The apples and the Intertextuality in the speech in the life of Steve Jobs: A sense of the communication

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Cross, Joseph Anderson Santos [1]

Cross, Joseph Anderson Santos. The apples and the Intertextuality in the speech in the life of Steve Jobs: a meaning in communication. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1. Vol. 9. pp. 178-194, October/November 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959

SUMMARY

With the aim of showing the direction of Steve Jobs in his life and in the world, uses Intertextuality, discourse analysis, signs, significant and meaning to the text. The main character has developed its own language and all this can be considered a speech. Therefore, through the production of language and reasoning of authors, and passages in the Walt Disney stories, Isaac Newton and the Holy Word, aim to conclude if Jobs was Apple or Apple was Jobs, and understand his speech.

Keywords: Jobs; Communication; Intertextuality; Discourse analysis; Apple.

1. INTRODUCTION

The production of meaning in communication is possible from the intertextuality, adding to the reality, fiction, historical contexts, among other texts within a text to be woven by the author. Therefore, the life of Steve Jobs and the Intertextuality in its path and career reflect a tangle of situations that contextualize the sum of several sides with other moments and stories that took place in these centuries.

The objective of this research, having as main character Steve Jobs, is to present the speech of Jobs and how the tools of communication are present in their daily lives. The intertextuality and the forms of languages, show the trajectory of Steve Jobs in his life and try to answer the question that is in the air (see Figure 1).

After all, who's Jobs or Apple
Figure 1-after all, who's Jobs or Apple? S
ource author himself

The intertextuality allows the author to develop the contents of simplified form to weave the text with multiple languages or forms of visual communication and writing, so that the reader can enter in textual speech plot. To this end, conceptualising such Intertextuality contributes to reading development, making it the lightest possible.

According to C[3]abral, in literature, and even in the arts, the intertextuality is persistent.
We know that any text, be it in literature or not, comes from another, directly or indirectly. Any text that refers to matters dealt with in other texts are intertextualização example. The intertextuality is present in other areas, as in the painting, sculptures, movies, novels and written communication. In Figure 2 presents an Intertextuality between two realities and the question which is presumed to be answered at the end of this research.

Jobs-Apple
Figure 2. Jobs-AppleF
onte author himself

So, understand and understand the theories of communication is part of the understanding of texts and images. Therefore, the Interfaces of Visual Languages contribute to the realization of this textual production. With that in mind, we seek to present a differentiated look about the main character Steve Jobs, this a human being with ideals and differentiated ideas in the contemporary world, sharing and influencing mankind until the present day.

The use of languages by Jobs in its various phases shows that there were relevant situations, conative, referential emotive, metalinguística, factual and poetic. In this case I quote Cha[4]nd (2012), which says that the transmitter, to want to convey a message, has one goal: to inform, persuade, demonstrate something or feelings, in order to persuade someone to do, Act, or say something.

And in the sense of communication, Wolf (1995) contributes saying that the choice of which should be the basis to discipline is able to unify communication research, i.e. what to study and how to study it. Therefore, Search Jobs is a task that you don't judge easily and develop this link with the intertextuality can allow us to understand your vision and your speech.

2. JOBS AND HIS PARTICIPATION IN THE HISTORY OF APPLES THAT CHANGED THE WORLD AND THE KISS THAT MAKES YOU WAKE UP.

The general theory of signs, called semiology, second Pietroforte (2004, p. 7) is the emphasis no longer in the relations between the signs, but in the process meaning able to generate them. Apple, a natural object of desire and sensuality, is a sign whose meaning is to transform moments of pure pleasure and lust. Apple imagination takes us to transcend the field leading her to date more sacred and profane, leading us to commit the seven deadly sins.

However, Apple also has a symbolism of knowledge, which in the timeline of how Apple sign, presents the meaning of what to bite her, will open will open the wider horizons of knowledge. Pietroforte (2004, p. 8), using the plans of expression and context that is related to certain content of Louis Hjelmslev, Greimas, conceptualizes the domains and the face of semiotics, and the set that carries the meaning submitted by him is linked to the borders of the expression, and the demonstrations in natural languages and distinct.

