Contextualizing the playful in the classroom: the importance of playing in early childhood education between 03-05 years

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NASCIMENTO, Josefa de Barros Barbosa do [1], SILVA, Miriam Maria da [2], MARONES, Bruno [3]

NASCIMENTO, Josefa de Barros Barbosa do. SILVA, Miriam Maria da. MARONES, Bruno. Contextualizing the playful in the classroom: the importance of playing in early childhood education between 03-05 years. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 06, Ed. 10, Vol. 01, pp. 72-95. October 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/educacao/contextualizando-o-ludico, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/educacao/contextualizing-o-ludico

Summary

This study aimed to investigate the importance of play and toy in the teaching process learning, analyzing the conceptions that educators have about the playful in the face of the education of children. The research field was in a Municipal School of Jaboatão, and had as participants three teachers. Where we use a qualitative research, in which we prove that games and toys provide development in all aspects. The results indicated that ludicity contributes positively in the formation of the child, in the construction of new knowledge and in the healthy growth, that this practice when inserted in the classroom can promote transformations in behaviors, carrying moments of affection over time, so those who play learn to build the culture of solidarity, leaving individualism and allowing healthy coexistence.

Keywords: The toy, the play, Teaching learning child development.

INTRODUCTION         

In the current work, the issue of play is addressed as a source of development and, the construction of knowledge in early childhood. It is known that the child is a being in formation and it is necessary to receive stimulus throughout early childhood education, because it is a time when the subject learns values about morality, respect and above all grow as a human being. This was one of the reasons that awakened us to deepen the study the light of playful action in the formation of the individual, its discoveries and the way of acting in society -RCNEI, (1998).

This study has as general objective to investigate the importance of playing as a fundamental tool in the learning of early childhood education students, so the specific objectives are: historicize early childhood education in Brazil, investigate the concept of ludicity and also analyze the contribution of playful activities in early childhood education.

The theorists presented in this study, Antunes (2012), Kishimoto (2006, 2011) G.Brougére (2010), Linn, Susan (2010) and other scholars reveal that toys and games provide moments of great joy, besides being a social fact that enables learning in a delicious and healthy way to children, being through play that one can know different paths, for coexistence in society and the construction of new knowledge and, it will certainly be joking that resilient subjects are educated.

The ludicity in early childhood education enables meaningful, creative and inventive learning, since it is conducive to the exchange of knowledge in a pleasurable way in which the child can understand the rules during games and, certainly, are activities that promote skills, physical, cognitive, motor, besides contributing to acceptance and respect for norms, contributing in social life, in affection, creativity and in the relationship with oneanother, gradually providing the formation of participatory, reflective, active, cooperative beings, occupying their place in society, besides favoring freedom, autonomy, knowing only that they are playing. Games are important because they drive learning processes, developing imagination and invention, intensifying and allowing development, promoting growth through play, assisting in the learning teaching process.

Toys and games are paramount in children's lives, because those who play develop and grow with more freedom, then building a branched world of possibilities, side by side with the playful. Wallon (apud BROUGÉRE, 2010, p.104), argues that.

Play is all child discovery behaviors. But adults play with children. The child progressively enters into the play of the adult of whom she is initially the toy, engages in activities that have a strong cultural content.

It is discussed that the child at first serves as a toy for the adult, in which he plays with it giving rise to a playful action and, with this attitude the game is being built and, the child gradually learns to play, entering the game and, therefore, their behaviors and discoveries are originating in the whole of this culture and, learning occurs precisely when understanding and mastering and, after the child plays interacts, communicates with the other and then reproduces the previous experience, transporting motor, sociocognitive – emotional and affective development.

It is known that toys are part of the child's daily life and, since once contributing to the development of humanity, which over time have gained colors, shapes and textures, a manipulated object that the children love to interact with, certainly in play that feeds children's intelligence and, probably their perspectives, giving opportunities for new relationships and interaction in the environment that surrounds it. In addition, games are very important tools to be offered to the subject from an early age and especially in early childhood education. (BROUGÉRE, 2020).

The playful culture cannot be forgotten, it must be inserted in the school space, and come full of meaning, as well as represented by play. It is necessary that the professional who works with younger children has in mind how relevant playing is, in the teaching process learning, understanding and understanding, that the exchange of knowledge based on play, motivates and encourages the child, to learn and develop playing, that the ludicity will not be just a joke, but it permeates play. The playful role favors fun, joy and pleasure, the toy is the mediation of any learning that satisfies the subject in its growth, feeding its universe and contemplating the learning process, allowing gradually the construction of criticality. (KISHIMOTO, 2011).

