OLIVEIRA, Vinícius Cardoso de. The importance of Marketing for Micro and Small Enterprises. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 02, Vol. 02, pp. 28-40. February 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access Link:10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/marketing-en/micro-and-small-enterprises
According to (Sebrae-Brazilian Micro and Small Business Support Service), in 2018, micro and small companies accounted for 52% of employment positions, and correspond to 99% of existing companies in Brazil. However, even with this representativeness 58% of these companies manage to exceed five years of existence. It is estimated that this high percentage of mortality of organizations is related to the lack of planning and adoption to the basic principles of administration. This article aims to conduct a reflection, using the methodology of bibliographic review, on the importance of marketing for these organizations, as well as the need for entrepreneurs to adopt a strategic posture through marketing possibilities, especially in relation to Digital Marketing, thus ensuring the sustainability of the organization.
Keywords: Marketing, companies, customers.
Micro and small companies in Brazil represent 99% of organizations, and express important numbers for the Brazilian economy. According to Sebrae (2018), these companies still account for 52% of jobs, 39% of payrolls and 27% of Gross Domestic Product. However, even with this representativeness in the national scenario, the mortality rate of these organizations is one of the highest in the world, causing these companies to be rotating.
At the national level, it is estimated that of every 100 new micro and small companies open, 58% will close in the next 5 years. This index may vary according to regional development, as well as according to the management capacity of their respective entrepreneurs (SEBRAE, 2018; 2019).
According to Santos et al. (2005) and Ferreira et al. (2012) much of the failure of micro and small companies is associated with the profile of the entrepreneur, who often end up neglecting administrative processes and, consequently, the lack of strategic adoption of actions, such as marketing actions.
This time, this article is structured in such a way as to present brief elucidations capable of bringing support for reflections about marketing and its contributions to micro and small companies in Brazil.
2. THE MARKETING
Marketing that in Portuguese means marketing, was born with industrial growth and the emergence of large companies. It developed through the need for a new form of administration, bringing major transformations between the sellers market to the buyers market.
Roesch (1996, p.44) emphasizes that:
In the area of marketing, competitive analysis, market analysis or consumer behavior is concentrated, which includes a profile and analysis of consumers, defining market segments, elaborating marketing plan, where they are used by organizations, with decisions in the relations of price, product, distribution and communication, as well as sales management.
When we observe the word “Marketing” in a pragmatic way, we note that the term tends to assume a translation of its form, that is, it is possible to consider that Marketing consists of a marketing study, which is a tool for the administrative environment in which it allows an observation of trends and creation of new opportunities for consumption, providing customer satisfaction and meeting the financial and marketing expectations of companies providing services or production.
Marketing can also be defined as a planning and execution process, which develops from its design, budgeting, promotion and distribution of product and service ideas to create satisfactory exchanges on individual and organizational objectives. (COBRA, 2010). It is an activity carried out in the medium and long term with the sole objective of ensuring customer loyalty, applying advanced market knowledge and opinion polling, as well as a direct survey with the public, intuiting to establish a direct contact with their needs.
Generally, marketing is perceived as a task to create, to promote, in addition to providing goods and services to customers, whether individuals and legal entities. Marketers tend to engage in goods, services, organizations, information, experiences, events, places, people, properties, and ideas (KOTLER, 2000, p. 25).
It seeks to maximize consumer satisfaction, choices and quality of life. This is a very wide area of activity, where it involves a series of activities such as the process of creation, planning and development of products or services, in order to meet the needs of the consumer at the time of purchase.
For Kotler (2006, p.4)
It can be considered that there will be a need to sell. But Marketing has the goal of making more superfluous the efforts of selling the product. The purpose of Marketing is to know and understand your customer, to the point that the product or service is more appropriate and start selling alone. Thus, Marketing should result in a customer willing to buy, where they must make a product and service available.
Through marketing it is possible to meet all consumption needs, not limited only to consumable goods, but promoting ideas and directing programs, giving rise to the process of developing the competitive market.
Currently, this is an area that values the construction of a satisfactory long-term relationship between company and client, causing both parties to benefit from the partnership. It is not just about the propagation of the value of the product to its users, or effectiveness in marketing. It is also the commitment to the constant search for improvements to the quality of life of consumers. (COBRA, 1992).
We can consider Marketing a dual route, which connects organization and market. The market can understand what are the problems of the target audience through the information collected through research conducted. The organization provides the market with products and services, which are directed to the desires and needs of its consumers, resulting in financial resources and satisfied customers.
The concept has been introduced that says that all companies should be oriented to serve their customers and the market itself. Many companies sell products and services in wide variety through direct and indirect channels. Mass advertisements are no longer so efficient. Today, organizations explore new ways to relate, such as entertainment through social media marketing. Consumers are increasingly expressing themselves, informing companies about which products and services they like, how they want to purchase them, and when they want it. (KOTLER and KELLER, 2012).
Marketing tends to become a social and manageable process through the creation, propagation of values and possibilities of exchange, causing social groups to obtain what they need and want, it is formed, then, a positive image of this process. (KOTLER, 1996). Through marketing it is possible to understand the greatest needs of companies, promoting them solutions, through products and ideas. Everything is thought and implemented based on what that body needs at the moment, that is, through a strategy, positive short- and long-term measures are implemented.