The symbolism and the Apple sign reflect several meanings in the course of human history, from the creation of man, in the art of Cezani, to the tales of the Brothers Grimm and children's productions of Walt Disney. However, the Intertextuality in drafting this text produces a sense of what Jobs is somehow connected to each story and your tickets.

The Apple Bite
Figure 3. Bitten_apple_309176-the Apple Mordid
aFonte www.apple-info-guides.blogspot.com

This sign, whose reddish color on the outside and a soft yellow on the inside, hide many stories and meanings given the timeline and your walk from the creation of heaven and Earth. According to the book of Genesis, the Lord God creator when putting a look like on the ground in the garden of Eden, creates the story of Adam and Eve. They walked freely through the garden, had plenty and exuberance of nature, did not know the good and evil, the Sin did not exist and the happiness, abundance and the feeling of love was something unexplainable, being a gift from the creator.

Adam en Eva, Adriaen Van der Werff
Figure 4. Adam en Eva, Adriaen Van der Werff
Fonte www.wikimedia.org

However, along comes a Creeper and with its power of persuasion of dialectic way, using all the sensuality and gentleness in his Linguistics and phonetics, with the power of communication presents the first Apple of human existence. Eva, for being vain and show signs of strength bite the Apple and discover the knowledge of good and evil, and God sends all his anger against Adam and Eve and his generation.

The snake was the smartest animal that the Lord had done Genesis 3 (2005), and asking Eva – it is true that God sent that you don't eat any fruit? -Eva responds that only the fruit of the tree which was in the center of the garden, or eat it and even touch it. If we do that, we will die. The snake said that would not die, and that "If you eat your eyes will open and you will be like God". Eva to see Apple, admired the fruit, taken as sign of the history and meaning of the situation.

Apple, being the sign of Eden, had the meaning of forbidden fruit, untouchable, and that someone would have it, if you find out the good and evil, the nudity would not be more natural, storms and lightning from the wrath of the creator would fall upon the Earth and Adam and Eve. And look for the good and the evil is the way of knowledge terrain, evil would begin to be seen, and few would be the humans to do good with this opening of the spiritual eyes and the human mind.

And this history of mankind is present in the life of Jobs, being an integral part of its history and with a small difference in context, Jobs didn't need to snake the same took the Apple, forbidden fruit, and to bite her acquired knowledge, vision, the creation and the idea of Apple, but something was missing, even biting the Apple.

Jobs doesn't see things differently from the rest of us. He perceives things differently. Vision is not the same as perception; the perception separates the innovator of the copycat. The vision is the process by which the light photons reach the photoreceptor cells of the retina and are transmitted as neural impulses to different parts of the brain.  The perception, like Berns points out, "is a much more complex process by which the brain interprets these signals". (GALLO, 2011)

Apple
Figure 5 AppleFonte
Apple www.iplay.com.br

But, the Apple for Jobs can be viewed as the fruit not banned, because in this case, the symbolism of the Zodiac has its meaning of open horizons, creation through ideas for the technological world. Jobs saw as us, but his vision was, their perception was sharpened, because Steve understand things differently, a visionary who dropped out of school to invest in their goals, ideas reaching his mark. So Steve starts the process to create a computer and the first Mac[5].

Steve Jobs and Eva
Figure 6. Steve Jobs and Ev
aFonte: author himself

However, to get the Apple, Steve sits under the Apple tree, the most beautiful and mysterious tree, and then an Apple falls and he is facing the law of gravity developed by Newton, who just began his studies at the age of twelve, with influence in the Greek and Latin, brilliant and self-educated. And being a being who possessed knowledge beyond the common, nutria and expressed the interest in science.

Isaac Newton and the law of gravity
Figure 7. Isaac Newton and the law of Gravid
adeFonte: http://profstellerdepaula.wordpress.com

This interest he sought to understand, understanding how things work, how was this relationship, this gear, and at the time his inventions have impressed everyone. In addition to get the science, was a scholar of the Bible, religious, passed moments writing lists of sins. And with all that information, knowledge, and persistence, managed to change her simple life of farm boy to become Isaac Newton.