Based on the National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Education, when it says that "play favors children's self-esteem, helping them to progressively overcome their acquisitions in a creative way".

The teacher of this age group should realize that play is essential in the child's development in all aspects and not just work it in the classroom. Therefore, we have listed the following question: What is the Importance of Playing in Early Childhood Education?

It is known that children like to play, so the teacher must resort to his creativity, developing playful activities, because it is in play that the child learns to live in a group jointly, strengthening bonds of friendship and expanding his knowledge of the world. And probably building a path of trust with each other, taking the experiences lived over time.

Playing is a path that does not choose age group, on the contrary children are interacting in the midst of so much play and toys, analyze with this that playing is childish language that makes ideas emerge with children and like this, they learn to play, since this phenomenon in the hand of a child is never something finished, usually gives rise to a new activity, or even to another toy, it is perceived that playful culture is the focus of union between the children's universe and enabling the strengthening of friendships, the construction of values, experiences, harmonious coexistence and affection for the other person.

Toys and games are of great value in people's lives and especially for younger children, because those who develop play grow and learn joyfully.

It is verified that play proposes new possibilities to the subject, who seeks to participate and interact with the environment in which he is part, play is a culture that had emerged side by side with the evolution of society and certainly continues to advance today.

Incorporated in this context is believed that, based on the theme, The Importance of Playing in Early Childhood Education between 03-05 years? As well as, in the knowledge of current literature and in bibliographic and field research, making clear how much play is beneficial to the learning teaching process.

The contribution of games is childish language and so are actions of experience, communication, of fun moments, in which the subject, recreates, reinvents, builds, discovers, learns, dreams, raising, motivating and sharpening the curiosity of the child, enabling other understandings such as: group activity, social interaction, besides providing development in all aspects.

Thus, it is expected that the current research can contribute to a better understanding of the importance of toys and games in the learning process and especially of early childhood education. May this work also serve as a support tool for future graduates who decide to investigate this theme.

METHODOLOGICAL PATH

The organization of strategies is understood by methodology with the objective of guiding the study in the most diverse stages. According to Andrade (2010, p.116), "Methodology is the set of methods or paths that are traversed in the search for knowledge". We decided to choose by this approach, by arousing the interest of knowing attentively and carefully, the arguments of various theorists and researchers presented throughout our formation as: Kishimoto, (2006 and 2011) G. Bruogére, (2010), Antunes, (1012), Linn, Susan, (1010), and others, who presented us with valuable knowledge about the importance of ludicity in the teaching process. The approach is qualitative, it is characterized by being an investigative activity, flexible, considering subjectivity, where the subjects cannot be quantified. (TRIVINÕS, 1987).

This approach aims to investigate the relevance of play and toy in early childhood education.

The database was through the field approach, according to Andrade (2010, p.112). "Field research is based on observing the facts by collecting data on-site." And the selection of the bibliography on the subject, which will provide the necessary data for the realization of the article. Bibliographic research refers to the paper source whether it is primary or secondary where andrade books and other documents (2010) are used. Having in hand the works that may be useful and the data collection that had been carried out in a municipal school of Jaboatão, it welcomes a small audience of students, early childhood education and elementary school I.It has six classrooms that run in two shifts, morning and afternoon. We decided to conduct our research in this school because we know the institution and because it is close to our residence.

The instrument used in the current approach was a semi-structured interview that we used paper and graphite to transcribe what was said, because the interview was simply annotated just like the words of the interviewees. According to Andrade (2010), interview "Constitutes an effective tool for collecting reliable data for the preparation of a research, provided that it is well elaborated, well carried out and interpreted". This type of approach requires certain care, for this the interviewer must organize the material needed for data collection. The work had been carried out with teachers working in the municipal network of early childhood education in Jaboatão, all graduated in pedagogy working in the area for more than ten years, aged between 35 and 40 years and had as techniques the observation and analysis of the data that were interpreted from the questions we asked the participants, three teachers, named after them working in the early childhood education network of Jaboatão.

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN BRAZIL  

Law No. 9394/96 in its art. 29, Law of Guidelines and Basis of National Education.

Early childhood education is understood as the first stage of basic education and aims at the integral development of children from zero to five years of age in their physical, affective intellectual, linguistic and social aspects, complemented by the action of the family and the community.

It is known that the motivation that the child receives first from the family is important for its development during this stage is crucial for the integral formation of the subject, and must respect the characteristics of the age group and also the abilities, cognitive, physical, affective and social, seeing childhood as a historical being in development capable of developing through the stimuli received from the environment that surrounds it.

