FERRARI, Cássio Luiz 
FERRARI, Cássio Luiz. Football in Brazil: Origin and Evolution of Training Methodologies. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 09, Vol. 08, pp. 79-98. September 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education-physics-en/football-in-brazil
- THEORETICAL REFERENCE
- CHRONOLOGY OF THE EMERGENCE OF FOOTBALL IN BRAZIL
- TRAINING TRENDS
- TREND OF EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
- NORTHERN EUROPEAN AND NORTH AMERICA TRENDS
- BLOCK TRAINING SYSTEM
- LATIN AMERICAN TENDENCY
- SELECTIVE LOAD MODEL
- PORTUGUESE TREND – TACTICAL PERIODIAZAÇÃO
- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
- FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
Football has been characterized throughout history as a sports phenomenon that involves and mobilizes millions of people all over the world, generating direct and indirect jobs, thus becoming a great product of marketing and consumption by its passionate fans. The objective of this work is to verify the origin of soccer in Brazil, and the training trends that have emerged throughout history, seeking new horizons for the operationalization of the training process in soccer. A bibliographic research was carried out in the literature specialized in search engines such as Scielo, Google Scholar, as well as specialized journals, and books in Portuguese. Despite the controversy, the Football Association defined that Charles Miller was the one who brought football to Brazil, having then spread the sport and who really knew the rules of football. As for training trends throughout history, it seems to be the tactical periodization, which most presents theoretical assumptions that contemplate the specificity that football needs, to implement the game model from the process of operationalization of training, through the principles of play. We understand that the subject is inexhaustible in the area, and further studies should be done in order to provide greater knowledge about the origin of football and its evolution of training.
Keyword: Football, football history, tactical training.
With the arrival of soccer in Brazil, there was great access by the sport, assuming an important role with the collective practice that was soon part of the routine in schools and the population for the ease of being practiced, providing joy, integration and quality of life to practitioners, later being the most widespread sport in the country without a doubt.
Football is inserted as a cultural element of the Brazilian people, being part of the calendar of sports achievements, in which he had as great supporter Charles Willian Miller who in 1894 returned from his studies in England with a ball, uniforms and the rule book, being officially defined as the year of the emergence of football in Brazil. (OLIVEIRA; COLPAS, 2014).
After the emergence of soccer in Brazil, in which there was great support of the Brazilian population, in which it is characterized by a worldwide and complex phenomenon, mobilizing millions of people around the world, there seems to be a constant evolution in the training processes.
We have verified throughout history a great evolution, in football with paradigm breaks and new concepts that emerged with sports science working in a multidisciplinary way, Leitão (2009), understands that preparation must be conditioned on how to play according to the model conceived by the coach, and that it is likely that different training trends is conceived in various regions of the world
In this context, training trends and the evolution of physical preparation contributed to the development of soccer training methodologies, thus increasing performance and better results in competitions.
Check the origin of football in Brazil.
Check the training trends that have emerged to this day and their contributions.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE EMERGENCE OF FOOTBALL IN BRAZIL
1746– There are records, that something like a sports activity, was already practiced with a ball in Brazil, in this sense, Aquino, Oliveira and Coplas, (2014), state that there was a sports activity practiced in the City Hall of São Paulo, but that it was prohibited because it generated agglomeration of unoccupied people, not showing in fact the characteristic of the game in question.
1,864– Strong evidence suggests that the first soccer-like games or activities, according to Voser, Guimarães and Ribeiro (2006), were carried out by the English and Dutch, crew members of ships that docked on the northeastern coast and practiced the activity with local residents
1,872- There are also reports of practices with characteristics of a game with ball, which took place in the province of São Paulo at Colégio São Luís, in the interior of São Paulo in the city of Itu. The great incentive for the sports practices of the students in the school, were made by the priest of the community who guided to kick a leather ball against the walls that delimited the dependence of the college. (OLIVEIRA; COLPAS, 2014).
1,875 – However, there are controversies for the time since Vosear, Guimarães and Ribeiro, (2006), as shown by findings, which would have been Mr. John, in São Paulo who really would have introduced football in Brazil.
1,882 – Voser, Guimarães and Ribeiro, (2006), also reiterate that Mr Hugs, also would have taught at the time, workers in Jundiaí to practice the football modality.
1,892 – Officially, the only record of the term “football” was only found in a fragment cited in the Regulation of the Pedro II College in Rio de Janeiro. (OLIVEIRA; COLPAS, 2014).
Oliveira and Colpas, (2014), highlight that there is strong evidence that in 1894 Charles Willian Miller, was the one who really brought football to Brazil, because he knew the rules, brought with him a leather ball, in addition to the uniform for sports practice that began in the capital of São Paulo.
