric (especially where physical exhaustion is constant and demand tends to increase), to reduce costs, improve the quality of life of servers, reduce stress, fatigue, demotivation, and generate employment in the private sector. However, the servers have to act as supervisors not only of contracts, but of procedures in order to block inconsistencies with the Law. This outsourcing of operational services, should occur with different private actors in each microregion, and have the duty to keep outsourced employees with adequate remuneration, quality of life, appropriate equipment and tools, appropriate work environment, receipt of salaries, overtime and others, within the deadlines according to the legislation. And do not exercise their duties on pressures and threats from employers, because the functions are in the public interest.

In the context of the aggravating factors cited, it is clear the Burn-Out Syndrome (Professional Exhaustion Syndrome), recognized in Decree No. 3,048, of May 6, 1999, in verbis:

LIST B (Writing given by Decree No. 6,957, 2009)



XII – Feeling Finished (“Burn-Out Syndrome”, “Professional Exhaustion Syndrome”) (Z73.0)


1. Painful work rate (Z56.3)

2. Other work-related physical and mental difficulties (Z56.6)

The negative physical, psychic, behavioral and defensive symptoms derived from this overwhelming aggravating factor tend to increase over time, when not treated, but with due attention and care it is possible to at least circumvent and even eliminate the problem, under observation, Benevides-Pereira (2002, p. 44):

The person with burnout syndrome should not necessarily denote all these symptoms. The degree, type and number of manifestations presented will depend on the configuration of individual factors (such as genetic predisposition, socio-educational experiences), environmental factors (workplaces or cities with a higher incidence of pollution, for example) and the stage in which the person is in the process of developing the syndrome.

A noticeable issue is that the public sector has a tendency to this aggravating factor due to its nature of work (where daily efficiency and effectiveness are charged), stands out with definition, Ballone (2009):

Burnout has a higher incidence in professions with greater interpersonal contact such as doctors, psychoanalysts, jailers, social workers, commercialists, teachers, public attendants, nurses, personal department employees, telemarketing and firefighters. However, today, the observations already extend to all professionals who actively interact with people, who take care and/or solve other people’s problems, who obey more demanding techniques and methods, being part of work organizations submitted to evaluations.

The decisive factor (ethics of virtue and ethics of duty) is the role of the State as a promoter of the quality of life of its employees at work, always with preventive and corrective actions with the objective of maintaining the physical and mental health of these workers.


All individuals have in the ethics of virtue, and in the ethics of duty, rights and responsibilities together, it is necessary to understand the importance and the role of the public servant, and that he is also a citizen, possessing the same rights and obligations under the Laws and , in the exercise of public service, it does not develop them through friendly relations, but in the formality of impersonality (rigidly exercised by the State), where common sense is the law in force and, to attend well, is to provide the necessary information, and to execute the procedures necessary in the State’s response time. Not attributing to the server the bureaucracy demanded by the public sector [in the ethics of duty, understanding and practicing bureaucracy is a challenge for everyone, but necessary to guarantee the sustainability of society]. As per the Code of Ethics (Complementary Law No. 112, of June 1, 2002) in verbis:

Art. 2°…

I – dignity, decorum, zeal, effectiveness and awareness of moral principles are greater primacy that must guide the public servant, whether in the exercise of office, employment or function, or outside it, since it will reflect the exercise of the vocation of the State Power itself. Their actions, behaviors and attitudes will be directed to the preservation of the honor and tradition of state public services;


V – the work developed by the public servant before the community should be understood as an addition to his own well-being, since, citizen, member of society, the success of this work can be considered as his greatest asset:

VI – the civil service is integrated into the private life of each public servant. Thus, the facts and acts verified in the conduct of daily life in your private life may increase or decrease your good concept in functional life;


IX – courtesy, goodwill, care and time dedicated to state public service characterize the effort for discipline;


XV – the public servant who works in harmony with the organizational structure, respecting his colleagues and every fellow citizen, collaborates and everyone can receive collaboration, because his public activity is the great opportunity for the growth and grandecement of the State of Mato Grosso. (Mato Grosso, 2002).

Ethics is indispensable in the relations between people and entities, by contributing to the public system, in courtesy, in goodwill, in the zeal of moral principles, and in the observance of legislation when in the execution of procedures, public actor and user (concitizen) contribute to the efficiency of the public service, promoting the “Ethical Culture” that will benefit everyone and even cause significant improvements in the quality of life at work and in public services. According to Hermann’s emphasis (2011, p. 14): “[…] because without ethics there is no republic, without ethics there is no citizenship, without ethics there is no human solidarity, and without ethics there is no human being himself. This depends on ethics as it depends on the air, so it is vital, we cannot despise or ignore it.”

In this emphasis, it is possible to institute a consideration of the beginning of philosophical thought, and make a simple comparison of the word Ethics and its current importance, with the statements of the first philosopher —Tales of Miletus (approximately between the end of the 7th and mid-6th century to.C., in the cities, Miletus and Ephesus, founded by the Ionians, which became great economic and cultural centers), considered water as the source of origin, process, emergence and development, that is, water was the origin of everything (The Thinkers, The Pre-Socratic. Collection v. 1). We can understand that “our water today”, which leads us to understanding, the process of trust, development, solidarity, organized society and existence is ethics (defined in the Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Duty).


²Corruption exists, because many unscrupulous human beings cannot contain themselves before the truth – the generating factor of wealth and happiness, seek to take over only for themselves, instead of sharing, lose reason and shame, thus annihilating the dignity, opportunity and life project of thousands of people. They will never be released or cured, and until their end they will be eroded by this virus.