However, it is known that it was not always so, that early childhood education occurred, according to the studies of the researchers, Pinheiro et al, (2014, p.73).

At the beginning of the last century, in Brazil what we had were the so-called "day care centers" that aimed to serve the children of mothers who worked outside the home and the care basically involved food, hygiene and physical safety thus having a purely careable character only.

It reflects a feeling that at the beginning of the 20th century the child received only elementary care for his survival, being limited only to an education that did not aim at the transformation of social reality. Kishimoto (2011, p.21) asserts that

Each culture has ways of seeing the child to treat educate. Among the old conceptions, the child, seen as a miniature man, reveals a negative view: the child is an unfinished being, with nothing specific and original with no positive value.

It is perceived that the child was not seen as such, but as a small adult, being unable to think living in a non-childish world. But this vision of childhood that suffocated, minimal retracted, that received purely moral education, through religious educators creating irrational beings impossible to develop the critical spirit. This reality begins to change over time.

The Federal Constitution of 1988, early childhood education came to be understood as necessary and right of all, from that moment the child begins to be included in an educational policy followed by a pedagogy for transformation.

Since the Federal Constitution of 1988, the Statute of the Child and Adolescent of 1990 (ECA) and the LDB Law of Guidelines and Basis of National Education, early childhood education covers children from zero to five years, who see this stage as primordial for the development of childhood. Bachilard (apud KISHIMOTO, 2011, p.22), "considers the images that survive from childhood as the results of two elements: memory and imagination". It is understood that remembrance and idealization are populated in playful culture feeding fertile thought. The child in this perspective is a being in full development, with its perceptions, characteristics, interests, senses, creativity and building its world view.

The child before the laws presented above is seen as a historical, social being and, in full development, through this perspective society is more sensitized to the importance of early childhood coexistence, promoting an education for citizenship, aiming to make each subject an agent of transformation. According to Kishimoto (2011, p.22). "Childhood is also the age of the possible. The hope of change of social transformation and moral renewal can be projected on to it." The child is seen as a symbol of transformation and the light of renewal in Kishimoto.Thus, in order to educate people with a democratic spirit and to contribute to the good of society, it is also necessary to reflect deeply on the history of each subject, defined by Pinheiro et al. (2014, p.105). "Educating for citizenship is adopting a posture and making choices. It is awakening to the consciences of rights and duties." It is analyzed about the cited thought that is educated so that the other meets justice, respect and more relevant duties, it is necessary to cultivate education for the exercise of citizenship, because it is understood that citizenship will only be built if it is educated in citizenship.

PLAY AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT

It is verified, in view of the discourses that toys and games arose with the intention of assisting man in the interaction with the environment and, in his development, the child who plays when he is little is happier and learns to gradually perceive the value of objects (toys), Vygotsky (apud KISHIMOTO, 2011), in his researches asserts that.

Just kidding is that the child will begin to perceeber the object not the way it is, but as he wish it was. In formal learning this is not possible,but in the toy this happens, because it is where objects lose their detaining strength,The child does not see the object, but gives it a new meaning. (p.68).

It is perceived in an axiomatic way that the objects when i fell into the hand of a child are worth and mean something else, because it give another meaning and, that same comes to life and even another denomination, where the gestures speak while the child plays and imagines, symbolizing each toy, when it has a different material in its power its imaginary bubbles always seeking something different from what it craves it to be. Playful activities can allow the construction of new knowledge and changes, because it creates real situations in the thinking of those who play, besides, therefore, the formation of values, so toys and games are learning venues. According to the National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Education (1998).

In the act of playing, the signs, gestures, objects and spaces are worth and mean something else of what they appear to be. By adopting other roles in play, children act in a non-literal way, transferring and replacing their daily actions with the actions and characteristics of the assumed role, using substitute objects. (p.27).

It is analyzed that, at the time of games and toys are actions that uncover something different, because it is playing that the child travels in the world of imagination and discovery, allowing them to represent the roles they chose to play by making a trip back in time and building values, which only games and games can offer him. Just like Piaget says:

The playful cultures are closely linked to the sequence of stages divided by him and accompanies the development of the intelligence of the individual the toy is a world full of representations, which represents affection and imitation, (2011, p.25).

It is known that the advances are identified by what the subject does best, because at each stage it gradually develops and, of course, the games and games provide the growth together.

Still reflected on the above thinking, the games bring in their nature an analytical potential, stimulates the student's learning with a focus here on early childhood education, are tools that can be addressed with various topics such as colors, animals, fruits and other contents. That's why playing is necessary and the subject learns from an early age the values of each object and that the cool thing is to play in a harmony of solidarity with the other. According to the National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Education (1998).