However, some findings in the literature point to controversies regarding the emergence of soccer in Brazil, since Miller left the forgotten material in a closet since his arrival in the country on June 9, 1894, until April 14, 1895, which suggests that Miller would not intend to spread the sport in Brazil. (VOSER; GUIMARÃES; RIBEIRO, 2006).
According to Voser; Guimarães; Ribeiro (2006), there is strong evidence that the Brazilian Charles Miller, when he went to England at the age of 10, to study at the Court Scool school in Southampton, adept, The Football Association, got to know football and the rules and its rules, having, years later, returned to Brazil spreading the sport.
The literature also points to Voser; Guimarães and Ribeiro (2006), that Charles Miller also brought an air pump the uniforms and two balls of the Shoot brand, manufactured in Liverpool, in addition to a rulebook, in which he allowed him to act as a true missionary in the dissemination of his purpose, also worked as a referee in matches when necessary, since he knew a lot the rules of the sport , died in 1953 in São Paulo, where he was born.
Voser; Guimarães and Ribeiro (2006), suggest that in the beginning the competitions were very restricted and selective, practiced only by the elite of São Paulo and the employees of English companies and that the games took place on the rugby fields that existed at the time.
It was in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro that the first clubs in Brazil emerged, but, which actually practiced other sports, concerned more about the social. Among them we can mention the São Paulo Atlética Club, the Clube de Regatas Flamengo, founded in 1895, in addition to the Clube de Regatas Vasco da Gama and Vitória da B.A founded both in 1898.
In the year 1,900, young football lovers of German, English and Portuguese origin would have joined to create a football club that would later be the Rio Grande Sport Club, in which it was recognized by the CBF on July 22, 1975 as the first football club in Brazil, located in Rio Grande do Sul. (VOSER; GUIMARAES; RIBEIRO, 2006).
With the evolution of football, after its emergence, there was a great search for new training methods that have been improved throughout history, being the tactical system, according to the characteristics of the team to implement the system with its principles of play. (SILVA, 2008).
According to Pivetti (2012), peripheral fatigue affects the central nervous system, and can be chronic, thus affecting the way of thinking and acting, being more pronounced than physical fatigue, especially when training at something concentration level, in order to select the best motor repertoire to solve the unpredictable situations that happen in the game.
According to the specific characteristic of each sport, there was a need for a continuous evolution in the processes of training and construction of tools for evaluation and monitoring of the individual and collective progression of the training process, and thus began to occur the search for specialization in the areas of physical preparation, tactics, technique, with the qualification of coaches and in the area of physiology , etc. (LEITÃO, 2009).
Leitão (2009), also states that changes in the training process began to emerge in the 1950s, where there was consensus among professionals in the area that the loads offered to athletes might not be enough to promote metabolic alterations for better acute and chronic responses to the training process.
The entire training process is associated with the idea of the coach’s game, and consequently, the way of training due to the game model, so it is possible that different forms of training are practiced in different places of the world, causing new training trends to be advocated. (LEITÃO, 2009).
In view of the above, we have come to the conclusion that new ways of training especially those related to physical aspects should directly influence the team’s way of playing, and that they seem to gain strength through theoretical foundations.
Then the training trends originated in Eastern Europe began to emerge, then the training models originated in Northern Europe and North America began to emerge, and finally the Latin model of training, but none of them, approached the model known as Tactical Periodization in football recommended by Professor Vitor Frade. (LEITÃO, 2009).
In the timeline of the periodization of collective sports, we identified changes from the 20th century on, occurring in three stages of its origin until 1950, when the systematization of training begins after the periods of 1950 to 1970, a period of questioning, concernand doubts about the traditional models of periodization and the post-1970 period where we arrived in contemporary models of training. (GOMES, 2009).
TREND OF EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
For Silva (2008), the trend of Eastern Europe, advocates the division of the season into periods preparation to training with the objective of reaching a certain plateau of physical conditioning, valuing the physical aspect, without any concern with the game model, emphasizing the physical preparation, disconnected with the collectives, being extremely analytical the conception of the training process.
Despite Silva’s conception (2008), they seem to go against Matveev’s ideas that he understood that training should be divided into times to reach peaks of form, with great volume at the beginning of preparation and low intensity, by verifling the loads in the competitive period, characterizing the classic model of training.
However, Silva (2008) understands that training should exacerbate a training model that contemplates the way of playing that is sought, in the case in specificity, and any other form of training would be understood as an abstract form of training.