In fact, it's really amazing to think that in a single work, divided into three books, it is possible to find, among other things, a concept totally innovative force and a law of gravity, which, based on the discoveries of Galileo and Kepler, supplanted. Not to mention the three laws of motion, which are shown below: Law 1: Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that State by forces impressed him; Law II: the change of motion is proportional to the driving force printed, and is produced in the direction of the straight line in which that force is printed; Act III: to every action there is an opposite reaction always equal or mutual actions of two bodies on top of each other are always equal, and directed the opposing parties. (ATTI, CUCHIERATO, GUIMARÂES, 2008, p. 66)

This binding of Jobs with Newton is intrinsically linked to knowledge: the quest for information and for being self-taught, managed to capture the messages and information into knowledge, and put them into practice in the development of the first Mac. At this point of his life, Steve had already left the University and started his career in a garage, and with their long journey has built its brand Apple.

Just as Newton, Jobs sought to comprehend and understand how things worked. And from your Eagle Vision and marketing strategies using the needs that the world needed, Jobs could see beyond and above the horizon. In addition to his experiences and travels, the insights were maintained through marketing flair and technological trends. Therefore, Jobs created products that all wish and desire to the present day, and its consumers seek to have Apple products by the meaning that Steve Jobs represents in their lives.

At any given time, the creator, the maker of the Mac, is going through turbulent times affecting his professional career and the direction of Apple. And once again Jobs passes through Apple, but this is poisoned by its Board and Council. And our mind brings us the story of snow white (Figure 4), which in the course of the story takes the poisoned Apple by the old, the disguise used by the evil Queen.

Figure 8. Snow White
Figure 8. NeveFonte whi
te: www.espiritualismo.hostmatch.com.br

And due to some internal situations, such as quoted in G1 (2011),

But the success of the Mac-that would later drive the adoption of graphical environments even between IBM computers (with Windows, created by Microsoft)-not that Jobs end up fired from his own company. The internal disputes between teams that wanted to invest in the corporate market and betting only on consumers meant that John Sculley from Pepsi at the invitation of the own Jobs, convinced the Board of Directors of the company it was time to get rid of its founder. (G1, 2011)

The Board of Directors represented by images and faces the wicked witch (Figure 5) with arguments of Sculley provides the Jobs the poisoned Apple, which he bites and for certain period is away from Apple; We can say that there was a temporary death.

Snow White
Figure 8. NeveFonte whi
te: www.espiritualismo.hostmatch.com.br

And for a decade (G1, 2011), Jobs made two investments that ended up in different ways, leveraging the myth around his "midas tou[6]ch", back in the mind a story whose Kiss wakes sleeping beauty. This time that Steve kept away from Apple there was a moment that he was asleep (Figure 6), which traces a line of when sleeping beauty was in deep sleep and the Prince arrived.

Vanessa Hudgens and Zac Efron saw sleeping beauty and Prince Felipe
Figure 10. Vanessa Hudgens and Zac Efron saw sleeping beauty and Prince Felipe
Fonte: www.gente.ig.com.br

Still G1 (2011) on these investments: in the first, paid $10 million for the problematic computer graphics Division of LucasFilm, which tell the sweet story of sleeping beauty (Figure 7), Jobs gets the kiss the idea of creating the new investment, its new brand, and the company of George Lucas in charge of movie franchises like Star Wars and Indiana Jones , named Pixar, after scoring such hits as "Toy story," "a bug's life," "monsters, Inc." and "Finding Nemo", ended up being purchased by Disney for $7.4 billion in 2006. In the process, Jobs became the single largest shareholder of the company of Mickey Mouse. So Jobs has the "Midas touch", all the hands of Steve Jobs were tipped gold and money.

Vanessa Hudgens and Zac Efron saw sleeping beauty and Prince Felipe
Figure 10. Vanessa Hudgens and Zac Efron saw sleeping beauty and Prince Felipe
Fonte: www.gente.ig.com.br

The other was a seed investment not only the return of Steve Jobs to Apple, but had a direct relation with the emergence of the World Wide Web invention that spurred the growth of the internet in the world. With the NeXT, Jobs has developed powerful computers suitable for the use and development of educational programs. A terminal NeXT was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the first web server in the world, in 1991. In December 1996, Apple acquired NeXT, move that served to incorporate technologies the Group and bring Jobs back to the company. (G1, 2011)

And in this context Jobs tore through her life with the intertextuality, barriers, and even fired from his company, was not discouraged and even stopped to seek new knowledge, investments, but started another fight in his personal life, cancer. Steve smiling and always determined not hit, continued his story and maintained his legacy.