The establishment of a climate of safety, trust, affection, encouragement, praise and limits placed in a sincere, clear and affective way give a tone of quality of the Interaction between adults and children. The teacher, aware that the bond is, for the child, a continuous source of meanings, recognizes and values the interpersonal relationship. (p. 49).

It is verified that the playful activities arouse several knowledge in the child, because they observe, participate in games and, this is the pack by which the little ones acquire and improve their cognitive abilities, socializing and interacting with the environment that surrounds them, also perceiving the sincerity and quality of interaction between the authors, adult and child is a positive point for child development. According to Piaget (apud ALMEIDA, 1974).

The games become more significant as the child develops, because from the free manifestation of varied materials, he begins to rebuild objects and reinvent things, which already requires a more complete "adaptation". This adaptation, which must be performed by childhood consists of a progressive synthesis of assimilation with accommodation. That is why by the internal evolution itself, children's games (games) are gradually transformed into adapted constructions, requiring ever more of the effective work, to the point that in the elementary classes of an active school, all spontaneous transformations occur between play and work. (p.25).

It turns out that the child who has resources that probably help to explore their creativity through the game and games both social and cognitive, will be an adult without difficulties to find his way and, even better, will enjoy doing his work with taste and dedication. With toys children internalize values, relating harmoniously, both with the people around them as well as with the objects and naturally with the environment. For Kishimoto (2011).

The use of the educational toy/game for pedagogical purposes reminds us of the relevance of this instrument for situations of teaching learning and child development. If we consider that the preschool child learns intuitively, acquires spontaneous senses, in interactive processes, involving the whole human being with their cognitions, affectivity, body and social interactions, the toy plays a role of great relevance to develop it. By allowing intentional action (affectivity), the construction of mental representations (cognition), the manipulation of objects and performance of motor (physical) and exchanges in interactions (social), the game contemplates various forms of representation of the child or its multiple intelligences, contributing to learning and child development. (p.40-41).

The educational toy is understood as the one that contributed to healthy development and, games are manifestations before the object, (toy) play is, therefore, something that relates side by side with the toy, where the child plays interacts with life and meaning to each piece, and the games are related to what develops in the act of playing, "make it work", the wheel jokes, the music and among others. Toys, games or educational games are delight activities, chosen of their own free will, or even when it assumes the educational function, the cool thing is that they are great tools for the teaching process learning, especially with early childhood education. Almeida (2003, p. 33) dialogues that: "the content of the toy does not determine the child's play, but the act of playing that reveals the content of the toy". It is verified that it is in play that the subject makes the discoveries, developing the skills, physical, cognitive and others. Endorsed by Aries (apud KISHIMOTO, 1978).

It identifies playing as a childhood specialty in the icography of times past, renowned painters living in Brazil showed the image of the Brazilian child in their wonderful canvases, in the illustrated work of Jordão (1979), called The Image of the child in Brazilian painting, we highlight playing as typical of the child… To put your hand on objects, such as toys, instruments and among so many others. (p.77).

In view of the above report, play is characteristic of the child is a purely childish language and that, with each new play, an infectious emotion, therefore a formation crowned with positive aspects, which involves the child appearing before the socio-cultural interaction and with the objects that is part of his universe, triggering the play and enabling new experiences, action support and playful attitude.

Children love to play and, it is through it that the subject will be able to promote true friendships, living different relationships, where there is a playful environment, no doubt there is also joy, smiles, happiness, this sound, sharpen the colorful of the environment and space, which has as ornament the toys the games, in view of the success of development and capabilities from the first days of life. Playing stimulates imagination and creativity, encouraging the learning process.

THE GAME AND EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

For Kishimoto (2011) the game is not an activity of easy explanation, because the term game can have several understanding depending on the sociocultural context, since when talking about gambling, one may be referring to games of adults, children and even animals, telling stories, handsets, playing roles, building something and between a lack of play, that I try the same denomination certainly has its particularities. It is understood that the game is an object that represents something, allowing the child to make this representation, imagining, creating and reinventing situations (drawings, images), allowing reflection, socialization, group coexistence and the formation of ethical people from an early age.

In our approach, the teachers revealed that they used activities that involved games and play, since it is instruments that enable the socialization of the subject, so using this category is to motivate the subject to overcome obstacles, losing shyness and strengthening bonds of friendships. We then found that play is a link that embraces cooperative and encouraging relationships in child development.