Strong evidence indicates according to Gomes (2009), that the training model of Eastern Europe, constituted a more analytical training process, focused on physical bias, seeking to reach peaks of form, there is no concern, therefore with the way of playing, being a model developed for Olympic competitions where one or two plateaus of performance in the year were sought. (GOMES, 2009).
Leve Pavlovtchi Matveev, a Russian scientist, presented in the 1950s the traditional training model, based on the theory of General Adaptation Syndrome.
Its load model was an undulating variation that occurred in the training, in which they were divided into three periods: Preparatory, Competition Period and Transition Period. Furthermore, the preparatory period is divided into General and Specific.
In the general and specific period there is a predominance of large volume and low intensity, however it is also worth mentioning that this preparation was a basis for sports such as swimming, weight lifting and athletics, and in the Specific period there is great emphasis on the improvement of the technique and tacticality, besides prevailing the intensity to the detriment of the volume.
In the competitive period, the athlete should reach the peak of form, stabilizing the volume and intensity. The transition period, on the other hand, is when the athlete recovers physical and psychological from the effort he/she made. (GOMES, 2009).
The variation of volume and intensity is expressed through undulating peaks, respecting whenever the peak maximum values do not coincide in the same period, and the general and specific preparatory periods are with large volume and maximum intensity period during the competitive period. (PANTALEÃO; ALVARENGA, 2008).
Figure1. Drawing with the ripples of the classical periodization Kept, (1997).
In order for us to succeed in any sport, we need not only the specific capabilities of the well-developed modality, but above all, we need ballast, with a high general level of the functional capabilities of the well-developed athlete already previously. (FERREIRA, 2010).
According to Gomes (2009), there would be no possibility of a single periodization model to contemplate all sports modalities, since we must take into account the characteristics of each sport, which should be aligned with the characteristics of the athletes.
Gomez and Souza (2008), also understand that the preparatory period in Brazil is very short, being around a month, coming to the conclusion that the traditional model of Matveev does not contemplate the technical and tactical valences in football currently.
The training should be specific to the modality, with exercises that are worked according to the principles of play, being in line with the game model, according to the idea of the coach’s game. (FERREIRA 2010).
It is evident, therefore, that to this day, Matveev’s proposal does not seem to converge at all with the specificity that football advocates.
NORTHERN EUROPEAN AND NORTH AMERICA TRENDS
The other training trend emerged in Northern Europe and North America, different from the traditional model, but far from ideal for football, gave great importance to the development of specific functional capacity of the competition, promoted evaluation of loads with physical tests, seeking parameters for players, but still focused on the physical, technical and psychological bias decontextualized , no connection. (SILVA, 2008).
After the 1950s, questions of Matveev’s method began to emerge, as scientists understood that it was impossible for a single model of training loads to contemplate all sports, because each had its own characteristics and adaptations specific to each organism according to the sport worked. (GOMES, 2009).
Caraveta (2009), states that this training trend was based on improvisation, and that the coaches decided the training contents, before starting the sessions, and that on the days of physical training, marathons from 08 to 12 kilometers predominated, and the stands were used to go up and down.
Example of a traditional weekly training model- Fragmented 70s -Rio Grande do Sul.
Source: (Caraveta, 2009).
Physical Training 1 =Marathon 08 to 12 km.
Physical Training 2 = Slack + Pikes.
Physical Training 3 = Circuit training.
Physical Training 4 = Interval Training.
Technical Training 5 = Collective
Technical Training 6 = Submissions
Leitão (2009), considers that the best performance in sports requires adequate training stimuli, with a logical sequence, structured, with progressive application of loads, promoting high development of functional capacities for the specific modality.
Bompa (2010), ratifies that the appropriate and specific exercises will contribute to the high state of functionality of the organism within the modality practiced.
BLOCK TRAINING SYSTEM
Proposed by Prof. Dr. Yuri V. Verkhoshanski, through a large adaptation cycle (GCA), which comprises a complete phase of development of the organism. (PANTALEÃO; ALVARENGA, 2008).
Figure 2. CGA Training System General Model
The large adaptation cycle is divided into three blocks (steps) following a logic: Block A or Special Physical Preparation (Pfe) is the specific period of preparation for the development of functional capabilities. Block B or technical-tactical preparation, has as main objective the assimilation of physical and motor skills, preparing for the competition. Block C or stage of the competitions predicts the apex of the capacities at the maximum of their intensity and technical, physical and tactical development, being ready for the competition. (PANTALEÃO; ALVARENGA, 2008).
LATIN AMERICAN TENDENCY
The third trend, is arose in Latin American countries, seeks the integration of physical and technical capabilities, but no actions are yet identified that can be part of the idea of gambling collectively. This trend is known as integrated training because it can train with the ball contemplating the physical dimension, but still far from the tactical context of what is intended. (LEITÃO, 2009).