3. BETWEEN THE LINES OF SPEECH JOBS

Jobs's speech has a relevant context in the contemporary world and in the American dream. To this end it is necessary to understanding the concept of certain points of communication. The speech, the forms of languages, the fashion, the intertextuality are part of the myth Steve Jobs.

To understand the genesis of discourse analysis you need to understand the conditions that led to the emergency. Maldier (1994) describes the role of discourse analysis through the figures of Jean Dubois and Miochel Pecheux. Dubois, a Linguistics, lexicólogo involved in linguistic empreendimentosda in his time; Pecheux, a philosopher involved with discussions of Marxism, of pscicanalise, of epistemology (BENTES and MUSSALIN, p. 101, 2003)

Discourse analysis-AD becomes relevant in the communication being necessary to analyse each sentence, context, action, speech, writing and everything that involves the formation of communication. Jobs was a man inside you couldn't move your consumers, columnist with their audiences and had a strong persussão power. So, Apple is a company known and Steve Jobs a god of technology and in his way of acting.

Steve Jobs
11 figures. Steve Jobs
Fonte www.iplay.com.br

Speaking of Steve and his speach, cannot be silent on this issue was an icon to many citizens, and consumers. He had an audience that the revered for its history, for its creations and the layers surrounding your screed.

"We don't have the chance to do many things, and each one must be truly excellent. Because this is our life. Life is short, and then you die, you know? And we all choose to do with our lives. So it better be pretty good. It better be worth it. " (JOBS apud SZYMANSKI, 2011)

Jobs cited several sentences and thoughts contributing to themselves a reflection of character, of I and professional development. In his philosophical quotes, Jobs was authentic and mysterious. One may wonder – who is this man? Who thinks he is to think like that? But Steve Jobs didn't care what others thought and how it could be better, even with mistakes, I could learn from their and others. By communicating your thoughts, Jobs presented his ideals and way of seeing the world.

Possentini (2002) depicts the speech as exposition of ideas, proeferidas in public and their use may be previously written way or by improvisation. The author even says that the discourse analysis is not baeseada in layers, because everything about the character Jobs involves the analysis of his speech.

Starting from this premise of Possentini (2002), Jobs used linguistic forms, fashion, writing and verbal communication to expose their ideas and maintain its ethos of the speech. To this end, one of the points of this research is how were your presentations in public, always with jeans and a t-shirt in black color. And the symbolism of the colors black has a meaning, so you could keep your Steve was significant appearance, showing his power and intellect communication with its diverse audiences.

In addition, the speech of Job kept the quote and deployability that Maingueneau (2006) presented as formulas that may be part of different types of operation, being to set out stand-alone or to mark a position. Thus, Jobs had a strong positioning in the media, in the company, their fans and their audiences. So, your way of being irreverent, contemporary shape and with clothes that highlight.

"I was worth more than $1.000.000 when I was 23, and more than $10 million when I was 24 years old, and more than $100 million when I was 25 years old, and was not so important because I never did it for money." (JOBS apud SZYMANSKI, 2011)

Therefore, Cancline (2006), says that before mounting or positioning style, it must be understood and understand how the hemogênicas forces come getting is strategic scenarios from various areas of society and of the political scenario. And relevant visual context such as communication strategy, allied to the speech of Jobs.

Jobs in a presentation
Figure 12. Jobs in a presentation. W
ww.iplay.com.br source

In this case, the consumer buys what he sees, is the packaging, by speech, by the quote and deployability to persuade. Plus it's for a set of factors that citizens and consumers buy a product, an idea, an ideal. You could say that Steve Jobs was a product, which was part of the media, Apple, the American dream and consumers who wished to have their products.