Still arguing with Kishimoto (2011), in the play of pretending the great presence of fanciful situations, in dominoes the rules allow the movement of the pieces, play in the sand of sculpture simply for the joy and pleasure of feeling the sand slip through the hands, fill formals and empty requires the satisfaction of manipulating the toy, these actions promote manual skills, cognitive and social to realize them.

The game is a type of game in which the child internalizes various knowledge and skills, giving possibilities of participation in the games, where she will gradually understand the concepts of rules, enters the game, waits his turn shares moments and understands the right of his partner, both his and that of the other person, knowing that he can participate in the next match. It is playing and playing that the child passes from one stage to another exerting more specific movements, using for this the senses, manipulating with his hands everything at his reach, touches the objects, loves to tear, in intelligent communication, improving his coordination and learning concepts in a creative way. According to Antunes (2012).

Games in general involve… The recognition of different objects. Allowing association, comparison, patterns and relationship between them. From the age of three. Every child has several concepts of spaces, a product of the world that explores and that progressively, allow the creation of forms of representation (images, drawings, words) of this world explore concepts of quantity, time, cause and effect, uses abstract symbols to represent concrete object, starting to suggest the use of skills in the resolution of logical programs and using various pieces (lego) to solve challenges that involve the construction of objects. (p.22-23).

It is understood that in the face of games, children learn to value themselves and also demonstrate value by the colleague, giving rise to feelings, harmonizing the group and interests with friends, is a theme that contributes satisfactorily to overcome the obstacles that may arise during games and, learning to play, exploring child intelligence, in a dynamic endorsed with meaning. And, that the growth of the subject permeated with games and games, motivates the packaging and reach of other knowledge causing the child to gain his autonomy by moving from one stage to another. The teachers discussed that:

Games bring great contributions in child learning, the child feels safer to himself, learns to work in groups from an early age and his development enjoys easily, starting to understand and respect rules in early childhood, favoring positively in the development of the child, both in the school context, as well as in the relationship with the community, identity of value and promoting love for others.

Segnundo G.Brougere (2010)." The joke is the playful interaction" Games with games have their importance, because it is analyzed in this context that built for the formation of citizenship, and the co-formation of values and critical and reflective subjects.The game is something challenging and exciting, since it is during the activity (game), that they learn to solve possible problems that may arise in everyday life.

PLAYING MAKE-BY-MAKE

According to Correia (2013).

The imaginary friend is a form of symbolic play. And these games are spontaneous expressions that the child uses to try to understand the roles of adults she reelaborates the experiences she has gone through changing them to understand the desires, desires, interests and needs. The make-believe is valuable for emotional balance, because it gives the little ones as well as the kids the chance to transform reality, either to solve possible problems or to understand difficulties taking magic to the day to day. (p.20).

It is perceived that the child when creating a friend through the imaginary, he is trying to understand the world of adults, revealing and representing the real. Susan Linn (2010), in his studies reports that:

One day I was talking to some adults, in a conversation wheel and suddenly two little girls appear, as they play in the fantasy, they would run and say to each other: run, run that La comes to the Witch, without wanting to notice the adults who surrounded them, the exuberance and joy of those creatures were something worthy of admiration. The fact of causing so much pleasure is more than enough reason to play, occupy such a high position on my list of passions. But there's so much more. The ability to play is a survival mechanism. Many child development experts agree, for example, that playing is the foundation of intellectual exploitation. (p.26).

The author continues to present: "I appreciate and value this aspect of playing". In a deep analysis, it is understood that: the exploration of play is contagious, it is good, cause the laughter, from the perspective of Susan's studies, the playful activities when inserted in the child context sprout snare true joy in the child's face, gain curves, gain bridges and turn into something inexplicable, and consequently only, one feels the dimension of contentment, being able to understand how play relates to the beauty and health of the mind, traveling in a starry world carrying imaginatively in social life. During our approach, the teachers revealed that.

The play of make-believe contributes to the formation of the imaginary, the invention and the participation of diversified roles, this type of play, encourages the understanding of adultlife, since the child playing make-believe starts to represent another reality coming out of the real and living a world of fantasy and imagination, because the child creates , recreates, invents, with this the learning process takes place in the midst of games, developing the cooperative spirit, helping the imagination, the acquisition of language, learning to give it with the possible conflicts of everyday life, besides building friendships that lead to life.

In the dialogues of the educators it is perceived that they have a positive perception of the game of pretending, that this play give the child the possibility to understand the lives of more experienced people, sharpening their curiosity. For Susan Linn (2010).