The movement for ethical culture (it is a metric for quality of life and well-being) is the engagement of public and social actors in a continuous practice of more defined attitudes, actions, dialogues, behaviors, projects and laws, to achieve the development of a “Ethical Consciousness”. And the purpose is to raise the intellectual and development level of society and the public sector in its relations, practices and social well-being.

An ethical conscience does not produce digital waste; traffic violence; stray bullet; harassment (in any of its stages); the abuse of power; corruption (which is not only diversion of public resources, but also incoherent and harmful acts); kidnapping; recklessness; racism; violence against the child; feminicide; unfair competition. He does not commit crime; does not devastate the environment; does not dispose of the waste improperly; does not drive drunk; does not act against the values of the traditional family; does not despise the elderly; does not participate in schemes where bribery and bargaining are valuable currencies; does not falsify documents; does not use in bad faith; does not take public office; does not use the office or the civil service for its own benefit, or to meet the whims of others, or to inferiorize their co-workers and fellow citizens; does not use the public system for the benefit of itself and third parties; does not play the role of dictator; it does not destroy private and public property; does not issue a dubious legal opinion; and don’t swindle the law to gain advantage.

In a systematic analysis, in this context, some variables are identified; the first, provoked by attitudes unrelated to legal norms, and highlights the power of the no, as a beacon of the Law, evidently when this limit is exceeded, generates – consequence. The second represents decision-making, how to do, why to do, when to do, is evident, when the decision supported by the law is made, generates – ethical awareness. It is an internal and social question that leads the individual to meet a rational logic, highlighted by Barros (2013, p. 28-29):

Ethics in today’s times is understood as a great space for discussion, as a great space of argumentation, as a great deliberative space, which allows all the agents of a collectivity to improve the coexistence in that place, from the identification of the best argument, from the identification of the most plausible argument and, therefore, ethics demands of you more than mere respect for the principles established , why? Because we are in a society that has to face unprecedented, virginal, “unrepeatable” situations for which there is no ready table, we need to debate, discuss and reach the conclusion of what we want for ourselves. Ethics becomes respect yes, but it becomes, above all, a certain condition of debate, where the main argument is the most logical, more rational argument and, therefore, the victorious argument.

In this same sense, in the constancy of acts and attitudes, Farias (2013, p. 139):

[…] it is an extremely rational action, the choice is the result of a firm and immutable moral disposition, it is not something that is happening only now, but it is a type of choice that has been occurring repeatedly. Here that the habit enters, it cannot be considered an action as ethical or as virtuous if it has not occurred again and again. It is not enough once to be considered ethical, it has to be a habit of life, something that repeats itself, when you come up with it is how you act, it is not enough once to be considered a virtuous action, it has to be repeated, to be something that is the fruit of over and over again.

Ethics materializes a continuous language of behaviors, attitudes, practices, responsibilities and consciences that allow individuals to have a rational coexistence with extremely relevant results among those involved. A developed citizen maintains his business relations, his actions, his opinions, his commitments, and all his coexistence in the social environment and in the work environment, marked by ethics and not by obligation of the Law, that is, for example: When he does not practice corruption, when he does not advance the red light in traffic, he does not because he is obliged by the Law, but because he is Ethical , in individual law practices, in collective law shares, contributing with society to the reduction of public and aggravating costs, constantly producing the practice of ethical culture.


³Leaders empower people to be leaders, with knowledge of value, to manage challenges and processes, not to discuss personalities, power ego and incoherent ambitions.

In this study, the sintactic analysis of some aggravating factors that exert negative forces in the public, social environment, in the provision of public services and in the quality of life and mental health of public actors was exposed. It exposes the responsibilities of all public and social actors, and that they must be guided by all their acts on the ethical factor.

It indicates some metrics necessary for the beginning of new public policies detached from pretensions, with emphasis on the Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Duty, in order to obtain positive results by eliminating the continuous and growing inconsistencies in the public environment and in the provision of these services, which radiate to society as a whole.

Thus, its main objective is to contribute to public and social actors, by highlighting the discussion of complex but urgent issues in the face of a large volume of consequences, evidences the first steps to follow to achieve these objectives. It defines “ethical culture” as a solid foundation for initiating and improving work processes and relationships. It highlights the strength of the State as a transforming agent and its ability to change the reality of the public environment transforming it into a structured environment, worthy of meeting the needs of its servants, who dedicate part of their lives in the representation of public power. It warns of the care that should be continuously taken with public servants and their mental health, with a project of training, training, motivational, valorization and quality of life, thus ensuring the minimum acceptable to maintain a productive work environment and without risks to workers’ health.


¹Evidences the great need for the individual to prepare to dedicate a whole life in the public service, in order to avoid a great emotional strain, because the public service requires a lot of dedication, commitment, compliance with rules and norms, a constant learning and a continuous search for diverse knowledge. His character is challenged every instant by the greatest virus of all time, the abject corruption. (the author).

²Corruption is the greatest virus there is, because it destroys all the virtues and values that human beings have. It leaves the useless individual, in the den of lies, degenerate and without healing. (the author).

³Leadership unbound from obscure pretensions, negative ideologies, oppression, pride, greed, abuse of power, bargaining for favors and corruption identifies a true leader—the trainer of leaders greater than himself. This type of leader builds a society under the pillars of ethics, changes the world, and perpetuates his own existence in the actions and results achieved by the leaders he has formed. (the author).


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[1] Graduated in Business Administration, MBA in Business Management, Specialist in People Management, In Public Management, teaching in Higher Education, In Educational Management, In Worker Health Management and Work Safety, in Municipal Public Management, and in Traffic and Transportation Management and Standardization.

Submitted: February, 2019

Approved: April, 2019

4.9/5 - (102 votes)


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