For Campomar and Ikeda (2006), product, promotion, square/point of sale, and price, are four controllable variables of marketing, these being known by the four Marketing P’s, or the by marketing mix. These variables tend to be considered as controllable where each can be modified or adapted by management decisions. The marketing compound is a set of actions in a company, with the purpose of influencing all demand of your product. Through the balance between these pillars, it becomes possible the success of the brand.
3. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN SMALL AND MICRO – COMPANIES
The importance of having marketing strategies in small companies, makes them come to adapt and continuously improve their work process, firmly maintaining their brand in the market, assembling solid strategies, forming excellent and competent professionals, motivators and aware of the success of the company.
Little is known about the effects of marketing techniques that are applied in SMEs, even though they are present in the literature, where the results of an informal application of marketing strategies in SMEs are still little studied and mainly due to the difficulties of access to companies (SOLÉ, 2013).
Marketing within small and micro enterprises should carry out a process of planning and executing the established plans of the price, promotion and distribution of ideas, products and services offered, with a delivery of satisfaction to customers individually. Marketing strategies aim to achieve the objectives of the small company, considering the active environment and the impact of these relationships in the face of well-being in society.
Despite its great importance, small businesses still walk in slow steps, in the sense of knowing, analyzing and proposing alternatives for the marketing segment. Supposedly, some of the reasons for the lack of investment in this area is the economic and social importance of small companies and the difficulties in changing the focus of their sales, being responsible for the high number of closing of the same (SANTOS; ALVES, ALMEIDA, 2005, p. 60).
Faced with the fierce competition that micro and small companies go through, considering the service as a very important link of the current of relationship with the customer, it is perceived that their success is directly linked to marketing, however, it is necessary a deep knowledge on the subject to manage and coordinate a decision making, thus making the consumer trust the offer of the product offered , being faithful and avoiding their loss.
Through analysis it is possible to verify the degree of consumer satisfaction in relation to a product and the reasons for preference by competitors, starting to identify in this way, the market potential of products or services, if they are being practiced optimally in relation to sales (COBRA, 2000, p.43).
Conquering the customer in a competitive market like the current one, needs a greater deepening, with research on the behavior, expectations and needs of the consumer, so the marketing strategies in a company, can lead small businesses to remain in the globalized market.
Marketing in small and micro enterprises (SMEs) tends to be informal and simple and this occurs directly in the size of companies, due to their informality and the strong influence of entrepreneurs in their decisions (JONES; ROWLEY, 2011).
The marketing strategies in small companies, encompass the activities that are related to the relationships of the exchange, being oriented in satisfying the desires, as well as the needs of their consumers, and thus, makes them loyal, thus making these companies achieve a place in the competitive market.
The marketing implemented by the SMEs, becomes different from what is used by large companies, being the traditional marketing, where it is a managerial exercise that is learned during their experiences in daily life (SOLÉ, 2013).
To be tuned the strategies that Marketing offers to small and micro enterpriseis to recognize that it cannot evolve in the market, without at least one sector being attracted by the plans it offers, so marketing is present in the success of companies of all sizes.
Marketing in small businesses also tends to be a social process, where through the creation, offers and exchanges of the most valuable products, with other individuals and groups, obtaining what they need or want, thus making both the company and the consumer benefit.
Sales are focused on the needs of sellers and marketing is focused on the needs of buyers. Selling itself, it is concerned about the need for the seller to convert his product into the form of money, while marketing meets the needs of a customer in the middle of products and all the things in which they are associated in their creation and delivery to the final consumption (KOTLER and KELLER, 2012, p.14).
The most important task of the small company, for marketing is to determine the needs and desires of its consumers, seeking to adapt, using in various ways to provide the satisfaction of these desires, since in this contact there is an exchange between company and consumer.
4. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN SMALL BUSINESSES
To win customers, in addition to increasing the number of sales in an establishment, it is essential that small companies draw objectives, which become fundamental to its success and for this, there are several ways to attract this audience, where one must seek to contemplate all the accesses of dissemination.
The concept of relationship marketing is that companies are for the market, about the new dynamic positioning, customer dialogue and qualitative research (BOGMANN, 2000).
Every day, competition tends to be increasingly fierce, causing small businesses to lose customers to large companies, but the ideal is that strategies to disseminate their products and services are developed, allowing the consumer to always be involved in the quality of the offer, so it is possible to have direct contact with it , using methods in which they become beneficial to both the company and the customer.
Kotler (2000) points out that relationship marketing tends to represent an important paradigm shift, because it is the evolution of a conflicting competitive mentality in an approach in which it is guided by a co-operational interdependence.
As marketing advances through the 21st century, a significant change has also been happening in the way companies interact with consumers. The relationship of marketing for small businesses is very viable and can bring great opportunities to the business, so it is up to the entrepreneur to know the possibilities and his client, so that he chooses the strategies appropriate to the profile of his consumer.