Pretend or pretend, which I understand by creating fantasy characters, imagining different realities and transporting us to imaginary worlds different from those in which we live. Children's make-up is rooted in the unique experience they have with people and events. When the opportunity to play arises, the play naturally emerges in them and serves as an essential primary experience self-reflection and expression. (p.26-27).

It is analyzed that imaginary play promotes coexistence at different times, to the child when playing doctor, treadmill and among other functions that this category can provide, develops cognition, social affection of the individual. Piaget kishimoto apud (2011 p.65-66). "When playing, the child assimilates the world in his own way, without commitment to reality." The toy in this children's universe makes sense and, who names it is the child giving it different meanings. During our field research, it can be seen how much the game of pretending contributes to the formation of critical beings, as it is possible to see in the dialogue of the teachers to follow

The make-believe contributes to the formation of the imaginary, the invention and the participation of diversified roles, this type of play, encourages the understanding of adultlife, since the child playing make-believe starts to represent another reality coming out of the real and living a fantasy world.

In the course of the research, educators have a conception that this type of play enables the construction of imagination, making the subject can represent multiple roles, strolling in a true world of charm, motivating the understanding of the daily life of more experienced people.

THE TOY AND THE JOKE

The toy is an object that acts and interacts with the child before the variety of opportunities, which the subject of the analysis is child development, G. Brougére (2010), with this the toy is an instrument that builds a space of interaction with environment, since it is the fruit of society and traces of a culture that involves children in the environments.

The toy, relaxed article, still dialoguing with G. Bruogére is a communicable source, providing a diverse destination, because when the child reaches a toy, it becomes a joke. From this perspective, the playful object is understood as an educational dimension, of motivation where one discovers and leverages the potential of each being, probably those who play presents their intelligence. The light of G's studies. Bruogére (2010), toys and games are learned actions, which one learns to play with the other, from the stimuli received from the environment that surrounds this child and, certainly the set of these interactions is what forms the understanding of playful culture.G. Bruogére (2010) asserts that:

The toy, on the other hand, does not seem defined by a precise function, It is first of all, an object that the child freely manipulates, without being conditioned to the rules or principles of use of another nature… The toy is a children's object… Surely we can say that the function of the toy is the joke. (p.13).

It is reflected on the above thinking and it turns out that the role of the toy is not something linear, that it is serious without mobility, not going beyond, the toy has the power to walk on these factors, since it is a palpable object that minors release and give various meanings to a playful piece attributing constructive value to it, the basis of its development is the function of the toy. For the play in this context is only possible with the presence of the object (toy).

Games are crucial factors in the learning teaching process and, throughout the playful activities, it is possible to offer objects that can awaken intellectual relationships, encouraging the child to build and rebuild new knowledge, raising his curiosity and developing attitudes, which involve good moments, because it is before the games that the child can reveal feelings according to the experiences experienced in his/her routine. It is in the use of toys that children make their free time a huge creation of knowledge, entering at this moment the role of the adult in the face of this pedagogical resource, which will be to emphasize the rescue of the time of children's play.The subject through play has the possibility of speaking what she cannot say directly, with the playful the child has this opportunity to communicate, especially in early childhood education, revelations can be highlighted here through drawings, gestures, for example, being able to share their experiences before their own illustrations, it is known that in this context, play is assigned freely and spontaneously, according to G. Bruogére (2010).

With its expressive value, the toy stimulates play by opening possibilities for actions consistent with representation: because it represents a baby, a baby doll awakens acts of affection, change of clothes, bathing is the set of acts linked to motherhood. However, there is no role of motherhood in the toy; there is a representation that invites this activity in a background of meaning given to the object in a social environment of reference. (p.15-16).

It can be reflected that the toy encourages and assists with regard to meaning and its representation, in which the child who plays mother and daughter, the toy becomes the daughter while the child himself conquers the role of mother, with this task the play becomes increasingly true in the child's imaginary, therefore the game is a builder of knowledge and skills, it is thought that the subject is still small when playing, representing roles being at the same time developing, language, motor coordination and visual perception, interacting before the universe and fulfilling his desires through his experiences. Still with A. Bruogére (2010).

Childhood is consequently the moment of acquisition of images and diverse representations that pass through different channels. Your sources are many. The toy is, with its specificities, one of these sources. If he brings to the child a support of action, manipulation, playful conduct, brings him, also, shapes and images, symbols to be manipulated. (p. 42).

If we analyze the consequences of this understanding the toy as social learning allows the relationships between images, symbols and materials are sources that allow observation and discovery, motivating in the formation of the conduct of play and of representing and giving opportunities for mastery and apprehension of these symbols.