Assuming that the visual, the appearance and the clothes is an integral part of speech, the quote and deployability and Intertextuality, The black shirts used by Jobs in his presentations provided a status of power, iron man, strong. And the hair and makeup: was striking in visual of Jobs.

Hair and makeup: is a term derived from the word visage, which means "face". The term was created in 1936 by the great French NPD Fernand Aubry (1907-1976), which said that the hair and makeup: is an art and that the visagista is a sculptor of the human face. Refers to the art of embellishing or transform the face, using cosmetics, dyes and hair cutting. (HALLAWELL, p. 15, 2003)

Showing the importance of personal clothing and having an existence of utterance, becoming the hair and makeup: like in archetype of the strategies in the construction of the myth, Steve Jobs, clothes and style become signs, leading to a relationship between meaning and meaningful. Second cross (2011):

[…] Although each intelligence consists of a language through which the human being expresses itself and forming your thoughts and ideas. From this statement, it is believed that the visual is a tool of non-verbal communication and it for the candidate is crucial to the composition of its visual and it is interacting at the same time in his speech and that through this acting credibility is earned by voters, business people, media (apud HALLAWELL cross, 2011).

Charaudeau (2008) makes it clear that we represent the communication act as a device, whose center is occupied by the subject about speaker with another partner. The vision of the author translates to Jobs was a representation of the communication and that his speech was the center that kept a relationship with its various audiences. However, the followers of the philosophy of Jobs had this relationship.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

After analysis of this text, from the research and concepts on Intertextuality, among others, during the course of Steve Jobs the presence of Intertextuality, and various forms of language in his speech. And the relevance to comprehend and understand how Jobs used communication tools in the development of your image through the speech and historical contexts.

With that, the Apple as sign, has a remarkable significance in the life of Steve, whether in the professional or personal life. He had cientifícios and empirical knowledge, using them in building their brand, being a creation of the existing sign in your life, doing part of his vision and his entrepreneurship, becoming a visionary and investor without fear and creator of your brand and image. Thus, Apple represents Jobs and Jobs represented Apple. Through this Union and Intertextuality of speeches that the company and Jobs produced, it can be said that it took the Manager to be the brand and image of the company, it is not possible to separate them.

Jobs led their inventions, their successes and insucesoss so charismatic. And using of Intertextuality, fashion and smiles, contributed to technological advancement and propagation of communication through their tablets, iPhones, Mac ´ 's among others. However, with his vision beyond ds borders and demanding with the quality of its products, its directors have managed to fire him from his own company. Found that Jobs became a danger for the company, and even then, Steve didn't let it get to him.

Soon visionary form built an empire, and this called Pixar, yielding him billion in its sale transaction with Walt Disney. So, with the success of your investment after being fired from Apple and with his speech, generated a great Communicator and a successful man. And yet, it is stated that Jobs could see things like the rest of us, but your perception and the sixth sense and human business that had was different, so it became known as the man with the "midas touch". The success of Steve Jobs is real, part of the American dream and some mortals, even leaving the University.

The man with the "midas touch", was determined, capable and with his vision and perception conducted naturally, being himself. And using in his speech, the most varied forms of languages, if created the legacy of fans of Steve Jobs. Yes, the citizens and consumers of Apple consume not only products, but also the message left for Jobs through your speech.

Jobs's speech remains alive in the minds of his followers and becomes positive and as an incentive for some. Using keywords, like his charismatic image, product presentations, interviews and the character in the composition of his speech, contributed in the construction of Steve Jobs. This character, which was simply himself.

It is considered so that Apple and Jobs were United, being impossible to separate. And with their varying shapes discourses of speech, according to the occasion, has become an efficient and effective Communicator. The use of Intertextuality and discourse analysis, produced an analysis on Steve Jobs.

REFERENCES

ATTI, Caesar. CUCHIERATO, William. GUIMARÂES, Telma. Classic Readings. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.

CABRAL, Marina. Intertextuality. Available at: http://www.brasilescola.com/redacao/intertextualidade.htm. Access in: 28 January 2015.