With the emergence of a new training trend, we have already noticed a great advance in training methods, which begin to be directed to the specificity of each modality, and in this case football, both the technical, physical and tactical gesture, are worked in an integrated way, that is, the training with ball becomes part of the training routine , but not in order to contemplate the game model, and all motor capacities should be worked from the preparatory period, in a specific way, contrary to what the previous models advocated. (LEITÃO, 2009)
The process of organization and planning underwent profound changes between the periods of the 1970s and 1980s, leading to new concepts, where the athlete comes to be seen as a whole, and not in parts, thus requiring a multidisciplinary team, in order to support other areas such as nutrition, physiotherapy, psychology, with content and well-defined objectives. (GOMES; SOUZA, 2008).
SELECTIVE LOAD MODEL
Antônio Carlos Gomes understood that the periodization for the training process needed to be more specific to football, which presents a large number of games, around 70/80 per year. (GOMES; SOUZA, 2008)
In practice, an annual cycle of 52 weeks was established that will be divided into two stages, with a double periodization lasting 26 weeks each. (PANTALEÃO; ALVARENGA, 2008).
The structuring of the proposed training loads should be organized according to some factors such as number of weekly sessions, training volume in the season also the total hours suggested for the season. Furthermore, it is important to consider the number of hours in the week, for better distribution of periodization. (PANTALEÃO; ALVARENGA, 2008).
In this perspective, Gomes and Souza (2008), affirm that the Selective Loads model seems to be more appropriate for the soccer modality, because due to the large number of games during the season, and little time for preparation, often less than thirty days, led him to develop a load distribution model, with little volume variation during the macro cycle. In its model there is an alternation of training of motor skills every month.
During the competitive period, the work for the strength and speed capabilities, must be developed together with the special resistance, and these valences can be worked in reduced field, for technical improvement, tactical, always in high intensity, thus improving the speed. (GOMES; SOUZA, 2008).
According to Moraes et al (2016) the Selective Loads model, proposed by Antônio Carlos Gomes, seems to meet the needs of the Brazilian soccer calendar, which has a large number of games, between 75 and 85 annual games, and this model proposes an annual cycle of 52 weeks divided into two microcycles of 26 weeks each , characterizing a double periodization, and thus each month a physical capacity would be worked, but always with special attention to speed, being determinant for the performance increase.
Silva (2008, p.11), however, states that there may be another way to train, and integrated training is not yet specific to football.
Contrary to this analytical nature, a designated trend of “integrated training” appears in countries in Latin American countries, where physical, technical and tactical aspects are developed together. In this way, it seeks to promote a greater similarity with the requirement of the competition, giving great importance to the game its specificity. However, this conception is still abstract, since it refers to a general game from which the training process is structured.
As studies indicate, there has been a great advance, especially since the 1970s and 1980s, in the training methodologies applied to soccer, and the Latin American training trend has been the one that most closely approaches what we seek as a specificity applied to football.
Lopez (2005), in an interview with the newspaper “O Jogo”, the trained Portuguese Carvalhal when referring to the integrated and systemic model, says that in the integrated model, the ball is part of the training, but not as it should, according to the game model, already in the systemic model, the ball is part of the training already on the first day , adapting the player to the process of physical, technical and tactical training, all together and not separate.
PORTUGUESE TREND – TACTICAL PERIODIAZAÇÃO
The last trend to be analyzed, coming from Portugal, created by Professor Vitor Frade in the 90’s and applied by established coaches such as José Mourinho, and Pepe Guardiola, besides being adopted as a guiding model of the European training process became known as Tactical Periodization. (SILVA, 2008).
Silva (2008), states that the Tactical Periodization, has as main component, the operationalization of the training process, through the modeling associated with the game model, according to the principles of play, which must be worked according to the idea of the coach’s game.
It is perceived the evolution regarding the advance of training trends developed in various parts of the world, evidence, and signal with a new way of training, finally directed to the Game Model and its principles that must be operationalized, directing to the true specific training for the soccer modality.
Silva (2008), also states that the Tactical Periodization regulates the entire training process, which in this model develop the physical, technical and psychological variables also, and the training process has as a great objective the acquisition of game concepts, based on the principles of play, being therefore a specific training for what is desired for the team.
It seems to be tactical periodization, the training methodology that will break with other ways of training and designing a way of playing that is operationalized from systematic training, producing patterns of individual, sectoral, intersectoral and collective behaviors.