DATA COLLECTION, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The current study had as data collection a field research, where we used as a collection instrument a questionnaire that contained four open questions, with the contribution of a group of three teachers working in the municipal network of Jaboatão. The educators have been working in early childhood education for more than 10 years, and are licensed in pedagogy, so we believe that they were prepared to dialogue with our questions; the participation of the teachers was of great value for the improvement and realization of the study.

The educators were involved in our research, because we realized that they liked the theme very much, because they adopted the playful in their pedagogical actions and, for this reason, were able to efficiently answer the questionnaire, offering important and enriching knowledge for the work in focus, outside a group participation where three visits were necessary to complete the data collection and, from that moment on, the data were analyzed. And, we come to a perception of how much play contributes to child development, that toy is a primordial tool in the learning teaching process, acting positively in the construction of new knowledge and discoveries. G. Brougére (2010, p.88-89).

However, the toy is more than a play instrument. It brings to the child not only a means of play, but also images, representations, imaginary universes. It structures the content of the game while the child plays.

In G's mind. Brougére the toy is a fundamental part in the freedom of play, with Kishimoto apud Penteado, (2011, P.189) "play is playful in action", it is understood in Kishimoto that one should cultivate the child's play, the freedom of play, because it is the moment when the child represents, imagines and reveals knowledge, opening doors to a multiplicity of relationships and reflection.

The teachers revealed during the discussion that games encourage the interaction of children with each other, learn to relate, stimulating imagination, motivating creativity, socialization, besides inviting the child to enter a world of representation and construction, gradually conquering their self-esteem, as we can see in the speech of the three teachers to follow.

Play is important because it contributes, assisting in the teaching process learning in all aspects, cognitive, motor, social and affectivity, contributing to the construction of autonomy. It is a positive way since play awakens in the child the desire to learn, stimulating their creativity, criticality, and with this develops its creative and inventive side, let's say that playing is a bridge that walks, guiding to the discoveries.

It can be seen from the educators' account that playing is a valuable resource and serves as a basis for seeking new knowledge. It is verified that, just as one learns to perform a task, play is also an action built in the socio-cultural environment. The toy in this sense is an object with definitions, so it has strong cultural value (BROUGÈRE, 2010).

The teachers demonstrated in the face of discussions that when the child plays, takes an object (toy) to start a game, it symbolizes creates, interacts and with this happens to learning in the midst of ludicity, because, through the playful the child grows and learns with more confidence and joy.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

This research is of great value, because one can perceive how much play contributes to the teaching process of learning of younger children and, that toys and games are essential in the development of skills. In the studies of the theorists presented in the course of this work, especially G. Brougère, we've changed concepts about play and toy. We realized that play is a learned task, since one learns to play in the sociocultural context, because depending on the gral of encouragement this result will be more or less positive in the formation of ethical subjects and who can act in a respectful way for the well-being of society. While the graceful object, consequently enables play, since it triggers several situations and representation.

Throughout this study we can research and make an analysis of the relevance of playing in early childhood education, this work had as main theme, contextualizing the Playful classroom and sub theme. What is the Importance of Playing in Early Childhood Education between 03 – 05 years? It is verified that the playful action when offered to the child in this age group is paramount in the growth and development of the subject.

It is perceived quite clearly, that when the child learns by playing he finds a pleasurable and joyful universe. The pleasure takes care of each boy infecting everyone and, the school path is traveled side by side with joys and willingness to arrive soon in the school environment, because the child knows that when he arrives at the school space he will find several graceful activities that will learn by playing and probably will not give up attending school or even study.

Play embodies fantasies and the conception of the child is like a great river, which feeds through the waters, that slides into it when walking along a great trail, sharpening the imagination and curiosity of young children, strengthening memory and opening doors to the world of discoveries and invention.

We verified that the game is a fundamental tool in the learning teaching process, bringing contributions in socialization and in the construction of concepts contributing to the growth of the person, who plays usually invites someone to participate in the game, and hardly the child accepts to play kitchen interacting only with the object, when there is another person around. The ludicity certainly proceeds imaginary moments, in the same way it is leading a norm. (BONTEMPO apud KISHIMOTO 2011).It is considered a way to idealize the role play. The playful has an engaging character, cheerful, collectively that leads to participation. The importance of the act of playing goes beyond the simple distraction, giving the possibility to learn to organize and socialize, building lasting relationships and transporting friendships to adulthood. It is thought that toys do not bring colors randomly, these objects have garish, spicy colors, flashy in order to trigger the cognitive process of the child.