CANCLINI, Néstor García. Consumers and citizens. 6. Ed.  Rio de Janeiro: Ed. UFRJ, 2006

CHAND, Dílson. Portuguese tips – communication Theories. Available at: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/folha/fovest/teoria_comunicacao.shtml. Access in: 01 Feb. 2012.

CHARAUDEAU, Patrick. Language and Speech: modes of organization. São Paulo: Editora Context, 2008.

CRUZ, J.A.S. RAMAZZINI, c. Image and effect Relationship of meaning: Speech and Personal Beautification and picture Sets. Available at: http://fib.brpwebprojects.com/jornada/download/trabalhos/anais/0102011pp.pdf. Access in: 28 Jan 2015

GALLO, Carmine. Apple Bite. Available at: http://www.revistadacultura.com.br:8090/revista/rc49/index2.asp?page=artigo. Access to 30 Nov 2011.

G1. Die Steve Jobs, founder of Apple. Available at: http://g1.globo.com/tecnologia/noticia/2011/10/morre-steve-jobs-fundador-da-apple.html. Access in: 15 Jan 2015.

HALLAWELL, Philip. Hair and makeup:-Harmony and aesthetics.  São Paulo. Routledge, 2003.

MAINGUENEAU, Dominique. Analysis of media texts. São Paulo. Publisher Cortez, 2000.

PIETROFORTE, Antônio Vicente. Visual semiotics: the routes. São Paulo: context, 2004.

POSSENTINI, Syria. The limits of speech. Curitiba. Create Editions, 2002

SZYMANSKI, Thiago. 20 inspirational phrases Steve Jobs. Available at: http://www.tecmundo.com.br/steve-jobs/14052-20-frases-inspiradoras-de-steve-jobs.htm. Accessed: 26 January 2015.

WOLF, Mauro. Theories of communication. Port: Presence, 1995.

[*]  Article based on the final work with the Concept, presented as partial requirement for the completion of the course the Interfaces of Visual Languages, of the program of postgraduate studies in Media Communication, the research line "production of meaning"-2011-UNESP – Bauru/SP.

[1] Doctorate in Education. Professor of Graduate School of Bauru Anhanguera. Master in Digital television and special student of the Masters program in Media Communication-Marketing-Technology Graduate Anhanguera Bauru/SP. Degree in Public Relations-USC-Bauru/SP. Graduation in Didactics and methodology of higher education. Specialization in anthropology by USC Bauru/SP. Member of the ABRP-Brazilian Association of Public Relations of AMPRO-Association of promotional Marketing, the CRA-Regional Council of administration. INTERCOM-Member Brazilian Society of Interdisciplinary Communication Studies. Marketing and communications consultant. Consultant services and strategies in the Beauty segment.

[3] Marina Cabral Portuguese Language and literature expert.

[4] Portuguese language teacher and poet

[5] Macintosh, or Mac, is the name of the personal computers manufactured and marketed by Apple Inc. Since January 1984. The name derives from McIntosh, a type of Apple enjoyed by Jef Raskin. The Apple Macintosh was the first personal computer to popularize the GUI, at the time a revolutionary development. It is widely used for the treatment of video, image and sound.

[6] Greek mythology is rich in curious and interesting passages, one being the one that speaks of Midas, Royal personage who lived in the time of Sargon, King of Assyria (722/705 BC). He was King of Frigia, formed by vast stretches of land along the Black Sea and on the shores of the Aegean Sea, colonized about of 1300 years before Christ by a race of uncertain origin whose name disappeared from History in the year 300 of the Christian era, under the power and strength of Diocletian, then Roman Emperor in the East. Of the many legends that are told about, two are especially popular: the golden touch and the ears. The story that we came from Greek mythology has resulted in the expression applies to people that contrary to what happens with the rest of mortals, can make money with relative ease, to always be successful in all undertakings that perform. For these individuals the normal is anyone recognize the ability and competence they have, because they all, in the voice of the people, have the "Midas touch". Submitted by FERNANDO KITZINGER DANNEMANN in 4/28/2006
Changed in 3/10/2008. Available at: http://www.fernandodannemann.recantodasletras.com.br/visualizar.php?idt=146622. Access in: 28 Jan. 2012.

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