Tactical Periodization conceives training as a teaching process, based on the concepts and principles of this way of training, definitively breaking with the conventional model of training, all based on concepts advocated by science. (PIVETI, 2012).
Figure 4. Standard morphocycle developed by Mourinho.
According to Pivetti (2012), the pattern of behavior that is expected to emerge, should be based on the principles of play, in several dimensions revealing an intentionality from patterns of behaviors, which will serve as the identity of the team being revealed at each moment of the game.
To get to the expected game model, it is necessary to carefully select the exercises, thus making emerge the principles of play that are practiced during training, revealing a pattern of collective behavior that is intended. (FERREIRA, 2010).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1.894 – Officially, the entry of football was established, according to the rules of the Associative Football, as an integral element of the body culture of movement in Brazil, when Charles William Miller (1874-1953), Brazilian of English descent, returns from his studies in England that same year, and brings with him a soccer ball and some uniforms for the practice of the game, becoming the great supporter of football in the capital of São Paulo (OLIVEIRA; COLPAS 2014).
So on returning to São Paulo, he brought two Shoot-branded footballs, made in Liverpool, an air pump, two uniforms to play, as well as a thick book that contained the rules of football of the time. Miller, then as a missionary, begins to spread the sport to the English who lived in São Paulo. According to the literature, Miller was skilled, and mastered all the rules, even acting as an umpire in some matches. He died in 1953, in the same place he was born (VOSER, GUIMARAES, RIBEIRO, 2006).
According to Leitão, (2009), it was from the 1950s that the preparation among soccer professionals began to change, coming to the conclusion that the way they trained, were not enough for adaptive responses to football.
From the 20th century on, the periodization of sports training has undergone transformations in various sports. However, we can mention three steps that occurred in the history of sports planning models:
From its origin until 1950, when the systematization of training began, after 1950 until 1970, questions began to arise about the classic models of periodization and with this new proposals arise, and from 1970 to the present day, in which there is a great evolution of knowledge. (GOMES, 2009).
However, the watershed in the training process originates in Portugal, with the tactical Periodization, created by Professor Vitor Frade in the 1990s and applied by established coaches such as José Mourinho and Pepe Guardiola, in addition to being adopted as a guiding model of the European training process became known as Tactical Periodization. (SILVA, 2008).
The so-called Tactical Periodization, is a conception of training and competition for football that has been advocated by Vitor Frade. In this training model the preparation process should focus on the operationalization of a game, through the continuous creation of a Game Model, and its principles of play. (SILVA, 2008).
Based on evidence, we verified different ways of conceiving the training process throughout history, being the methodologies known as tactical periodization that most meets theoretical assumptions to conceive the training, being the preferred form of training by coach José Mourinho.
Oliveira, Ferreira, (2010) affirm that training in specificity, is to design exercises that allow to exacerbate the principles of play, according to the game model.
A literature review was carried out, in which several literary works were researched. The research was carried out only in Portuguese, in databases such as Scielo, Google academics, and periodicals, as well as specialized books related to the theme football. The survey was conducted between March and August 2019.
Based on the literature, we found several findings inflaming that it was actually Charles Miller who brought to Brazil the knowledge and dissemination of football in Brazil.
Being officially defined in 1894 the arrival of football in Brazil, becoming an integral element of the body culture of movement in Brazil.
Charles William Miller, a Brazilian of English descent, returned from England after completing his studies, bringing with him a football, uniforms and a rule book.
Therefore, after robust evidence regarding the emergence of football in Brazil, in which it was through Charles Miller upon returning from England, we verified throughout history a great advance in the methodologies of physical, technical and tactical training, being the tactical periodization, which seems to meet more specifically the needs of football.
Tactical Periodization seems to transcend the reductionist fragmentation of Conventional theory and overcome the abstract holism of Integrated Training to highlight a new way of seeing the game.
Based on evidence, scientific contributions throughout history to the advancement of training methodologies, each in its own time, are undeniable, especially by the Russian scientist, Dr°- Professor Emeritus Leve Pavlovtchi Matveev. At no time did we intend to determine the best way to train, as methods show us paths that we should follow, always based on theoretical bases so that we can reduce the margin of errors.
Finally, we understand that the training process is a continuous and unfinished act, susceptible to errors and successes, which makes us restless, so we continue applying our work methodologies, based on studies that will contribute significantly to our growth.
We suggest new studies in the area of football, in order to continue the fascinating universe of football and tactical periodization as a training methodology, definitively breaking with the training processes little specific to the collective modality that is football.
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 Post Graduated in Physical Education School; Post graduated in Sports Training and Personal Trainer; Full Degree.
Submitted: August, 2020.
Approved: September, 2020.