It is analyzed that every child likes when talking about toy and play near them, it is perceived that all become radiant and, with a smile stamped on the face, tasty to be observed. Pedagogical actions or teaching in early childhood education institutions should be systematized in the face of play, wanting to emphasize the playful theme, in the process of teaching children's learning, has and should be addressed periodically, opening wide discussion and becoming inspiration for work with fun culture and, that new ideas will emerge expanding the repertoire of toys and games, that can open a range of trust among all, making children happy and healthy, who build images in each social context according to their way of being, to communicate.

To do so, let's say that it is in play that we find the route of success and the search for a great person, as a professional, someone who nourishes or captivates the relationships in which they are part of his life bringing him and making germinate pleasure, comfort, friendships, consideration, affection, love and so much other achievements, which can be dilated in the conquest of spaces, respecting and being ethical in their attitudes. Games are sources of joy, they go beyond learning, enabling the path of the present and aspiring to a harmonious future.

In his research Ribeiro (apud KISHIMOTO, 2011), The graceful enables the subject to play cultural contentin which the jest. Discussing with thought, the games uncover other playful activities, because from one of this action the child gradually builds his own learning and certainly the formation of concepts. The graceful object tends to provide aspects with regard to the learning process during the first stage of basic education in the fun construction of the promotion of graceful culture, since those who play learn confidently.

It is thought that each object when it emerges at a given moment and, through its exploration, will have a different meaning in the child's daily life. One realizes that it is in the course of a fun that the individual tends to exert his power to launch himself into various movements of mutations and experimentation of each symbol, n that concerns each configuration. In a brief analysis, the toy is impregnated with constructive culture, a toy that comes to represent another reality on, of the active manipulation of the individual on the toy. Valuable utensil towards the child's development process, especially here between four and five years.

The light of the current study can be clearly seen since, when they are young, new experiences, discoveries and horizons are allowed. Play invites both the adult and the child to live together and divide the same effort, planting the seed of affection. Soon he moves towards a great friendship, in a world full of colorful imagination, in which affection is come together with play and, transformed into a pleasurable universe, to develop, participate and learn healthily in this way, the subject prepares to act in the corporation in an active and sociable way.

It is reflected, therefore, that the pedagogical practice in which play is thought and applied in the child context tends to enable vigorous socialization, minimizing the culture of individualism, enabling dreams and probably fantasizing louder and more, appreating the thinking of each of them, motivating creativity and transforming this child into a more generous and kind person who understands from an early age the true value of things, be these, from the simplest to the most elaborate, and also that you are able to plant the seed of kindness, contributing to change the world of each person.

With this work that we have just done it is expected that it can serve as a source of research for future researchers, and that they use it as a theoretical foundation, changing concepts about the theme in early childhood. It was through this study that we strengthened and strengthened our knowledge, firmly boasting the importance that, playing is accurate, and this pedagogical practice should be reflected and applied in the classroom of early childhood education, because in this perspective those who play shows the competence of intelligence and thus, the child expresses his ideas and feelings, it is worth noting that toys and games act collaboratively, in the maintenance and strengthening of child development, creating resources for the potential of early childhood to be achieved and that it is possible to plan pedagogical action through educational play.

The games are something that is learned in social interaction, it is interesting that they teach themselves playing, collaborativeessence of the guiding thread and source of knowledge, and that they can be guided to the child at his young age, that their dreams are possible to be realized, since play is incorporated into the teaching process learning.

References

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KISHIMOTO, Tezuko Morchida. Jogos Infantis, O jogo a criança e a educação, 13ª Edição, ed. Vozes, Petrópolis 2006.

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APPENDIX

Joaquim Nabuco College

This research had as its theme Contextualizing the Playful classroom: What Importance of Playing in Early Childhood Education between 03 and 05 years. The questions and perspectives were developed by Josefa de Barros Barbosa do Nascimento Mirian Maria da Silva, students of the Pedagogy course unit Recife.

Interview

Age group of the interviewees 35 – 40 years.

Female

They have been operating in the area for more than ten years.

They are all graduated in Pedagogy and graduated.·.

What is the contribution of toys and games to child development?

What is the contribution of games to learning?

You guys work with games in the classroom here at school?

What is the contribution of play-by-day learning?

[1] Completing the Degree Course in Pedagogy from Joaquim Nabuco College – Recife.

[2] Completing the Degree Course in Pedagogy from Joaquim Nabuco College – Recife.

[3] Advisor. Master's degree in Education from the Federal University of Pernambuco; Specialist in Northeastern History from the Catholic University of Pernambuco; Graduated in History from the Olinda Higher Education Foundation.

Submitted: June, 2020.

Approved: October, 2021.

5/5 - (3 votes)

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