The traditional view of marketing as a simple process of exchange, or transaction-oriented marketing, has been replaced by a differentiated, longer-term approach that emphasizes building relationships with one consumer at a time (BOONE and KURTZ, 2009).
Relationship marketing, provide this direct contact with the customer, either through the use of technology or direct contact, where it uses strategies that awaken in it, the willingness to disclose the brand of the establishment, the quality of the products and the service provided in a personalized way, in this way, small companies start to gain their space in the market.
Rational marketing strategies focused on attracting consumers and closing deals. Today’s marketers realize that while it is important to attract new consumers, it is even more important to establish and maintain relationships with them so that they become loyal consumers (BOONE and KURTZ, 2009, p. 28).
As the authors mention, marketing was intended to attract customers and promote the sale of their products and services to companies, over time, marketing was being improved and also began to maintain a relationship with that customer, in order to keep them loyal and at the same time attract new customers.
This concept has to expand to include suppliers and employees as well. In the long run, this relationship can be translated into value for the customer (BOONE and KURTZ, 2009).
Relationship Marketing can be defined as a strategy, in which it has the objective of creating and maintaining a closer relationship between customers and the company, using methods capable of strengthening the forms of service.
In addition, relationship marketing becomes essential for the development of market leaders, in addition to the rapid acceptance of new products and services, the achievement of consumer loyalty to brands or companies (BOGMANN, 2000).
One of the advantages of Relationship Marketing is the fact that this strategy, make customers brand advocates, thus bringing new customers, through Mouth to mouth Marketing that is generated.
Relationship marketing presupposes an interactivity, connectivity and creativity, making the customer can really be a part of the company’s strategies in the planning of products and services in a process in a dynamic and continuous way (BRAIDO, 2005, p. 99 and 100).
Relationship Marketing tends to involve all actions performed in small businesses in order to keep their audience loyal, in a constant relationship, in order to gain loyalty. Thus, to achieve the objectives outlined by the company, it is necessary a series of actions, in order to delight the customer, through innovations, whether in personalized service, price or product.
According to Gordon (2001, p.31):
Relationship marketing becomes a continuous process of identifying and creating new values with individual customers and sharing their benefits in their ongoing partnership. This involves an understanding, concentration and administration of collaboration between suppliers and customers in which they are selected for the creation and sharing of mutual values, through interdependence and organizational alignment.
Relationship marketing becomes a set of strategies, which are previously thought out for the involvement, mainly, of the construction of an identity and dissemination of the brand. So, based on these actions, small companies seek as their goal to prospect about customer loyalty and thus establish themselves in the face of competition.
Relationship marketing means meeting each customer individually. This relationship is the strategy that allows the relationship with customers individually, knowing their preferences, customs, consumption habits and behavior. Its main function is to promote information that supports management sands and teams to achieve their goals (LAS CASAS, 2000).
This work sought to emphasize the importance of marketing for the success of small companies, where customer service is a fundamental strategy, providing reflections around the subject and promoting knowledge about the quality of products and services, keeping customers loyal, without the possibility of losing them, thus achieving the permanence in the market before its competitors.
It is very important that small and micro enterprises that want to grow in the market, build a strong brand and work their positioning, recounting a visual identity, thus allowing their customers and consumers to easily recognize the contents and images that symbolize their company.
Small companies are increasingly looking for strategies that can favor their growth in the market, investing and maintaining the commitment to please their client, whether with innovative products, prices, or services provided, because working marketing in the present day is fundamental for the customer to be more attracted to the company.
It is necessary, before using marketing strategies in favor of the growth of the small company, to know your client, because he is responsible for sales results, in addition to promoting a positive image and word of mouth dissemination, this being one of the tools that has the most importance to promote a brand.
To develop a good marketing plan for small businesses, it is important to know what the expectations and demands of their customers, what is expected with the product or service and the characteristics valued by them. In this way, it is essential to define the best forms of strategies for an approach, which ensures a relevant message and in an appropriate way, maintaining a good relationship with them through their brand.
It is essential that small companies and their customers have good relationships, focusing on quality care, thus avoiding dissatisfaction, being able to identify what their needs are and maintaining a lasting relationship.
Therefore, marketing strategies in small companies are essential for them to be able to provide their customers with a positive image, whether in service or in commitment through their products. However, it is necessary to know your client and know exactly how to advertise, their approach, in short, the best way to meet their needs and stay strong in the market.
The realization of this research confirms the numerous theories that marketing brings to the small company, being it, the main differential in attracting customers, since through good strategies is that it is possible to achieve all the objectives outlined, in addition to maintaining the prospects and competition in the competitive market.
When it comes to marketing, it is also perceived that digital marketing can be seen as a great differential for micro and small companies, because within the virtual environment they can equate their competitive potential with that of large organizations.
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 Postgraduate in Public Communication – Faculdade Venda Nova do Imigrante. Postgraduate in MBA in Executive Marketing – Faculdade Venda Nova do Imigrante. Postgraduate in MBA in Team Management and Leadership – Faculdade Venda Nova do Imigrante.
 Theologian. PhD in Clinical Psychoanalysis. Researcher at the Center for Research and Advanced Studies, São Paulo, SP.
Submitted: August, 2019.
Approved: February, 2020.